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Azores Maria Bostenaru

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Azores seminar on stone housing - seismic culture

Azores seminar on stone housing - seismic culture

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    Azores Maria Bostenaru Azores Maria Bostenaru Presentation Transcript

    • The use of building stone materials and the favourable behaviour of stone buildings with skeleton structure in earthquakes Maria BOSTENARU DAN ERGOROM ’99 and “ Ion Mincu” University of Architecture and Urban Planning
    • Overview
      • Introduction
      • The morpholog y of historic buildings with skeleton structure
      • The behaviour of stone buildings with skeleton structure in earthquakes
      • Conclusions
    • Introduction
      • Two structure t ypes
        • Solid building (Massivbau)
        • Skeleton structure
      • Stone buildings:
        • Massivbau is typical but skeleton structure possible (Gothic)
      • This paper: stone for buildings with skeleton structure
    • The morphology of historic buildings with skeleton structure
      • Gottfried Semper: theory of clothing wall-floor-ceiling typology
      • Semper never employed his theory, this was done by Viennese architect Otto Wagner – sincerity in architecture
      • Morphologic analysis: two elements
        • Load bearing structure
        • Contents
    • The morphology of historic buildings with skeleton structure
      • Between the load bearing structure and architectural space exist:
        • the structural space: historic buildings
        • the free plan
        • the space plan (the so-called Raumplan)
      • The skeleton structure made possible a variant of the Raumplan long before the 20 th century: the Gothic (skeleton and infill out of stone)
    • Skeleton structures out of stone material
    • The morphology of historic buildings with skeleton structure
      • Skeleton structures with stone infill: timber structures (half-timbered)
      • Raumplan at the level of morphology
    • Materials of timber skeleton buildings in earthquake prone regions fir and oak oak Floor fir and oak oak Roof fir and oak oak (sometimes fir) Skeleton sandstone adobe Infill Portugal Alps
    • Characteristics of the building materials in residential buildings with timber skeleton in the Alpine region Timber between 8/8 cm and 28/30cm. (Stade, 1904). see above oak timber Roof Planks are 2-5 cm thick. The joists are between 2.5cm (0.80m span) to 16cm (4.5m span) see above oak timber Floors Lower horizontal elements: 13/18, 13/20, 15/20, 13/21 or 16/21 cm (Stade, 1904). Upper horizontal elements: 12/12, 13/13, 12/14, 13/15, 13/18 cm. (Stade, 1904) Corner pillars: 13/13, 15/15, 13/16, 16/16, 21/21 cm (Stade, 1904). Intermediary pillars:12/12, 13/13, 12/14, 13/15, 12/16 or 13/16cm (Stade, 1904). Diagonals: 12/16 or 13/18 cm (Stade, 1904). Upper horizontal elements (sustaining the roof): 12/16, 13/18 or 16/21cm (Stade, 1904). Elasticity modulus 7-14.1 GPa; tension 25.0 MPa; compression 10.8 MPa; bending 84 MPa; shear - douglas fir or Laminated wood Skeleto (new buildings) Elasticity modulus 6.9-11.8 GPa; tension 128 MPa; compression 50 MPa; bending 100 MPa; shear 77 MPa oak (sometimes fir) Skeleto (histori buildings) For further information regarding the adobe infill, see: http://www.fachwerkhaus.de/fh_haus/info/fsan.htm (2004). adobe oak timber planks Wall Infill Mix / dimensions Resistance characteristics Construc t io n materials Structual Element
    • The morphology of historic buildings with skeleton structure
      • Evolutionary structural optimisation
      • the original structure reaches the optimal shape eliminating the non-effective elements from step to step
      • This theory of the 20th century, in a similar way to that of the Raumplan, was preceded by its practical employment
    • The morphology of historic buildings with skeleton structure
      • Gaiola pombalina:
        • stone material and the timber collaborate in such a way in the structure of a building which can be considered the early expression of the optimisation
      • After an earthquake the exterior walls could fall out, then also the stone infill of the gaiola, as energy dissipators, but the building remained staying, and so the ones residing in it were protected
    • The behaviour of stone buildings with skeleton structure in earthquakes
      • Following the 1999 earthquakes in Turkey it became visible that the local timber skeleton structure buildings (himiş) behaved much better under earthquakes
      • so-called local seismic culture
      • the origin for the existence of buildings with such structure is much more caused by
        • the urban way of life
        • traditional “the stone house is more durable than the timber house” concept
    • The behaviour of stone buildings with skeleton structure in earthquakes
      • The symbolics of construction materials
      • The morphology of stone buildings with skeleton structure and the ship structure
    • The symbolics of construction materials
      • English folk story: The Three Little Pigs
        • the grass house can be the symbol of the collecting population, the timber house of the half nomads and the stone house of the settled one
        • the straw house is finished more quickly than the stone house, for the building of which it must be worked much more, and there is less time left for play, for distraction
    • The symbolics of construction materials
      • Romanian greeting for wedding is “casă de piatră”, which means house of stone
      • the stone bridge is taken away by the water, and a newer one, more durable and more beautiful will be built further down along the water, where the water is deeper and more dangerous
    • The symbolics of construction materials
      • Apart from the ideologisation the stone house, since it was done with more work and for more money it was foreseen for richer layers of the society.
      • fires destroyed the towns more often in former centuries than earthquakes, which were unexplainable and thus could be rather considered the will of God
    • The symbolics of construction materials
      • Some timber houses resisted centuries (700 years)
      • Resisted better to earthquakes but not this is the reason why they spread
    • Residential buildings with timber skeleton load bearing structure in earthquake prone Basel, Switzerland Lisbon, Portugal
    • The morphology of stone buildings with skeleton structure and the ship structure
      • there is an interdependence between the metaphor of the ship and the engineering forms
      • 2 levels
        • Façade
        • Interior space
    • The morphology of stone buildings with skeleton structure and the ship structure
      • the buildings with timber skeleton are not typical for earthquake prone zones but for seaside towns and their regions
      • the structure of Pombalino buildings was inspired by ship building
      • The most pure structural form of the German Fachwerk buildings can be found on the seaside as well, in the North (based on a row of joists in console)
    • The morphology of stone buildings with skeleton structure and the ship structure
    • The morphology of stone buildings with skeleton structure and the ship structure: facade
      • the Italian architect Marcello Piacentini accompanied with his attention the new Hungarian architecture from the turn-of-the-century
    • Ship structure in the façade: Hungary
    • Ship structure in the façade: Italy
    • The morphology of stone buildings with skeleton structure and the ship structure: interior space
      • The interior space comes close to the ship metaphor from the structural point of view
      • the interior partitions of the churches are called naves
      • In the Gothic buildings the structure of the ceiling of the naves was shaped according to the rules of the ships. This structure with a spatial effect (3D) is common with that of the ships, but also with the buildings with timber skeleton
    • The morphology of stone buildings with skeleton structure and the ship structure: interior space
      • the height of the Gothic churches > their wind load is considerable and the structure similar to a ship was designed to resist these loads
      • Such a structure proved correspondingly resisting facing earthquakes, since the earthquake forces act also horizontally and wave-like
    • Conclusions
      • The use of the morphology proved suitable to unveil the spread concepts of the so-called local seismic culture.
        • According to the folk story the stone material offers the biggest safety.
        • The 1755 earthquake, which affected Lisbon, proves the opposite.
    • Conclusions
      • Under the marquis of Pombal the stone walls are reinforced with timber skeleton structures
      • also in the Gothic buildings which inherited the cage structure: the stone is both skeleton and space limit, structure and ornament, it plays a role in all elements of the morphology as a material
    • Acknowledgements PIANO project Marie Curie Reintegration Grant MERG-CT-2007-200636
    • Thank you!