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1906 San Francisco earthquake 100th anniversary, San Francisco, 2006

1906 San Francisco earthquake 100th anniversary, San Francisco, 2006

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  • 1. CA‘REDIVIVUS A Project on the Preservation of European Historic Reinforced Concrete Housing Buildings – The Concept Maria Bostenaru, EERI YP Rui Pinho ROSE School / IUSS di Pavia, ITALY
  • 2. Overview The title Introduction Expected impact Scientific methods Discussion Conclusions 100th Anniversary of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • 3. The title HOUSE TO NEW LIFE CASA REDIVIVUS Cemento Armato = Reinforced Concrete 100th Anniversary of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • 4. Introduction Valuation of existing buildings instead of design of new buildings Challenge in earthquake prone countries More research on masonry than on RC Concrete in France and Germany Concrete in Italy, Greece, Romania, Portugal Multidisciplinary decision Conservation of heritage housing buildings 100th Anniversary of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • 5. Expected impact of the project Recommendations for protection of early XXth century heritage in Europe, ICOMOS, RISK-UE DOCOMOMO: technologies, materials in the early 20th century styles and intervention multidisciplinary research (conference sessions) Sustainable development  World Housing Encyclopedia Anthropologic perspective (perception)  sociology of architecture  interface load-bearing structure–architectural space 100th Anniversary of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • 6. Objectives of the project 100th Anniversary of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • 7. Nr. Objective Interest groups 1 - advance in earthquake engineering Multidisciplinary - improving understanding of earthquake impact on the physical, social, economic and cultural environment - developing comprehensive measures for preventing earthquake loss 2 an algorithm for optimisation of retrofit measures - 3 decentralised decision model for actors involved from: Interdisciplinary - geophysics (engineering seismology) - (structural) engineering - economy (investment efficiency) - sociology (consideration of user issues) 4 ? applicability of retrofit methods which reduce demand (active Interdisciplinary devices on frame braces) architecture engineering 5 framework for integral planning (economic and engineering aspects Interdisciplinary regarded from incipient planning phases) architecture engineering economics 6 solving contradictions between the objectives of single actors in the Multidisciplinary retrofit implementation strategy through decision system customisation 7 comprehensibility of the measures analysed: inclusion into the architecture integral planning scheme near the flow in the physical urbanism implementation of the retrofit system of a flow for the education of sociology the population which has to support the measures (spread from pilot projects to „routine‟ wide ones) 8 investigation of the support possibilities by political and economic - environment: existing programmes 100th Anniversary of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • 8. Project management objectives step (measures package) goal scientific method instruments objective (measure) 100th Anniversary of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • 9. Nr. Objective Method Instruments 1 improving understanding of - public presentation - active participation, co-organisation of conferences earthquake impact - react to feedback on findings on the architectural, - publication in reviewed manner structural, geophysical, social and economic aspects - web dissemination of results of retrofitting historic concrete buildings 2 algorithm for retrofit measures parametrical study FEM optimisation 3 decentralised decision model modularisation of a collaborative decision model pair wise comparison method used in investigation of taking into account non-measurable criteria decision making on different levels; multiobjective systems in urban/building scale transition 4 applicability of retrofit methods - documentation literature and internet based research insights training lectures and assisted exercises. 5 framework for integral planning an example retrofit design model project for the exercise integral planning and defining its steps 6 solving contradictions between the a basis system to administrate modules on the ? suitability of different computer tools (GIS, spread objectives of single actors different detail levels in the urban strategical planning sheets, multimedia …) 7 „comprehensibilisation‟ of the steps are foreseen in the „educational flow‟, so the database for measures analysed information circuit gets into a second phase: - public presentation - determine research directions - urban/building level navigation - determine means for accessibilisation of information - feedback - investigation of consulting and participation means - education - create public ideas - connection between education and research. 8 ? change is supported by political documentation, conference organisation activity “Natural Hazards Impact on Urban Areas and and economic environment Infrastructure”; similar events. 100th Anniversary of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • 10. Step Goal Method Instrument Objec- tive 1 a. Technical reports on steel braces Documentation Literature and internet based 4; 8 retrofit systems applicability in RC research housing buildings Investigation b. Charts of support programmes 2 a data table of use for the decision parametrical study FEM 2 method in the next step 3 support the choices at step 4 and 1 Highlighting Database and urban/building 7 (public presentation/feedback) comprehensibility level navigation 4 algorithm based on case studies modularisation of the pair wise comparison 3 (step 2) for experiments (step 6) decision model 5 report about pros and cons of A basis system to Comparative employment of 6 available systems for this purpose administrate modules computer tools for this problem 6 trial of educational feasibility (step project example Exercise 5 3), more practical examples 7 dissemination of results Publication of results Participation to conferences, 1 reviewed publications, web 100th Anniversary of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • 11. Nr. Measures package 1 improving understanding of the impact of earthquakes 2 development of an algorithm for Step Goal Method Instrument Measure optimisation of retrofit measures 1 technical reports on implementation documentation investigation 4; 8 3 development of a decentralised programmes training. decision model 2 a data table of use for the decision parametrical study FEM 2 4 insights into applicability of method in the next step retrofit methods 3 support the choices at step 4 and step highlighting database 7 1 comprehensibility 5 development of a framework for 4 algorithm based on case studies (step modularisation of the pair wise 3 integral planning 2) for experiments (step 6) decision model comparison 5 report about available systems for this a basis system to computer tools 6 purpose administrate modules 6 solving contradictions between 6 trial of educational feasibility (step 3) project example exercise 5 the objectives of single actors 7 dissemination of results presentation publications 1 7 highlighting the comprehend- sibility of the measures analysed 8 support changes by political and economic environment: 100th Anniversary of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • 12. Discussion Typological study  RC multi-storey residential buildings from early XXth century of historic importance Distribution and seismic threat in Europe Collaborative issues  Systemic modelling  New functional demands; technological demands Comparative studies 100th Anniversary of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • 13. Discussion: typological study (Romania) 100th Anniversary of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • 14. Discussion: post-earthquake intervention (Romania) 100th Anniversary of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • 15. Discussion: comparative potential (Italy and Greece) Novocum, Como (arch. G. Terragni 1927-1929) Casa Lavezzari, Milano Blocks of flats in Athens; architects: (arch. G. Terragni, K. Panayotakos, 1932-33 V. Douras, 1936 1934-36) 100th Anniversary of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • 16. Discussion: comparison themes Differences in the architectural language Changes induced by preservation requirements in high/low seismicity areas and their determinant factors Earthquake hazard Urban development policies Existing attempts and distribution determined need for seismic rehabilitation The time when this time of construction reached the respective countries Reception of the technology Relationship to the codes and affecting earthquakes Suitability of retrofit methods for buildings situated in different cultural value ranges 100th Anniversary of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • 17. Discussion: distribution in Europe Other countries  France  Portugal  Austria  Czech Republic  Slovenia  Spain  Italy  Hungary  Germany 100th Anniversary of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • 18. Conclusions High vulnerability of pre-code RC New field Interventions on existing buildings - Multidisciplinary issue par excellence  Networking Use of the computer Public dissemination Communication skills  Spatio-perceptive and spatio-functional issues Potential for comparative studies 100th Anniversary of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake CA‘REDIVIVUS project
  • 19. Thank you! The project described in this paper is funded under the Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowships research mobility scheme of the European Commission, contract nr. MEIF-CT-2005-009765 with a 2 years individual fellowship in 2005-2007.