Regression Based Criteria
Determining for Preservation
Strategies of Early RC Buildings
Maria BOSTENARU DAN
ROSE School / ...
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
Overview
 Introduction
 Historic concrete
 Problem statement
 Concrete today
...
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
Introduction
 Story of construction technique
(ex. Ostia: roman concrete > the va...
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
Historic concrete
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
Concrete today
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
Concrete in time
 Gap between use in antique and today
 Natural stone for spatia...
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
Problem statement
 Condominium buildings
 Higher amount
 Less experiment on mat...
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
Innovative uses of concrete
 Architecture office Kramm εt Strigl, Darmstadt,
Germ...
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
Innovative use of concrete
 Texture-modenature
 Morphology and surface of glass ...
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
Innovative use of concrete
 Existing built substance
 Bürgerparkviertel, Darmsta...
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
Lessons learned
 Recycling: testimony of the composition of the
material (demolit...
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
Decision considerations
 Decision – element in a management process
 Decision – ...
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
2 Project objectives
 Development of a decentralised decision model
 Methodologi...
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
Actors and
groups of interests
 Organisational – architect
historical, building, ...
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
[Nr.] Criterion [from] [to][unit] [weight]Observations (on the units)
1 Reversibil...
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
21 Property form 1 5points 7,2lastingness of the inhabitance
22 Assurance 0 100% c...
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
Building characteristics
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
Regression:
goals of the architect
 Induction
 Data set:
preservation, configura...
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
Regression:
goals of the investor
 Induction
 Data set: four economic efficiency...
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
Retrofit alternative
First
earthquake
Second
earthquake
Reparation(€)
Retrofit(€)
...
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
Regression:
goals of the engineer
 Induction
 Data set: report on building types...
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
Regression:
goals of the inhabitant
 Induction
 Data set: case studies of succes...
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
Computer support
 Costs-efficiency method: MS Excell
 Decision tree, Criterion w...
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
Conclusions
 Criteria for the selection of multi-storey RC structures
of housing ...
Thank you!
Acknowledgements:
Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship
MEIF-CT-2005-009765 contract
of the European Commission...
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fib 2006

  1. 1. Regression Based Criteria Determining for Preservation Strategies of Early RC Buildings Maria BOSTENARU DAN ROSE School / IUSS di Pavia
  2. 2. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 Overview  Introduction  Historic concrete  Problem statement  Concrete today  Innovative uses of concrete  Lessons learned  Decision considerations  Conclusions
  3. 3. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 Introduction  Story of construction technique (ex. Ostia: roman concrete > the vault)  Existing buildings: stories on construction concepts, materials, techniques testimonials of innovation and spread  Requirements and decay > intervention need „The stones of Athens would not tell us the story of the urban life in the city, wouldn‘t have all the written heritage remained.“ Lewis Mumford
  4. 4. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
  5. 5. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 Historic concrete
  6. 6. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 Concrete today
  7. 7. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 Concrete in time  Gap between use in antique and today  Natural stone for spatial structures in Gothic  19th century: reinforcement  RC in housing construction started to be employed during the Avantgarde  Some European capitals (RO, GR, PT): high-rise in central areas – luxury flats  Advanced construction technology was employed but not all possibilities researched
  8. 8. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
  9. 9. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 Problem statement  Condominium buildings  Higher amount  Less experiment on material use  1930s  Across Europe  Romania, Italy, Greece, Portugal  Compared to Germany and France
  10. 10. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
  11. 11. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 Innovative uses of concrete  Architecture office Kramm εt Strigl, Darmstadt, Germany  Housing construction since 1975  International recognition since 1983  Potential for lessons learned: housing construction with qualities above common buildings – like Modern Movement
  12. 12. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 Innovative use of concrete  Texture-modenature  Morphology and surface of glass and concrete: Pallaswiesen street, Darmstadt, DE  Role of concrete in the structure  Various materials, employment in concordance with the spatial feeling Technology park and future centre, Herten, DE  Technology  Spatial cells housing, Sauerland estate, Wiesbaden-Dotzheim, DE
  13. 13. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
  14. 14. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
  15. 15. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 Innovative use of concrete  Existing built substance  Bürgerparkviertel, Darmstadt, DE  Recycling procedure (TU Darmstadt)  Technical and economic value
  16. 16. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
  17. 17. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 Lessons learned  Recycling: testimony of the composition of the material (demolition and rebuild)  Spatial cells: frame serving as a shelf  Ottokar Uhl, Hollabrunn, Austria Individual measures for units in condominium
  18. 18. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 Decision considerations  Decision – element in a management process  Decision – control options in operations  Management dimensions  Processural > decision  Structural: organisational and operational structures  Personal: system  System: object | process  Finding an optimal system for each group of actors  Regression technique > instruments for systematic decision
  19. 19. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 2 Project objectives  Development of a decentralised decision model  Methodologic approach modularisation of a collaborative decision model  Non-measurable criteria, pairwise comparison  Decision making on two levels: actors and actors‘ criteria  Ways of solving contradictions between objectives of single actors in the retrofit implementation strategy  Methodologic approach development of a basis system to administrate modules on different levels of detail included in the urban strategical planning
  20. 20. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 Actors and groups of interests  Organisational – architect historical, building, element, material  Social – inhabitant execution, acceptability, use, residential val.  Technical – engineer vulnerability, structural performance, retrofit, strategy  Economic – investor management, availability (of technology, materials, funds), indicators
  21. 21. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 [Nr.] Criterion [from] [to][unit] [weight]Observations (on the units) 1 Reversibility 0 100% 37,5reversibility of the measure 2 Guidelines 1 5points 37,5for the complinance with maintenance guidelines 5 Facade 1 4style points 9,0for the architectural value of the façade 6 Interiors 1 4spatiality points 9,0for the architectural value of the space 7 Structural system 1 4technology points 3,0for the architectural value of the structure 8 Demolition 0 100rebuild possibility 9,0of the building following the original plans 9 Size change 0 50cm 9,0size change of a building element 10 Looks change 1 5points 4,5look change of a building element 11 Material change 1 2000age (years) 9,0of the construction material 13 Compatibility 0 100% 4,5collaboration with the existing construction material 14 Conservation 0 100% 11,3maintenance of the existing building material 15 Sustainability 1 500years 2,3lifetime of the building 16 ARCHITECT Maintenance 1 50years 4,5lifetime of the new construction material 17 Duration 1 100weeks 4,5of the measure 18 Noise 1 45dB 1,5noise during the measure 19 Move 1 100weeks 12,0duration of the relocation 20 Participation 0 15decision steps 12,0with possible participation of the inhabitants 21 Property form 1 5points 7,2lastingness of the inhabitance 22 Assurance 0 100% coverage 33,6earthquake damage through assurance 23 Own costs share 1 100% 4,8own costs/measure costs 24 Other advantages 1 5points 14,4for inhabitant advantages of the measure 25 During measures 0 200spaces 9,0usable during the measure 26 After measure 0 200spaces 15,0usable after the measure 27 After earthquake 0 200spaces 6,0usable after damaging in earthquake 29 USER Value 1 20points 30,0for housing quality 33 Earthquake 1 12EMS intensity 27,5of the earthquake 34 Shape 8 10.10scores 5,0for seismic suitability of the conformation 35 Structure 0 8scores 15,0for seismic suitability of the structure 36 Material 1 6scores 2,5for seismic suitability of the construction material 37 Forces 0 1000kN base shear 35,0during the design earthquake 38 Remaining displacement 0 200mm 105,0at roof level after the earthquake 39 Maximal displacement 0 200mm 105,0at roof level during the earthquake 40 Strains -6 60‰ 105,0in building elements during earthquake 41 Element replacement 0 300number 25,0replaced elements 42 New elements 0 300number 7,5new elements 43 Nonstruct>struct 0 300number 10,0nonstructural elements which become structural ENGINEER
  22. 22. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 21 Property form 1 5points 7,2lastingness of the inhabitance 22 Assurance 0 100% coverage 33,6earthquake damage through assurance 23 Own costs share 1 100% 4,8own costs/measure costs 24 Other advantages 1 5points 14,4for inhabitant advantages of the measure 25 During measures 0 200spaces 9,0usable during the measure 26 After measure 0 200spaces 15,0usable after the measure 27 After earthquake 0 200spaces 6,0usable after damaging in earthquake 29 USER Value 1 20points 30,0for housing quality 33 Earthquake 1 12EMS intensity 27,5of the earthquake 34 Shape 8 10.10scores 5,0for seismic suitability of the conformation 35 Structure 0 8scores 15,0for seismic suitability of the structure 36 Material 1 6scores 2,5for seismic suitability of the construction material 37 Forces 0 1000kN base shear 35,0during the design earthquake 38 Remaining displacement 0 200mm 105,0at roof level after the earthquake 39 Maximal displacement 0 200mm 105,0at roof level during the earthquake 40 Strains -6 60‰ 105,0in building elements during earthquake 41 Element replacement 0 300number 25,0replaced elements 42 New elements 0 300number 7,5new elements 43 Nonstruct>struct 0 300number 10,0nonstructural elements which become structural 44 Partial demolition 0 300number 7,5demolished elements 45 System completion 0 200needed anchors 5,0for a system completion measure 46 Strengthening/Stiffening 1 6Sa_new/Sa_old 15,0spectral acceleration new/old 47 Enhanced ductility 1 4Sd_new/Sd_old 20,0spectral displacement new/old 48 ENGINEER Reduced demand 1 6damping actor 10,0of the soil movement 49 Aggregate 1 44nr. owners 8,0of the building 50 Building site 0 24hours available 12,0for the work 51 Phases 1 44simultaneous 12,0conducted 52 Repeatability 1 200nr. identical 8,0retrofit measures 53 Material versus 10 40price T€/app. 8,0construction material price for measure at one housing unit 54 Technology v. 0 10number 8,0available technologies 55 Funding money 0 10nr. programs 4,0which could grant funding money 56 Replace space 0 5eq. buildings 20,0available for the relocation 57 Reparation/Rebuild 0 2€/€ 5,0costs/costs 58 Retrofit/Rebuild 0 0.5€/€ 5,0costs/costs 59 Reparation-save/Retrofit -5 5€/€ 5,0costs/costs 60 INVESTOR Total costs/Rebuild-30% -0.3 2.2€/€ 5,0costs/costs
  23. 23. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 Building characteristics
  24. 24. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 Regression: goals of the architect  Induction  Data set: preservation, configuration, survey characteristics  Hypotheses: minimal intervention in the original structure  Deduction  Hypothesis: retaining the character  Hypotheses: element aspect  Statements: size, looks, material change
  25. 25. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 Regression: goals of the investor  Induction  Data set: four economic efficiency alternatives  Hypotheses: taking into account non-measurable criteria  Deduction  Hypothesis: benefit-cost investigation  Hypotheses: methods (transformation curves, ranking algorithms etc)  Statements: procedure to analyse the efficiency of pre- versus post-damage reparation
  26. 26. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 Retrofit alternative First earthquake Second earthquake Reparation(€) Retrofit(€) Total(€) Rebuild(€) Reparation/ Rebuild Retrofit/ Rebuild Total/Rebuild Total/Rebuild- 0,30 Reparation/ Retrofit Retrofit/ Reparation Differenceto unretrofitted (€) Reparattionsa- ving/Retrofit EQ A - 506950 0 506950 1561534 0,32 0,00 0,32 0,02 - 0 - EQ A EQ A 526850 0 526850 1561534 0,33 0,00 0,33 0,04 - 0 - EQ B - 422000 0 422000 1561534 0,27 0,00 0,27 -0,03 - 0 - B0 EQ B EQ B 423050 0 423050 1561534 0,27 0,00 0,27 -0,03 - 0 - EQ A - 544400 74785 619185 1561534 0,34 0,04 0,39 0,10 7 0,13 0 0 EQ A EQ A 595400 74785 670185 1561534 0,38 0,04 0,42 0,13 8 0,12 0 0 EQ B - 422000 74785 496785 1561534 0,27 0,04 0,31 0,02 6 0,17 0 0 B1 EQ B EQ B 479850 74785 554635 1561534 0,30 0,04 0,35 0,06 6 0,15 0 0 EQ A - 553050 67987 621037 1561534 0,35 0,04 0,39 0,10 8 0,12 46100 1 EQ A EQ A 605250 67987 673237 1561534 0,38 0,04 0,43 0,13 9 0,11 78400 1 EQ B - 477100 67987 545087 1561534 0,30 0,04 0,34 0,05 7 0,14 55100 -6 B2 EQ B EQ B 478800 67987 546787 1561534 0,30 0,04 0,35 0,05 7 0,14 55750 1 EQ A - 580950 67987 648937 1561534 0,37 0,04 0,41 0,12 9 0,11 74000 1 EQ A EQ A 606650 67987 674637 1561534 0,38 0,04 0,43 0,13 9 0,11 79800 1 EQ B - 473900 67987 541887 1561534 0,30 0,04 0,34 0,05 7 0,14 51900 1 B3 EQ B EQ B 476700 67987 544687 1561534 0,30 0,04 0,34 0,05 7 0,14 53650 1 EQ A - 455100 135973 591073 1561534 0,29 0,08 0,37 0,08 3 0,29 -51850 -0 EQ A EQ A 596400 135973 732373 1561534 0,38 0,08 0,46 0,17 4 0,22 69550 1 EQ B - 345850 135973 481823 1561534 0,22 0,08 0,30 0,01 3 0,39 -76150 -1 B4 EQ B EQ B 408900 135973 544873 1561534 0,26 0,08 0,34 0,05 3 0,33 -14150 -0 EQ A - 422950 176765 599715 1561534 0,27 0,11 0,38 0,08 2 0,41 -506950 -3 EQ A EQ A 586250 176765 763015 1561534 0,37 0,11 0,48 0,19 3 0,30 59400 0 EQ B - 442600 176765 619365 1561534 0,28 0,11 0,39 0,10 3 0,39 -422000 -2 B5 EQ B EQ B 476700 176765 653465 1561534 0,30 0,11 0,41 0,12 3 0,37 53650 0
  27. 27. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 Regression: goals of the engineer  Induction  Data set: report on building types  Hypotheses: problems and opportunities, retrofit provisions, damage patterns  Deduction  Hypothesis: retrofit elements  Hypotheses: technical and management preservation strategy  Statements: damage patterns
  28. 28. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 Regression: goals of the inhabitant  Induction  Data set: case studies of success stories in participative planning and construction  Hypotheses: participative planning approaches  Deduction  Hypothesis: innovation through pilot projects which will become better routine  Hypotheses: communication and education strategy  Statements: participation and communication instruments
  29. 29. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 Computer support  Costs-efficiency method: MS Excell  Decision tree, Criterion weighting, Measurement space  Moderation between interests of actors  Difficulties  Limited number of actors > 1st level: categories of actors  Criteria strengthening / agravating reciprocically  Finding units of measure  Pair-wise comparison  Spread sheet  Multimedia  Typological choice: Hypertext and internet
  30. 30. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006
  31. 31. 2nd fib Congress, Napoli, 5-8 June 2006 Conclusions  Criteria for the selection of multi-storey RC structures of housing buildings from the 1st half of the XXth century to be preserved were formulated > ongoing research towards the development of a decision model, encompassing actors involved in the implementation of a retrofit measure.  Methodology: modularisation of a collaborative decision model taking into account non-measurable criteria  Pair-wise comparison more useful than decision tree
  32. 32. Thank you! Acknowledgements: Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship MEIF-CT-2005-009765 contract of the European Commission Insights from Dr. Rui Pinho, Prof. Rüdiger Kramm

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