PARTICIPATION AND
THE MANAGEMENT
OF DISASTERS
Overview
 The history of participation
 Participation and post-disaster reconstruction
The history of participation
FROM THE PARTICIPATIONMODES OF THE 1970S
TO
COMMUNICATIONSFORMS AT THE END OF THE 20TH
CENTURY IN ARCHITECTURE AND URBANISM
Construction of the concepts
 Communication
 Information
 Participation
 Coordination
 Cooperation
AKTIVE
BETROFFENE
PASSIVE
ÖFFENTLICHKEIT
EXPERTEN
PLANUNGSMANAGEMENT
PROZESSPLANUNG
PLANUNGSMARKETING
PROBLEM
Kommunikatio...
Strategical planning
Strategical planning
a. b. c.
d. e. f.
The first generation of participatism
The 1960s
 Image of planning
 Critique of functionalism
 Participative approaches
 Case studies
 Outgoing situation
...
A pattern language
Christopher Alexander
“In a society which emphasizes teaching, children and students – and adults – bec...
14
Identifiable
neighbourhood
15
Neighbourhood
boundary
18
Network
of learning
157
Home
workshop
43
University
as a
market...
Byker (Newcastle)
 Ralph Erskine
The 1970s
 Offer participation
 More democracy
 Autonomous Architecture
SAR Method
Ottokar Uhl: Wohnen morgen, Hollabrunn
Ottokar Uhl: Wohnen morgen, Hollabrunn
SAR Method
Ottokar Uhl: Wohnen morgen, Hollabrunn
SAR Method
Ottokar Uhl: Wohnen morgen, Hollabrunn
Standort
Größe des Bauvorhabens
Planungsinstanz
Planungsmethodik
Primärstruktur
Einbaupacket
Folgeeinrichtungen
Wohnungsau...
Kramm et Strigl, Darmstadt
Kramm et Strigl, Darmstadt
Kramm et Strigl, Darmstadt
The second Generation of
Participatism
The 1980s
 Strategical planning
 Private-Public-Partnerships
 Local partnerships
MISSION ZIELE
UNTERZIELE
MASSNAHMEN-
PAKETE
AKTIONS-
PLAN
operative
Möglichkeiten
Akteure Modell-
projekt
DIAGNOSE
PROBLEM...
Local partnership
Greening of courtyards
Zürich
B.R.O.T. Vienna, Ottokar Uhl
Alternative dwelling forms: neighbourhood help
B.R.O.T. Vienna, Ottokar Uhl
Alternative dwelling forms: neighbourhood help
Ottokar Uhl
Wohnen mit Kindern
Ottokar Uhl
Wohnen mit Kindern
Ottokar Uhl
Church Karlsruhe-Neureut
Ottokar Uhl
Church Karlsruhe-Neureut
Stabilisation and improvement of disadvantaged
districts through cooperation nets
 Bremen Osterholz-Tenever
Bucharest
The 1990s
 The Stadtforum
 The new meaning of the free space
Brandeburger Tor
Stadtforum Berlin
Bundestag
Stadtforum Berlin
Bundestag
Stadtforum Berlin
Holocaust Mahnmal
Stadtforum Berlin
East-West
Stadtforum Berlin
GrünGürtel Frankfurt
GrünGürtel Frankfurt
GrünGürtel Frankfurt
Genova
Genova
London
New communication forms
 From offer to activation
 Entstandardisation
 From process to problem
 From one-point-partici...
An interdependence
Communication-Participation
(a) (
Planungs-
schritte
als
Schichten
Information
Koordination
Kooperation
S.A.R.
Methode
strategische
Planung
PPP
empirische
A...
Integration of communicative strategies
Case study: IBA Emscher Park
Ruhr zone
Perspective
Athens
Bucharest
HaDiKo
HaDiKo
HaDiKo
HaDiKo
HaDiKo
HaDiKo
HaDiKo
HaDiKo
(Architekt) Denkmalpflege Bautechnik (Ingenieur)
(Nutzer) Mieter Baukosten (Bauherr)
Erhaltung des
Originalzustandes
Anpas...
Summary
Conclusions
World Housing Encyclopedia
 Cooperation in virtual space
 Sharing information on vulnerable and
earthquake resilient hou...
WHE database:
decision tree for retrofit measures
EE21C 27 August-1
September 2005 Skopje &
Ohrid
Criterion measurement spaces for WHE
criteria
EE21C 27 August-1
September 2005 Skopje &
Ohrid
EE21C 27 August-1 September 2005 Skopje & Ohrid
ATC 40 (1996)
 “Seismic evaluation and retrofit of concrete
structures“
 Retrofit decision
 retrofit strategies, retrof...
ATC 40 (1996)
 Two decision tables
 checklist of retrofit design considerations,
comprising constrains, importance score...
Participation and post-
disaster reconstruction
i-rec review
 Community for sharing information on
participatory reconstruction
 Turkey after 1999 earthquake
 Bam, Ira...
The reconstruction in l’Aquila after the
2009 earthquake and the participatism
 First approaches in participatory disaste...
The reconstruction in l’Aquila after the
2009 earthquake and the participatism
 Comparison of the C.A.S.E. project with o...
L‘Aquila
L‘Aquila
L‘Aquila
Reconstruction after the 2010 Haiti
earthquake and the participatism
 The Haiti earthquake shocked the world – the
impact...
Reconstruction after the 2010 Haiti
earthquake and the participatism
 Crowdsourcing
 Understanding Risk (also GEM)
 Hai...
Participatism and the new
computer science techniques
 Public participation GIS: PGIS, PPGIS, P3DM
 Global Earthquake Mo...
Public Participation GIS
 Was born in 1996
 Inclusion of marginalised populations in
mapping, not necessarily GIS
 Crai...
New tendencies
 Inclusion of writers
 Does not suppose like Christopher Alexander that
every person can do it
Assesment of disaster risk and
Global Earthquake Model
 Involvement of the experts (scientific
community) in the elaborat...
The ontology of disaster
photography
 Review of the use of ontologies in architecture
 Review of the use of catastrophe ...
Review of the use of ontologies in
architecture
 Pieter Pauwels, Ruben Verstraeten, Ronald
De Meyer and Jan Van Campenhou...
Review of the use of ontologies in
architecture
 A research group in Genève (personal
communication Gilles Falquet, 2009)...
Review of the use of ontologies in
architecture
 Bjørn Sandaker from the Oslo School of
Architecture and Design is holdin...
Review of the use of ontologies in
architecture
 A current call as well of the Global Earthquake
Model foundation calls f...
Review of the use of ontologies in
architecture
 In frame of the European Science Foundation
COST (European Cooperation i...
Review of the use of ontologies in
architecture
 The Information and Communication
Technologies Call 6 (2010) of the Euro...
Review of the use of catastrophe
photography
 In the 20th
century the concept on catastrophe
photography changed, August ...
Review of the use of catastrophe
photography
 It encourages us that catastrophe photography
is a topic still actual, even...
Review of the use of catastrophe
photography
 Obtaining 3D data from stereo images has
been recently performed by Randolp...
Previous research
 The archives of Collection of the Canadian
Centre for Architecture
 archives of also turn of the cent...
Previous research
 uses of pairs of images of the same damaged
buildings have been provided by groups from
the Universitä...
Application: Ontology of the digital
databases of photography of the impact of
catastrophes on architecture
 Digital arch...
Faro COST
Faro COST
Faro COST
Faro COST
Faro COST
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COST meeting WG3 Faro 2010

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Faro COST

  1. 1. PARTICIPATION AND THE MANAGEMENT OF DISASTERS
  2. 2. Overview  The history of participation  Participation and post-disaster reconstruction
  3. 3. The history of participation
  4. 4. FROM THE PARTICIPATIONMODES OF THE 1970S TO COMMUNICATIONSFORMS AT THE END OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN ARCHITECTURE AND URBANISM
  5. 5. Construction of the concepts  Communication  Information  Participation  Coordination  Cooperation
  6. 6. AKTIVE BETROFFENE PASSIVE ÖFFENTLICHKEIT EXPERTEN PLANUNGSMANAGEMENT PROZESSPLANUNG PLANUNGSMARKETING PROBLEM Kommunikation zwischen Planern, Fachleuten und Politikern Information und Motivation Verhandeln und Erarbeiten von Lösungen bzw. Interessenausgleich
  7. 7. Strategical planning
  8. 8. Strategical planning a. b. c. d. e. f.
  9. 9. The first generation of participatism
  10. 10. The 1960s  Image of planning  Critique of functionalism  Participative approaches  Case studies  Outgoing situation  Concept  Participative approach  Effects  Today
  11. 11. A pattern language Christopher Alexander “In a society which emphasizes teaching, children and students – and adults – become passive and unable to think or act for themselves. Creative, active individuals can only grow up in a society which emphasizes learning instead of teaching.” from “(18) Network of learning” in Alexander et al. (1977) INPUT X = Condition variables THEN Z = Answer space IF goal practice THUS behaviourY = Statement “Arrange these departments in space, according to the prescription of OFFICE CONNECTIONS (82) and BUILDING COMPLEX THROUGHFARE (101), and make the fronts of the services visible as a FAMILY OF ENTRANCES (102), wherever the services are in any way connected to the practical life of the community, mix them with ad-hoc groups created by the citizens or users NECKLACE OF COMMUNITY PROJECTS (45); arrange the inside space of the department according to FLEXIBLE OFFICE SPACE (146); and provide rooms, where people can team up in two’s and three’s – SMALL WORK GROUPS (148) .... “ from “(81) Small services without red tape” in Alexander et al. (1977) “... LOCAL TOWN HALL(44) calls for small centers of local government at the heart of every community. This pattern embellishes the local town hall and other public institutions like it – UNIVERSITY AS A MARKETPLACE (43) and HEALTH CENTER (47) – with a ground for community action.” from “(45) Necklace of community project” in Alexander et al. (1977) OUTPUT variables * * * Therefore: END IF Cybernetic model Example quotes “Arrange the work in every workgroup, industry, and office in such way that work and learning go forward hand in hand. Treat every piece of work as an opportunity for learning. To this end, organize work around a tradition of masters and apprentices: and support this form of social organization with a division of the workspace into spatial clusters – one for each master and his apprentices – where they can work and meet together.” from “(83) Master and apprentices” in Alexander et al.(1977) * * *
  12. 12. 14 Identifiable neighbourhood 15 Neighbourhood boundary 18 Network of learning 157 Home workshop 43 University as a marketplace 83 Master and apprentices 37 House cluster 36 Degrees of publicness 45 Necklace of community project 41 Work community 80 Self-governing workshops and offices 148 Small work groups 81 Small services without red tape 152 Half-private office 183 Workspace enclosure 205 Structure Follows social spaces 212 Columns at the corners 206 Effective structure 207 Good materials 211 Thickening outer walls 217 Perimeter beams 218 Wall membranes 248 Soft tile and brick 249 Ornament
  13. 13. Byker (Newcastle)  Ralph Erskine
  14. 14. The 1970s  Offer participation  More democracy  Autonomous Architecture
  15. 15. SAR Method Ottokar Uhl: Wohnen morgen, Hollabrunn
  16. 16. Ottokar Uhl: Wohnen morgen, Hollabrunn
  17. 17. SAR Method Ottokar Uhl: Wohnen morgen, Hollabrunn
  18. 18. SAR Method Ottokar Uhl: Wohnen morgen, Hollabrunn
  19. 19. Standort Größe des Bauvorhabens Planungsinstanz Planungsmethodik Primärstruktur Einbaupacket Folgeeinrichtungen Wohnungsausstattung Umbau Professionelle Planer Nutzer Planungsentscheidungen Planungsinstanzen Bauträger Umbau Erweiterung Elimination Bauträger (neu) Nutzer (gewechselt) Time (ranking scale) Sozialsystem (Nominalskala) Zeit (Intervalskala) para- professionelles professionelles (Laien) laic professionelles
  20. 20. Kramm et Strigl, Darmstadt
  21. 21. Kramm et Strigl, Darmstadt
  22. 22. Kramm et Strigl, Darmstadt
  23. 23. The second Generation of Participatism
  24. 24. The 1980s  Strategical planning  Private-Public-Partnerships  Local partnerships
  25. 25. MISSION ZIELE UNTERZIELE MASSNAHMEN- PAKETE AKTIONS- PLAN operative Möglichkeiten Akteure Modell- projekt DIAGNOSE PROBLEME POTENTIALE - Kommunikationsmittel - Umsetzungsmittel - Umsetzungspläne
  26. 26. Local partnership Greening of courtyards Zürich
  27. 27. B.R.O.T. Vienna, Ottokar Uhl Alternative dwelling forms: neighbourhood help
  28. 28. B.R.O.T. Vienna, Ottokar Uhl Alternative dwelling forms: neighbourhood help
  29. 29. Ottokar Uhl Wohnen mit Kindern
  30. 30. Ottokar Uhl Wohnen mit Kindern
  31. 31. Ottokar Uhl Church Karlsruhe-Neureut
  32. 32. Ottokar Uhl Church Karlsruhe-Neureut
  33. 33. Stabilisation and improvement of disadvantaged districts through cooperation nets  Bremen Osterholz-Tenever
  34. 34. Bucharest
  35. 35. The 1990s  The Stadtforum  The new meaning of the free space
  36. 36. Brandeburger Tor Stadtforum Berlin
  37. 37. Bundestag Stadtforum Berlin
  38. 38. Bundestag Stadtforum Berlin
  39. 39. Holocaust Mahnmal Stadtforum Berlin
  40. 40. East-West Stadtforum Berlin
  41. 41. GrünGürtel Frankfurt
  42. 42. GrünGürtel Frankfurt
  43. 43. GrünGürtel Frankfurt
  44. 44. Genova
  45. 45. Genova
  46. 46. London
  47. 47. New communication forms  From offer to activation  Entstandardisation  From process to problem  From one-point-participation to communication strategy
  48. 48. An interdependence Communication-Participation
  49. 49. (a) (
  50. 50. Planungs- schritte als Schichten Information Koordination Kooperation S.A.R. Methode strategische Planung PPP empirische Ansätze Induktion + Deduktion = Regression Daten- set Hypothese Hypothese und abgeleiteten Hypothesen Aussagen Einzelfälle Know-how Hypothese planende Verwaltung Partner urban Manager Eingriffs- verwaltung Leistungs- verwaltung Partizipation
  51. 51. Integration of communicative strategies Case study: IBA Emscher Park
  52. 52. Ruhr zone
  53. 53. Perspective
  54. 54. Athens
  55. 55. Bucharest
  56. 56. HaDiKo
  57. 57. HaDiKo
  58. 58. HaDiKo
  59. 59. HaDiKo
  60. 60. HaDiKo
  61. 61. HaDiKo
  62. 62. HaDiKo
  63. 63. HaDiKo
  64. 64. (Architekt) Denkmalpflege Bautechnik (Ingenieur) (Nutzer) Mieter Baukosten (Bauherr) Erhaltung des Originalzustandes Anpassung am heutigen Stand der Technik hohes Wohnwert Wirtschaftlichkeit Erhaltungs- arbeiten Wieder- aufbau- arbeiten completionErgänzungs- arbeiten
  65. 65. Summary
  66. 66. Conclusions
  67. 67. World Housing Encyclopedia  Cooperation in virtual space  Sharing information on vulnerable and earthquake resilient housing in the world  Standard format  Structural engineering issues  Architectural issues  Economic issues  Inhabitant issues  Not all aspects covered in these issues  http://www.world-housing.net/
  68. 68. WHE database: decision tree for retrofit measures EE21C 27 August-1 September 2005 Skopje & Ohrid
  69. 69. Criterion measurement spaces for WHE criteria EE21C 27 August-1 September 2005 Skopje & Ohrid
  70. 70. EE21C 27 August-1 September 2005 Skopje & Ohrid
  71. 71. ATC 40 (1996)  “Seismic evaluation and retrofit of concrete structures“  Retrofit decision  retrofit strategies, retrofit systems and design constraints  Each chapter is written for a broader or narrower range of expected audience  building owners and agency representatives, architects and building officials as well as structural engineers and analysts
  72. 72. ATC 40 (1996)  Two decision tables  checklist of retrofit design considerations, comprising constrains, importance scores and limitations.  Strategy evaluation matrix
  73. 73. Participation and post- disaster reconstruction
  74. 74. i-rec review  Community for sharing information on participatory reconstruction  Turkey after 1999 earthquake  Bam, Iran, after 2003 earthquake  Gujarat, India after 2001 earthquake, comparison with Tamil Nadu after the 2004 tsunami  El Salvador after the 2001 earthquake  Outreach to England and Australia
  75. 75. The reconstruction in l’Aquila after the 2009 earthquake and the participatism  First approaches in participatory disaster reconstruction: Turkey 1999  Reconstruction in l’Aquila 2009 earthquake – without participatism  C.A.S.E. project – new neighbourhoods outside the city  The old centre is still closed zone, where people socialise  This lead to involvement of architects and urban planners  Noto, Gibellina, San Giuliano di Puglia
  76. 76. The reconstruction in l’Aquila after the 2009 earthquake and the participatism  Comparison of the C.A.S.E. project with other social housing  Zeilenbau
  77. 77. L‘Aquila
  78. 78. L‘Aquila
  79. 79. L‘Aquila
  80. 80. Reconstruction after the 2010 Haiti earthquake and the participatism  The Haiti earthquake shocked the world – the impact was not one-to-many through traditional media, but network  Web 2.0  Linkedin  Haiti Rewired http://haitirewired.wired.com  Plan Haiti with BIM strom  Understanding Risk  Facebook (farmville, Gingerbread housing photos)
  81. 81. Reconstruction after the 2010 Haiti earthquake and the participatism  Crowdsourcing  Understanding Risk (also GEM)  Haiti Rewired: confined masonry tool  Confined Masonry Network - EERI
  82. 82. Participatism and the new computer science techniques  Public participation GIS: PGIS, PPGIS, P3DM  Global Earthquake Model  Ontology of disaster photography
  83. 83. Public Participation GIS  Was born in 1996  Inclusion of marginalised populations in mapping, not necessarily GIS  Craig et al (2002)  NGOs shall communicate the interests of the population through GIS  PPGIS – among decision makers  Makes visible the variants, even in 3D  P3DM participatory 3D modelling – a model built with the community which remains with the community
  84. 84. New tendencies  Inclusion of writers  Does not suppose like Christopher Alexander that every person can do it
  85. 85. Assesment of disaster risk and Global Earthquake Model  Involvement of the experts (scientific community) in the elaboration of the model and its components (global components, regional programs, partners)  The model is and will remain open source  There are outreach meetings  The calls for projects are reviewed by the community  http://www.globalquakemodel.org/
  86. 86. The ontology of disaster photography  Review of the use of ontologies in architecture  Review of the use of catastrophe photography  Previous research  Application: Ontology of the digital databases of photography of the impact of catastrophes on architecture
  87. 87. Review of the use of ontologies in architecture  Pieter Pauwels, Ruben Verstraeten, Ronald De Meyer and Jan Van Campenhout from the University of Ghent investigated “Semantics- Based Design: Can Ontologies Help in a Preliminary Design Phase?” (Pauwels et al, 2009).
  88. 88. Review of the use of ontologies in architecture  A research group in Genève (personal communication Gilles Falquet, 2009) developed ontology for architectural styles. A thesaurus is also a form of ontology, like the one developed by English Heritage.
  89. 89. Review of the use of ontologies in architecture  Bjørn Sandaker from the Oslo School of Architecture and Design is holding a key-note lecture at the International Conference on Structures and Architecture 2010 on “An Ontology of the Structured Space”, which is also a topic of teaching within the e-archidoct doctoral online school.
  90. 90. Review of the use of ontologies in architecture  A current call as well of the Global Earthquake Model foundation calls for risk ontology and taxonomy projects in the built environment subjected to earthquakes.  World Housing Encyclopedia is partner in the consortium which won this call
  91. 91. Review of the use of ontologies in architecture  In frame of the European Science Foundation COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) actions, already the second action is running on an ontology based topic. The first one was Transport and Urban Development Action C21 “Towntology – Urban Ontologies for an Improved Communication in Urban Civil Engineering Projects” (end date: June 2009).
  92. 92. Review of the use of ontologies in architecture  The Information and Communication Technologies Call 6 (2010) of the European Commission includes one on “Cultural heritage, digital libraries and digital preservation in FP7”, which, on its turn, includes digital archives.
  93. 93. Review of the use of catastrophe photography  In the 20th century the concept on catastrophe photography changed, August Sander wrote in September 1946 at the begin of his albums that the photos of the destruction of Cologne in World War II should be a warning of how the beauty of a city can be destroyed.
  94. 94. Review of the use of catastrophe photography  It encourages us that catastrophe photography is a topic still actual, even if not from its architectural/artistic side. Today it is more used to document damages.  Examples of such databases  Cambridge University Earthquake Damage Database  Karl V. Steinbrugge Slide and Photograph Collection of the University of California at Berkeley.
  95. 95. Review of the use of catastrophe photography  Obtaining 3D data from stereo images has been recently performed by Randolph Langenbach (independent researcher in Oakland, USA) in the aftermath of the Haiti earthquake from January 2010 using Pictometry satellite images in order to identify the damage on architecture heritage buildings (Gingerbread district).  Stereo images also in 19th century photography
  96. 96. Previous research  The archives of Collection of the Canadian Centre for Architecture  archives of also turn of the century photography of the Tzigara-Samurcaş collection (Brătuleanu, 2009)  World Housing Encyclopedia  3D Geoinformation Training School of COST TU0801  EGU sessions – urban areas, as the topographical photography in the 19th century
  97. 97. Previous research  uses of pairs of images of the same damaged buildings have been provided by groups from the Universität Karlsruhe, Germany, in frame of the Collaborative Research Centre SFB461 “Strong earthquakes”, subproject C7 “Novel rescue technologies” in the aftermath of the 2001 Gujarat earthquake using the software Photomodeller (Schweier et al, 2004).
  98. 98. Application: Ontology of the digital databases of photography of the impact of catastrophes on architecture  Digital archives  Inventory of archive material  Ontology for photography archives  Database of photographs to catastrophe ontology  How to populate the database with characteristic photographs  Ex. How to link photographs from online archives  Resources about photographers  Ruins to be virtually reconstructed in 3D

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