THE FLAT AND THE
KNURLED SPACE IN
THE RECONSTRUCTION
OF CITIES
Maria BOSTENARU DAN
Overview
 Introduction
 The philosophical base
 The settlement
 The reconstruction of towns for reason of
different co...
Introduction
 Philosopher Deleuze
 Opposed concepts
 Flat
 Knurled
 Different models: technological, maritime,
musica...
The philosophical base
 Work from 1980
 Maritime model
 The town is the knurled place by excellence
 Agriculture: inve...
The settlement
 Three Little Pigs – story
 The straw house is that of the nomad, the
timber one of the semi-nomad and th...
The reconstruction of towns for reason
of different concepts
 Alexandru Sandu
 Urban organism – urban force – the knurli...
The reconstruction of towns for reason
of different concepts
 Functionalism
 Another order of the town as the traditiona...
The reconstruction of towns for reason
of different concepts
 Socialist architecture
 ? Postmodern
 Bucharest
 Ceauşes...
Victoria Socialismului boulevard
Bucharest, Romania
The reconstruction of towns for reason of
different concepts
The reconstruction of towns for reason
of different concepts
 Ceauşescu demolitions
 The remaining places are still flat...
Izvor Park
Bucharest, Romania
The reconstruction of towns for reason of
different concepts
Landscape proposal for Izvor Park, Bucharest
The reconstruction of towns for reason of
different concepts
Landscape proposal for Izvor Park, Bucharest
The reconstruction of towns for reason of
different concepts
The reconstruction of towns for reason
of different concepts
 Knurling in Bucharest in the interwar time
 North-South bo...
North-South boulevard in Bucharest
The reconstruction of towns for reason of different
concepts
North-South boulevard in Bucharest
The reconstruction of towns for reason of different
concepts
The reconstruction after an earthquake
 The earthquake is a force flattening a knurled
town
 It is a force of nature esc...
The reconstruction after an earthquake
 Baixa in Lisbon
 1755 earthquake
 Baroque
 The earthquake destroyed the mediev...
Aerial view of the Baixa district in Lisbon
The reconstruction after an earthquake
View from Alfama district, Lisbon
The reconstruction after an earthquake
The reconstruction after an earthquake
 Ljubljana, Slovenia
 1895 earthquake
 Afterwards spread of the Art Nouveau Styl...
Triple Bridge in Ljubljana with emblematic Art Nouveau building
The reconstruction after an earthquake
Building by Joze Plecnik with Art Nouveau features
The reconstruction after an earthquake
The reconstruction after an earthquake
 Bucharest 1977
 The earthquake used as a pretext
 Link: today people are suspic...
Reconstruction after the old model
 London 1666
 Unclarities in the property regime
 If the designed plan would have be...
Conclusions
 Occidental society – sedentary society since
hundreds of years
 Flattening tendencies appear in the town
 ...
Conclusions
 The new knurling imposed by political power
makes cities differ of those organically grown
(fractals, Cosmin...
Acknowledgements
 The support of the Marie Curie Reintegration
Grant, contract number MERG-CT-2007-
200636, run time 2007...
Questions?
Thank you!
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Faro WSEAS

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URES WSEAS conference Faro, Portugal, 2010

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Faro WSEAS

  1. 1. THE FLAT AND THE KNURLED SPACE IN THE RECONSTRUCTION OF CITIES Maria BOSTENARU DAN
  2. 2. Overview  Introduction  The philosophical base  The settlement  The reconstruction of towns for reason of different concepts  The reconstruction after an earthquake  Reconstruction after the old model  Conclusions
  3. 3. Introduction  Philosopher Deleuze  Opposed concepts  Flat  Knurled  Different models: technological, maritime, musical, physical, aesthetical, ludical, noological  Ex. maritime (nomad – sedentary)  Relationship settlement – urban planing – politics – the knurling
  4. 4. The philosophical base  Work from 1980  Maritime model  The town is the knurled place by excellence  Agriculture: invention of the town  Grafitti – escapes control
  5. 5. The settlement  Three Little Pigs – story  The straw house is that of the nomad, the timber one of the semi-nomad and the stone one of the sedentary  Sustainability becomes a value
  6. 6. The reconstruction of towns for reason of different concepts  Alexandru Sandu  Urban organism – urban force – the knurling forces to act  Urban activity – human mobile  Every activity has a parcours until it finds its own place  Knurling supposes a flat place to knurl
  7. 7. The reconstruction of towns for reason of different concepts  Functionalism  Another order of the town as the traditional  Le Corbusier  Plan Voisin – Paris  Criticism by French politicians
  8. 8. The reconstruction of towns for reason of different concepts  Socialist architecture  ? Postmodern  Bucharest  Ceauşescu – Victoria Socialismului Boulevard  Great scale demolitions after the 1977 Vrancea earthquake
  9. 9. Victoria Socialismului boulevard Bucharest, Romania The reconstruction of towns for reason of different concepts
  10. 10. The reconstruction of towns for reason of different concepts  Ceauşescu demolitions  The remaining places are still flat, no knurling has succeeded (see Izvor Park – vegetation did not grow)  Bucharest 2000 competition tried to produce a knurling – different one of the Bucharest garden city type
  11. 11. Izvor Park Bucharest, Romania The reconstruction of towns for reason of different concepts
  12. 12. Landscape proposal for Izvor Park, Bucharest The reconstruction of towns for reason of different concepts
  13. 13. Landscape proposal for Izvor Park, Bucharest The reconstruction of towns for reason of different concepts
  14. 14. The reconstruction of towns for reason of different concepts  Knurling in Bucharest in the interwar time  North-South boulevard  Due to gardens, minimal interventions were necessary  Athens Charter but not functionalism  The block of flats was introduced  Fight for space  Vulnerability to earthquakes
  15. 15. North-South boulevard in Bucharest The reconstruction of towns for reason of different concepts
  16. 16. North-South boulevard in Bucharest The reconstruction of towns for reason of different concepts
  17. 17. The reconstruction after an earthquake  The earthquake is a force flattening a knurled town  It is a force of nature escaping control  Numerous towns flattened by earthquakes and reconstructed  Deliberate urban plans for reconstruction known in more recent history  Earthquakes destroy the sedentary space, but, although it proves that it was constructed in a dangerous zone, it is built again in that zone or close to it  Local seismic culture
  18. 18. The reconstruction after an earthquake  Baixa in Lisbon  1755 earthquake  Baroque  The earthquake destroyed the medieval tissue (Alfama)  Marques de Pombal
  19. 19. Aerial view of the Baixa district in Lisbon The reconstruction after an earthquake
  20. 20. View from Alfama district, Lisbon The reconstruction after an earthquake
  21. 21. The reconstruction after an earthquake  Ljubljana, Slovenia  1895 earthquake  Afterwards spread of the Art Nouveau Style  Slovenia belonged to the Austro-Hungarian Empire  Viennaise urban planers invited (Camillo Sitte, Max Fabiani), but the choice felt for Slovene, for political reasons  Jože Plečnik, the national Slovene architect, elaborated a plan of Ljubljana in 1929
  22. 22. Triple Bridge in Ljubljana with emblematic Art Nouveau building The reconstruction after an earthquake
  23. 23. Building by Joze Plecnik with Art Nouveau features The reconstruction after an earthquake
  24. 24. The reconstruction after an earthquake  Bucharest 1977  The earthquake used as a pretext  Link: today people are suspicious to move in frame of retrofit measures as they fear loosing property
  25. 25. Reconstruction after the old model  London 1666  Unclarities in the property regime  If the designed plan would have been applied, London would have rivaled with Paris as Baroque city  After WWII – centres reconstructed on the old model and to respond to housing needs satellite towns were created
  26. 26. Conclusions  Occidental society – sedentary society since hundreds of years  Flattening tendencies appear in the town  Preoccupation of Gilles Deleuze, French philosopher  Bottom-up (ex. graffiti) and top-down flattening (political)  Political forces influenced also the reconstruction after catastrophes
  27. 27. Conclusions  The new knurling imposed by political power makes cities differ of those organically grown (fractals, Cosmin Chirvasie http://myriammahiques.blogspot.com/2010/02/intro ) namely through geometric rules  At the end of the 20th century it is put into discussion to reconstruct functionalist cities in traditional way
  28. 28. Acknowledgements  The support of the Marie Curie Reintegration Grant, contract number MERG-CT-2007- 200636, run time 2007-2010, from the European Commission for performing this research is gratefully acknowledged.  The support of the COST action TU0801 “Semantic enrichment of 3D city models for sustainable urban development” for attending the conference and presenting this work in Faro, Portugal, is gratefully acknowledged as well.
  29. 29. Questions? Thank you!

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