MC2

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Marie Curie conference, Manchester 2006

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MC2

  1. 1. The spread of central European modernism to earthquake prone areas of the continent and challenges for the preservation of reinforced concrete heritage buildings Maria Bostenaru, MCF Rui Pinho ROSE School / IUSS di Pavia, ITALY
  2. 2. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Overview Introduction Overview of the project Load bearing structure – architectural space Collaborative issues Discussion Further directions Conclusions
  3. 3. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Introduction The CA’REDIVIVUS project, an interdisciplinary endeavour encompassing concrete technology, building design and urban sociology ways to reduce earthquake vulnerability of multiple housing construction with reinforced concrete structure of the Modern Movement, with their physical, social and cultural characteristics across Europe. high vulnerability due to their high degree of occupation and low capacity. New views:  historical pre-code reinforced concrete buildings - technical solutions required: retrofit measures optimisation  historical condominium housing - management solutions come in question. regard. Societal issues concern the comprehensibility of the reason for the measures, in order to get user support for the retrofit strategy implementation, important in case of condominium buildings.
  4. 4. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Project management objectives (measures package) objective (measure) scientific method instruments step goal
  5. 5. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Step Goal Method Instrument Measure 1 technical reports on implementation programmes documentation investigation training. 4; 8 2 a data table of use for the decision method in the next step parametrical study FEM 2 3 support the choices at step 4 and step 1 highlighting comprehensibility database 7 4 algorithm based on case studies (step 2) for experiments (step 6) modularisation of the decision model pair wise comparison 3 5 report about available systems for this purpose a basis system to administrate modules computer tools 6 6 trial of educational feasibility (step 3) project example exercise 5 7 dissemination of results presentation publications 1 Nr. Measures package 1 improving understanding of the impact of earthquakes 2 development of an algorithm for optimisation of retrofit measures 3 development of a decentralised decision model 4 insights into applicability of retrofit methods 5 development of a framework for integral planning 6 solving contradictions between the objectives of single actors 7 highlighting the comprehend- sibility of the measures analysed 8 support changes by political and economic environment:
  6. 6. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Architectural contents
  7. 7. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Timber frame load-bearing structures Portugal Pombalino-buildings 1755 – Lisbon earthquake Region of the Alps Fachwerk (half-timbered) 1356 – Basel earthquake
  8. 8. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Iran 2003 – Bam earthquake (Photo Hashemi et al) Residential buildings with iron or steel skeleton Germany 1978 – Albstadt earthquake
  9. 9. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Reinforced concrete frame housing Romania 1940 and 1977 – Vrancea earthquakes Greece 1978 Thessaloniki 1999 Athens earthquakes infill clay brick frame (skeleton) RC roof RC floors RC
  10. 10. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Data organisation in the WHE Structural element Building materials Structural element Seismic deficiency Earthquake resilient features Earthquake damage patterns Seismic deficiency Seismic strengthening provision Characteristic strength Mix proportion/ dimensions
  11. 11. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Romania
  12. 12. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Greece
  13. 13. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Italy
  14. 14. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Portugal
  15. 15. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Reinforced concrete The history, acceptance and technology of reinforced concrete had impact on the way of construction, the form and the surface treatment. The time when reinforced concrete started to be employed for housing construction coincided with a unique and very short time (10-20 years) in the history of arts. Several different architectural styles co-existed with newest developments in music, arts, physics, philosophy, economic and social theory and industrialisation. The last proved to be decisive: Not the aesthetics, but a solution to the problems of the society, mainly the lack of adequate, many times of affordable, but sometimes of one suiting the life style, housing governed the way how the buildings of the Modern Movement were raised. Employing advanced construction technology of the innovation in the functional elaboration, the one responsible as before for efficiency and response to life style exigencies, is further followed, but the material per se also investigated and explicitely addressed.
  16. 16. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Reinforced concrete The investigation of contemporary innovation in the use of reinforce concrete was completed regarding the work of architecture office Kramm+Strigl, in Darmstadt, Germany, Potential for learning lessons for the project, for the reason that it gives to housing construction qualities which raise it above common buildings, a quality shared with buildings of the Modern Movement. Innovation - texture-modenature, for the role of concrete in the structure or a shelf-approach in construction, - treatment of existing built substance. The reuse of old concrete through such a recycling procedure (Bürgerparkviertel) allows for keeping the original material for some of its testimony in composition, while allowing for redesign in matters like that of reinforcement. This can apply for both a radical solution as demolition and rebuild of the whole construction, as well as for local interventions.
  17. 17. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Lessons from timber The interdependencies between the spatial structures in sacral buildings (churches) and the spatial, 3D frame multi-storey structures were investigated. Lessons learned from seismic behaviour of traditional, as compared to modern, structures are re-evaluated in the light of a new understanding of the influence of the urban way of life. For multi-storey constructions in an urban environment, an engineering type was adopted, with roots in ship construction, directly or indirectly, over the metaphor of the nave.  Timber frame buildings, with excellent seismic behaviour, highly developed in regions with ship building traditions, while in seismic prone regions, if that factor was missing, the structural characteristics of wood wasn’t used to a full.  Stone churches adopted the metaphor of the nave, at the level of spatial organisation, and the form of these naves influenced the employment of the artificial stone called reinforced concrete in multi-storey constructions in the past century.
  18. 18. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Management strategy The project CA’REDIVIVUS aims to show ways on how to reduce earthquake vulnerability of housing buildings with reinforced concrete structure of the Modern Movement, with their physical, social and cultural characteristics. Both technical and management solutions are required, the latter addressing the subject of refurbishment without interfering with function. A collaborative decision model, with modules customised for each actor involved in the retrofit measure, builds a central element of the project objectives, such as the development of an integral planning (multidisciplinary aspects considered from incipient project phases) framework and the inclusion of an educational flow for the inhabitants who have to support the measures. The analysis of the theoretical scaffold for participative planning and the lessons for building research learned from such a project, in which the author was involved from user side are hereby considered.
  19. 19. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Participatism
  20. 20. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Case study HaDiKo
  21. 21. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Retrofit strategy
  22. 22. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Urban level Number Legend Volume height accents 47 (incl. 12 with aesthetic qualities; 1 negative) bordeaux- red-orange volume silhouette accents 4 blue functional landmarks 1 triangles aesthetic qualities 9+12 blue strips negative value 4+1 black strips Mapping of the hierarchy of the elements and of the façade (fronts typology: continuous line = continuously built front, interrupted and continuous line = front full with alveolar injections, interrupted line = front broken by isolated buildings and vegetation, point line = unstructured front; hierarchy of perception points: dark green = intersection place, turquoise = reverence place, magenta = private/half- private space, grey lines = public space with half-private character, light green = public environmental space, dark magenta = public space).
  23. 23. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice contents / container Morphologically, there are two elements of a system: the container, the load-bearing scaffold, which forms the frame for a totality of spaces, related in functional-spatial co-operation into the spatial structure. This constitutes a physical level. the content, the lived architectural space, a totality of localised activities, related into the functional structure. This is a phenomenological level.
  24. 24. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice urban-building level interaction ZONE B ZONE A ZONE C BUILDING Y BUILDING X BUILDING Z ELEMENT α ELEMENT β ELEMENT γ marketingmanagementparticipation consistsof
  25. 25. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice sincerity - unsincerity Sincerity = elements being what they seem to Sincerity in architecture:  Load-bearing structure  Architectural arrangement of the internal space and envelope  Ornamentation Historical styles – completely different attitudes towards sincerity Sincerity in the Modern Avantgarde  Expressions of function, materials and technology  Exterior expression of spatial structures Modern Avantgarde buildings  Mono-functional (spectacle or exhibition): sincerity in exterior expression  Poly-functional (various functions on superposed floors): not Analysis  Semper  Le Corbusier  Dutch pavilion at the EXPO2000 in Hannover
  26. 26. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Decision system
  27. 27. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Discussion Impact  natural hazards on urban texture  perception and participative issues contents and container Multidisciplinary aspects and actors Stylistic movements at the begin of the century Procesual systemic analysis – role of materials in historic stratification European dimension
  28. 28. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Further directions Technical strategy  selective retrofit  nonlinear computer analysis Morphologic (systemic) analysis The role of the grid for object oriented urban- building level interaction Future projects  Investigation of resilience
  29. 29. CA‘REDIVIVUS projectMC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice Conclusions Systemic analysis  Morphology: load bearing structure – architectural space  Functionality: architectural programme and management strategy  Processuality: material and historic stratification Documentation of examples of best practice and lessons learned as common method Preservation requirements relevant for all For intensive sustainable urban development
  30. 30. Thank you! The project described in this paper is funded under the Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowships research mobility scheme of the European Commission, contract nr. MEIF-CT-2005-009765 with a 2 years individual fellowship in 2005-2007.
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