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MC2

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Marie Curie conference, Manchester 2006

Marie Curie conference, Manchester 2006

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MC2 MC2 Presentation Transcript

  • The spread of central European modernism to earthquake prone areas of the continent and challenges for the preservation of reinforced concrete heritage buildings Maria Bostenaru, MCF Rui Pinho ROSE School / IUSS di Pavia, ITALY
  • Overview Introduction Overview of the project Load bearing structure – architectural space Collaborative issues Discussion Further directions Conclusions MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Introduction The CA’REDIVIVUS project, an interdisciplinary endeavour encompassing concrete technology, building design and urban sociology ways to reduce earthquake vulnerability of multiple housing construction with reinforced concrete structure of the Modern Movement, with their physical, social and cultural characteristics across Europe. high vulnerability due to their high degree of occupation and low capacity. New views:  historical pre-code reinforced concrete buildings - technical solutions required: retrofit measures optimisation  historical condominium housing - management solutions come in question. regard. Societal issues concern the comprehensibility of the reason for the measures, in order to get user support for the retrofit strategy implementation, important in case of condominium buildings. MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Project management objectives step (measures package) goal scientific method instruments objective (measure) MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Nr. Measures package 1 improving understanding of the impact of earthquakes 2 development of an algorithm for Step Goal Method Instrument Measure optimisation of retrofit measures 1 technical reports on implementation documentation investigation 4; 8 3 development of a decentralised programmes training. decision model 2 a data table of use for the decision parametrical study FEM 2 4 insights into applicability of method in the next step retrofit methods 3 support the choices at step 4 and step highlighting database 7 1 comprehensibility 5 development of a framework for 4 algorithm based on case studies (step modularisation of the pair wise 3 integral planning 2) for experiments (step 6) decision model comparison 5 report about available systems for this a basis system to computer tools 6 purpose administrate modules 6 solving contradictions between 6 trial of educational feasibility (step 3) project example exercise 5 the objectives of single actors 7 dissemination of results presentation publications 1 7 highlighting the comprehend- sibility of the measures analysed 8 support changes by political and economic environment: MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Architectural contents MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Timber frame load-bearing structures Region of the Alps Portugal Fachwerk Pombalino-buildings (half-timbered) 1356 – Basel 1755 – Lisbon earthquake earthquake MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Residential buildings with iron or steel skeleton Germany Iran 1978 – Albstadt 2003 – Bam earthquake earthquake (Photo Hashemi et al) MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Reinforced concrete frame housing Romania Greece 1940 and 1977 – Vrancea earthquakes 1978 Thessaloniki 1999 Athens earthquakes infill clay brick frame (skeleton) RC roof RC floors RC MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Data organisation in the WHE Characteristic Mix proportion/ Structural element Building materials strength dimensions Earthquake resilient Earthquake Structural element Seismic deficiency features damage patterns Seismic deficiency Seismic strengthening provision MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Romania MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Greece MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Italy MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Portugal MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Reinforced concrete The history, acceptance and technology of reinforced concrete had impact on the way of construction, the form and the surface treatment. The time when reinforced concrete started to be employed for housing construction coincided with a unique and very short time (10-20 years) in the history of arts. Several different architectural styles co-existed with newest developments in music, arts, physics, philosophy, economic and social theory and industrialisation. The last proved to be decisive: Not the aesthetics, but a solution to the problems of the society, mainly the lack of adequate, many times of affordable, but sometimes of one suiting the life style, housing governed the way how the buildings of the Modern Movement were raised. Employing advanced construction technology of the innovation in the functional elaboration, the one responsible as before for efficiency and response to life style exigencies, is further followed, but the material per se also investigated and explicitely addressed. MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Reinforced concrete The investigation of contemporary innovation in the use of reinforce concrete was completed regarding the work of architecture office Kramm+Strigl, in Darmstadt, Germany, Potential for learning lessons for the project, for the reason that it gives to housing construction qualities which raise it above common buildings, a quality shared with buildings of the Modern Movement. Innovation - texture-modenature, for the role of concrete in the structure or a shelf-approach in construction, - treatment of existing built substance. The reuse of old concrete through such a recycling procedure (Bürgerparkviertel) allows for keeping the original material for some of its testimony in composition, while allowing for redesign in matters like that of reinforcement. This can apply for both a radical solution as demolition and rebuild of the whole construction, as well as for local interventions. MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Lessons from timber The interdependencies between the spatial structures in sacral buildings (churches) and the spatial, 3D frame multi-storey structures were investigated. Lessons learned from seismic behaviour of traditional, as compared to modern, structures are re-evaluated in the light of a new understanding of the influence of the urban way of life. For multi-storey constructions in an urban environment, an engineering type was adopted, with roots in ship construction, directly or indirectly, over the metaphor of the nave.  Timber frame buildings, with excellent seismic behaviour, highly developed in regions with ship building traditions, while in seismic prone regions, if that factor was missing, the structural characteristics of wood wasn’t used to a full.  Stone churches adopted the metaphor of the nave, at the level of spatial organisation, and the form of these naves influenced the employment of the artificial stone called reinforced concrete in multi-storey constructions in the past century. MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Management strategy The project CA’REDIVIVUS aims to show ways on how to reduce earthquake vulnerability of housing buildings with reinforced concrete structure of the Modern Movement, with their physical, social and cultural characteristics. Both technical and management solutions are required, the latter addressing the subject of refurbishment without interfering with function. A collaborative decision model, with modules customised for each actor involved in the retrofit measure, builds a central element of the project objectives, such as the development of an integral planning (multidisciplinary aspects considered from incipient project phases) framework and the inclusion of an educational flow for the inhabitants who have to support the measures. The analysis of the theoretical scaffold for participative planning and the lessons for building research learned from such a project, in which the author was involved from user side are hereby considered. MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Participatism MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Case study HaDiKo MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Retrofit strategy MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Urban level Number Legend 47 (incl. 12 with aesthetic bordeaux- Volume height accents qualities; 1 negative) red-orange volume silhouette accents 4 blue functional landmarks 1 triangles aesthetic qualities 9+12 blue strips negative value 4+1 black strips Mapping of the hierarchy of the elements and of the façade (fronts typology: continuous line = continuously built front, interrupted and continuous line = front full with alveolar injections, interrupted line = front broken by isolated buildings and vegetation, point line = unstructured front; hierarchy of perception points: dark green = intersection place, turquoise = reverence place, magenta = private/half- private space, grey lines = public space with half-private character, light green = public environmental space, dark magenta = public space). MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • contents / container Morphologically, there are two elements of a system: the container, the load-bearing scaffold, which forms the frame for a totality of spaces, related in functional-spatial co-operation into the spatial structure. This constitutes a physical level. the content, the lived architectural space, a totality of localised activities, related into the functional structure. This is a phenomenological level. MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • urban-building level interaction ZONE A marketing ZONE C consists of ZONE B BUILDING X BUILDING Z management BUILDING Y ELEMENT β ELEMENT γ ELEMENT α participation MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • sincerity - unsincerity Sincerity = elements being what they seem to Sincerity in architecture:  Load-bearing structure  Architectural arrangement of the internal space and envelope  Ornamentation Historical styles – completely different attitudes towards sincerity Sincerity in the Modern Avantgarde  Expressions of function, materials and technology  Exterior expression of spatial structures Modern Avantgarde buildings  Mono-functional (spectacle or exhibition): sincerity in exterior expression  Poly-functional (various functions on superposed floors): not Analysis  Semper  Le Corbusier  Dutch pavilion at the EXPO2000 in Hannover MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Decision system MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Discussion Impact  natural hazards on urban texture  perception and participative issues contents and container Multidisciplinary aspects and actors Stylistic movements at the begin of the century Procesual systemic analysis – role of materials in historic stratification European dimension MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Further directions Technical strategy  selective retrofit  nonlinear computer analysis Morphologic (systemic) analysis The role of the grid for object oriented urban- building level interaction Future projects  Investigation of resilience MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Conclusions Systemic analysis  Morphology: load bearing structure – architectural space  Functionality: architectural programme and management strategy  Processuality: material and historic stratification Documentation of examples of best practice and lessons learned as common method Preservation requirements relevant for all For intensive sustainable urban development MC2 “Putting the Knowledge Society into Practice CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • Thank you! The project described in this paper is funded under the Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowships research mobility scheme of the European Commission, contract nr. MEIF-CT-2005-009765 with a 2 years individual fellowship in 2005-2007.