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  • 1. Impact of seismic retrofit on interwar RC housing Maria BOSTENARU Rui PINHO ROSE School, Pavia, Italy
  • 2. Overview  Introduction  Modelling of interwar housing buildings  Earthquake behaviour of interwar buildings  Retrofit, and discussion of the impact of such measures  Optimisation of a retrofit measure  Conclusions
  • 3. Modelling of interwar housing buildings  The IVth CIAM in 1933 in Athens and architectural characteristics of historic RC housing buildings in earthquake prone parts of Europe  Structural characteristics
  • 4. Modern buildings in Greece
  • 5. Functional scheme in a Greek apartment building Legend: Bedroom / night zone Living room, including dinning Corridors / circulation zone Bathrooms, toillets Kitchen Hall / vertical circulation Deposit / external circulation
  • 6. Modern buildings in Romania
  • 7. Functional scheme in a Romanian apartment building Legend: Bedroom / night zone Living room, including dinning Corridors / circulation zone Bathrooms, toillets Kitchen Hall / vertical circulation Deposit / external circulation
  • 8. Architectural typology Legend: Bedroom / night zone Living room, including dinning Corridors / circulation zone Bathrooms, toillets Kitchen Hall / vertical circulation Deposit / external circulation 1. 2. 3.
  • 9. Modern buildings in Portugal
  • 10. Earthquake behaviour of interwar buildings  Design of a model of an interwar building  Effects of earthquakes on the structure
  • 11. Model building: facade and section
  • 12. Model building: plan of the current floor
  • 13. Model building: plans of GF, basement and set-back floors
  • 14. Material models for concrete and steel
  • 15. Slab modeling
  • 16. Section models
  • 17. Finite elements model of the building
  • 18. Pushover curves pushover X pushover Y 5000 5000 4500 4500 4000 4000 3500 3500 3000 Base shear (kN) 3000 Base shear (kN) Base Shear X Base Shear Y 2500 2500 Base Shear X negative Base Shear Y negative 2000 2000 1500 1500 1000 1000 500 500 0 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Displacement N6206 (mm) Displacement N6206 (mm)
  • 19. Retrofit, and discussion of the impact of such measures  Design of the retrofit measure  Impact of the measure
  • 20. Layout of retrofit elements 1st phase: soft storey 2nd phase 3rd phase
  • 21. Retrofit options pushover X pushover Y 5000 5000 4500 4500 4000 4000 3500 3500 3000 3000 Base shear (kN) Base shear (N) Base Shear X Base Shear Y 2500 Base Shear X retrofit2 2500 Base Shear Y retrofit2 Base Shear X retrofit 3 Base Shear Y retrofit3 2000 2000 1500 1500 1000 1000 500 500 0 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 -15 35 85 135 185 235 285 335 Displacement N6206 (mm) Displacement N6206
  • 22. Deformed shapes
  • 23. Most damaged elements yield GF yield in GF beams yield and spall GF yield 1st floor yield, crush in GF beams yield, spall GF yield, spall, crush GF yield, spall, crush in GF beams most damaged upper floor columns most damaged transversal beams most damaged longitudinal beams Vrancea earthquake 1986 Vrancea earthquake 1986 Vrancea earthquake 1986 spall in beams yield 1st floor over basement spall GF yield in beams over 1st and 2nd floor spall 1st floor yield GF crush, spall, yield GF yield in beams over basement most damaged upper floor columns most damaged GF columns (also break) most damaged longitudinal beams Vrancea earthquake 1977 Vrancea earthquake 1977 Vrancea earthquake 1977 yield, spall GF yield GF yield, spall GF yield GF . most damaged beams most damaged longitudinal beams Thessaloniki earthquake 1978 Vrancea earthquake 1990
  • 24. Optimisation of a retrofit measure  Optimisation of impact parameters  Re-assessment of the impact
  • 25. Pushover curves X Y 0,25 0,25 0,2 0,2 acceleration (g) acceleration (g) 0,15 0,15 0,1 0,1 0,05 0,05 0 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 50 100 150 200 displacement (mm) displacement (mm) unretrofitted 94 retrofitted negative 0,192 unretrofitted retrofitted 103 negative 0.192
  • 26. Architect Engineer Decision Reversibility Guidelines Historical Vulnerability Earthquake Shape score Structure score tree Material Facade Forces Interior space Structure Displacement, remaining Building Structure performance Displacement, maximal Demolition Tension Size change Element replacement Looks change Retrofit New element Element Construction material change elements Non-structural > structural Partial demolition Compatibility with old System completion Conservation of old Strengthening/Stiffening Sustainability Material Strategy Enhanced ductility Maintenance new Reduced demand Inhabitant Investor Duration Aggregate Noise Building site Execution Management Relocation Phases Participation Repeatability Ownership form Construction material versus Safety Technology versus Acceptance Availability Own expenses Funds Other benefits Relocation space During measure Reparation/New building After measure Occupancy Indicators Retrofit/New building After earthquake Reparation saving/Retrofit Total costs/New bldg. – 30% Residential value
  • 27. Detail of the model building
  • 28. Geo-composite yarn weaving
  • 29. Conclusions
  • 30. Thank you! Questions?