Bridging The Achievement Gap A Need for Change in American Public Education Christin Siller
What is the Achievement Gap and Why Should I Care? <ul><li>The Achievement Gap is the “the difference in academic performa...
<ul><li>By 4th grade, Black and Latino students are on average nearly 3 years behind their White and Asian counterparts. <...
<ul><li>Barely half of African-American and Latino students graduate from high school, with African American students grad...
<ul><li>Only 9% of students in Tier 1 (146 most selective) colleges were from the bottom half of the income distribution. ...
<ul><li>70% of people in top 10% income bracket have at least a bachelor’s degree. </li></ul><ul><li>Education Equality Pr...
Hispanic Students <ul><li>20.4% of enrolled students  </li></ul><ul><li>13.7% of students receiving a high school diploma ...
African American Students <ul><li>13.4% of graduating seniors in U.S. public schools </li></ul><ul><li>7.9% of students en...
African American Students <ul><li>Among Black children whose parents are high-school dropouts; half of those children had ...
<ul><li>Black and Latino students are 2-3 times more likely to have below basic skills in reading and math. </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Graduation Rates </li></ul><ul><li>Latinos – 55%  </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans - 51%  </li></ul><ul><li>Whi...
African American, Latino & Native American high school graduates are less likely to have been enrolled in a full college p...
African American and Latino  17 Year-Olds Do Math at Same Levels As White 13 Year-Olds Source :  National Center for Educa...
African American and Latino  17 Year-Olds Read at Same Levels As White 13 Year-Olds Source :  National Center for Educatio...
12 Grade Math:  Results Mostly Flat Gaps Same or Widening <ul><li>NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES </li></ul>*D...
12 th  Grade Reading:  No Progress, Gaps Wider than 1988 <ul><li>NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES </li></ul>*De...
12 Grade Math:  Results Mostly Flat Gaps Same or Widening <ul><li>NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES </li></ul>*D...
<ul><li>One in nine black men between 20-34 are incarcerated; a black male is more likely to be in prison than to have a p...
<ul><li>On average, a high school graduate earns $600,000 more during his/her lifetime than a dropout. </li></ul><ul><li>C...
<ul><li>Someone with a college degree makes 73% more over a lifetime than someone with only a high school degree. </li></u...
<ul><li>A 10% increase in high school graduation rates would reduce murder rates by 20%. </li></ul><ul><li>Lochner, Lance ...
<ul><li>High school graduates live up to 7 years longer than high school dropouts. </li></ul><ul><li>Belfield, Clive and H...
<ul><li>A high school dropout is 5-8 times more likely to be incarcerated than a college graduate. </li></ul><ul><li>Enric...
Of Every 100 White Kindergartners: (25-to 29-Year-Olds) Source :  US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. March C...
Of Every 100 African American Kindergartners: (25-to 29-Year-Olds) Source :  US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Cens...
Of Every 100 Latino Kindergartners : (25-to 29-Year-Olds) Source :  US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. March...
Of Every 100 American Indian/Alaskan Native  Kindergartners: (25 Years Old and Older) Source: U.S. Census Bureau,  We the ...
College Graduates by Age 24 Source:  Tom Mortenson, Postsecondary Educational Opportunity..
<ul><li>Dropouts in 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>33% overall dropout rate </li></ul><ul><li>29% female </li></ul><ul><li>36% mal...
2008 NAEP vs. The TAKS <ul><li>NAEP 4 th  Graders in Reading – 29% </li></ul><ul><li>Reading TAKS – 79 </li></ul><ul><li>N...
2008 NAEP vs. The TAKS <ul><li>NAEP 8 th  Graders in Reading 26% </li></ul><ul><li>8 th  Grade Reading TAKS 83% </li></ul>...
Economic Implications <ul><li>If the United States had in recent years closed the gap between its educational achievement ...
<ul><li>If the gap between black and Latino student performance and white student performance had been similarly narrowed,...
<ul><li>If the gap between low-income students and the rest had been similarly narrowed, GDP in 2008 would have been  $400...
<ul><li>If the gap between America’s low-performing states and the rest had been similarly narrowed, GDP in 2008 would hav...
<ul><li>Put differently, the  persistence  of these educational achievement gaps imposes on the United States the economic...
 
<ul><li>Discrimination is not limited to race.  The line that separates the well-educated from the poorly educated is the ...
<ul><li>American education cannot-as Detroit discovered – continue to rely on traditional models. </li></ul><ul><li>– Davi...
<ul><li>America’s education system is in the sort of crisis that Detroit’s car industry faced in the 1970’s before Japanes...
<ul><li>As recently as 1995 America was tied for first in college graduation rates; by 2006 this ranking had dropped to 14...
<ul><li>The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a respected international comparison of 15-year-olds by...
 
PISA Performance U.S.A. Ranks Near Bottom, Has Fallen Since 2000 Rankings are for the 26 OECD countries participating in P...
<ul><li>This ranking signals the striking erosion of America’s onetime leadership in education. Forty years ago the United...
<ul><li>17 countries have higher average test scores and lower income-based   inequality than the United States. </li></ul>
 
 
<ul><li>The United States has among the  smallest  proportion of 15-year-olds performing at the highest levels of proficie...
<ul><li>“ Our nation’s long-term ability to succeed in exporting to the growing global marketplace hinges on the abilities...
<ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The gap between students from rich and poor families is much more pronounced in the United Sta...
<ul><li>The United States spends more than any other country per point on PISA   Mathematics.   The US spends  $165  per s...
 
Of 29 OECD Countries, U.S.A. Ranked 24 th <ul><li>PISA 2003 Results, OECD </li></ul>U.S.A.
U.S. Ranks Low in the Percent of Students in the Highest Achievement Level (Level 6)  in Math Source : Organization for Ec...
U.S. Ranks 23 rd  out of 29 OECD Countries in the Math Achievement of the Highest-Performing Students* * Students at the 9...
U.S. Ranks 23 rd  out of 29 OECD Countries in the Math Achievement of High-SES Students Source : Organization for Economic...
PISA 2006 Science   Of 30 OECD Countries, U.S.A. Ranked 21 st U.S.A. Source : NCES, PISA 2006 Results ,  http://nces.ed.go...
Immigrants?  The U.S.A. does have a larger percentage of immigrants and children of immigrants than most OECD countries So...
But ranks 21 st  out of 30 OECD countries when only taking into account native student* scores PISA 2006 Science U.S.A. * ...
U.S.A. Ranks 24 th  Out of 29 OECD Countries  in Problem-Solving <ul><li>PISA 2003 Results, OECD </li></ul>U.S.A.
PISA 2003: Gaps in Performance Of U.S.15 Year-Olds Are Among the Largest of OECD Countries * Of 29 OECD   countries, based...
Among OECD Countries, U.S.A. has the 4 th  Largest Gap Between High-SES and Low-SES Students <ul><li>PISA 2006 Results, OE...
National Inequities in State and Local Revenue Per Student <ul><li>Education Trust analyses based on U.S. Department of Ed...
<ul><li>Neighboring states with  similar overall scores  can have large achievement   gap differences. </li></ul>
 
<ul><li>China has a long history of standardized tests, beginning with the ancient imperial exams initiated during the Sui...
Average Number of Instructional Days in School Year By Country International Average = 193 School Days/Year SOURCE:  Trend...
International Average = 1,027 Instructional Hours/Year Average Number of Hours of Instruction Per Year By Country SOURCE: ...
Total Time in School vs. Instructional Time (Hours) By Country 536 379 375 368 318 292 283 251 242 SOURCE:  Trends in Inte...
How Students Spend Their Time Out of School  on a Typical School Day  (Hours Per Day, Grade 8) By Country Total  Non-Schoo...
Average Number of Hours of Extra School Instruction Per Day By Country SOURCE:  Secondary Analysis of TIMSS Data 2002
 
The Widget Effect <ul><li>“ When it comes to measuring instructional performance,  current policies and systems overlook s...
<ul><li>“ Without the right people standing in front of the classroom, school reform is a futile exercise.”  </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>In Dallas, students who had three consecutive years of effective teachers improved their math test scores by 21 po...
<ul><li>“ The single most important factor in determining  student achievement is not the color of their skin or where the...
<ul><li>For some children, the quality of their teacher is the difference between success and failure.  </li></ul><ul><li>...
National Center for Education Statistics
If we are to deliver on the promise of better use of learning time, we must have the highest quality teachers and school l...
 
More Classes in High-Poverty, High-Minority Schools Taught By Out-of-Field Teachers *Teachers lacking a college major or m...
Poor and Minority Students Get More Inexperienced* Teachers Source: National Center for Education Statistics, “Monitoring ...
Math Classes at High-Poverty and High- Minority Schools More Likely to be Taught by Out of Field* Teachers Note: High Pove...
Students at High-Minority Schools More Likely to Be Taught By Novice* Teachers *Novice teachers are those with three years...
Low-Achieving Students are More Likely to be Assigned to Ineffective Teachers than Effective Teachers Source :  Sitha Babu...
10 Percentile  Point Average Difference for Students who have Top and Bottom Quartile Teachers Source: Gordon, R., Kane, T...
 
<ul><li>There is no “silver bullet” for closing the achievement gap, and any person who tells you differently is speaking ...
<ul><li>Closing the achievement gap in the United States will require a confluence of strategies and an unprecedented leve...
<ul><li>Within the lifetimes of today’s teenagers, two of every five American workers will be black or brown, and the nati...
<ul><li>Different schools have different effects on similar students. Schools matter. They can be a powerful force to addr...
<ul><li>Teacher effectiveness is the most important in-school factor affecting student learning. Good teachers can actuall...
<ul><li>Today we have as much a shortage of places where good teachers want to work as we do a shortage of good teachers. ...
This is not just a teacher problem, it’s a systemic one. But if we organize the public education system around the idea th...
 
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  • In addition, when Richard Ingersoll analyzed the SAS data, he found that these same schls are more likely to have a higher percentage of classes being taught by tchrs without a major or minor in the field for which they are teaching. The results are particularly striking in high poverty schls where there is a difference of 13 percentage points. Definitions High Poverty-A school where 50% or more of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch Low-poverty-A school where 15% or fewer of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch High-minority-A school where 50% or more of the students are nonwhite. Low-minority-A school where 15% or fewer of the students are nonwhite.
  • Schls with higher proportions of poor and minority students have more inexperienced tchrs. If we take a look at the graph, we see that in high poverty schls almost double the amount of tchrs have less than three years of experience. The same is also true for high minority schls. High poverty-top quartile of schools with students eligible for free/reduced price lunch. Low poverty-bottom quartile of schools with students eligible for free/reduced price lunch. High minority-top quartile; those schools with the highest concentrations of minority students. Low minority-bottom quartile of schools with the lowest concentrations of minority students
  • Data is from the 2003-2004 Schools &amp; Staffing Survey (SASS) SASS surveys a nationally representative sample of teachers. Analysis examines out-of-field teaching in core academic classes at secondary &amp; middle school: Core academic classes are English, math, social studies and science. “ Out-of-field” is defined as a teacher lacking both an in-field regular certification and a major in the subject of the classes she/he was assigned to teach Secondary classes include departmentalized classes in grades 7-12. Middle grades include 5-8. Only teachers assigned to departmentalized classes count towards middle grades.
  • Data is from the 2003-2004 Schools &amp; Staffing Survey (SASS) SASS surveys a nationally representative sample of teachers. Analysis examines out-of-field teaching in core academic classes at secondary &amp; middle school: Core academic classes are English, math, social studies and science. “ Out-of-field” is defined as a teacher lacking both an in-field regular certification and a major in the subject of the classes she/he was assigned to teach Secondary classes include departmentalized classes in grades 7-12. Middle grades include 5-8. Only teachers assigned to departmentalized classes count towards middle grades.
  • Another set of researchers in Dallas TX found that students with a previous history of low-achievement were more likely to be assigned to ineffective tchrs. Over all three grades we see more low achievers being assigned to ineffective tchrs and in 6th grade the difference is remarkable with 125 more students assigned to ineffective tchrs.
  • P 9 The means for the bottom quartile and the top quartile.
  • Bridging the Achievement Gap - The Need for Change in American Public Education

    1. 1. Bridging The Achievement Gap A Need for Change in American Public Education Christin Siller
    2. 2. What is the Achievement Gap and Why Should I Care? <ul><li>The Achievement Gap is the “the difference in academic performance between different ethnic groups.” </li></ul><ul><li>USDE </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>By 4th grade, Black and Latino students are on average nearly 3 years behind their White and Asian counterparts. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nation’s Report Card, The National Center for Education Statistics </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Barely half of African-American and Latino students graduate from high school, with African American students graduating at 51%, Latinos at 55%, and their white counterparts at 76%. </li></ul><ul><li>Education Equality Project </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Only 9% of students in Tier 1 (146 most selective) colleges were from the bottom half of the income distribution. </li></ul><ul><li>Education Equality Project </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>70% of people in top 10% income bracket have at least a bachelor’s degree. </li></ul><ul><li>Education Equality Project </li></ul>
    7. 7. Hispanic Students <ul><li>20.4% of enrolled students </li></ul><ul><li>13.7% of students receiving a high school diploma </li></ul><ul><li>12.8% of students in Gifted and Talented programs </li></ul><ul><li>11.5% of students enrolled in an AP math course </li></ul><ul><li>12.0% of students enrolled in an AP science course </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of Education’s 2006 Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC) </li></ul>
    8. 8. African American Students <ul><li>13.4% of graduating seniors in U.S. public schools </li></ul><ul><li>7.9% of students enrolled in Advanced Placement courses </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of Education’s 2006 Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC) </li></ul>
    9. 9. African American Students <ul><li>Among Black children whose parents are high-school dropouts; half of those children had a father in prison compared with one in 14 white children with dropout parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Parental Imprisonment, the Prison boom, and the Concentration of Childhood Disadvantage Demography - Volume 46, Number 2, May 2009, pp. 265 - 280. </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Black and Latino students are 2-3 times more likely to have below basic skills in reading and math. </li></ul><ul><li>NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Summary Data Tables </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Graduation Rates </li></ul><ul><li>Latinos – 55% </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans - 51% </li></ul><ul><li>Whites - 76% </li></ul><ul><li>Alliance for Excellent Education. “Understanding High School Graduation Rates in the United States.” (2008) </li></ul>
    12. 12. African American, Latino & Native American high school graduates are less likely to have been enrolled in a full college prep track percent in college prep Source : Jay P. Greene, Public High School Graduation and College Readiness Rates in the United States, Manhattan Institute, September 2003. Table 8. 2001 high school graduates with college-prep curriculum. Full College Prep track is defined as at least: 4 years of English, 3 years of math, 2 years of natural science, 2 years of social science and 2 years of foreign language
    13. 13. African American and Latino 17 Year-Olds Do Math at Same Levels As White 13 Year-Olds Source : National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress Note: Long-Term Trends NAEP
    14. 14. African American and Latino 17 Year-Olds Read at Same Levels As White 13 Year-Olds Source : National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress Note: Long-Term Trends NAEP
    15. 15. 12 Grade Math: Results Mostly Flat Gaps Same or Widening <ul><li>NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES </li></ul>*Denotes previous assessment format
    16. 16. 12 th Grade Reading: No Progress, Gaps Wider than 1988 <ul><li>NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES </li></ul>*Denotes previous assessment format
    17. 17. 12 Grade Math: Results Mostly Flat Gaps Same or Widening <ul><li>NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES </li></ul>*Denotes previous assessment format
    18. 18. <ul><li>One in nine black men between 20-34 are incarcerated; a black male is more likely to be in prison than to have a post-graduate degree. </li></ul><ul><li>Warren, Jenifer, et al. “One in 100: Behind Bars in America.” Pew Center on the States (2008) </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>On average, a high school graduate earns $600,000 more during his/her lifetime than a dropout. </li></ul><ul><li>Current Population Survey, U.S. Census Bureau and Bureau of Labor Statistics  </li></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>Someone with a college degree makes 73% more over a lifetime than someone with only a high school degree. </li></ul><ul><li>NELS 1988: Baum and Payea, “Education Pays: the Benefits of Higher Education for Individuals and Society,” (2004), The College Board </li></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>A 10% increase in high school graduation rates would reduce murder rates by 20%. </li></ul><ul><li>Lochner, Lance and Enrico Moretti. “The Effect of Education on Crime: Evidence from Prison Inmates, Arrests, and Self-Reports.” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Papers (2001) #8605 </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>High school graduates live up to 7 years longer than high school dropouts. </li></ul><ul><li>Belfield, Clive and Henry M. Levins, eds. The Price we Pay. Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 2007 </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>A high school dropout is 5-8 times more likely to be incarcerated than a college graduate. </li></ul><ul><li>Enrico Moretti, “Crime and the Costs of Criminal Justice.” The Price We Pay, 2007; Pew Center on the States, “One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008” </li></ul>
    24. 24. Of Every 100 White Kindergartners: (25-to 29-Year-Olds) Source : US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. March Current Population Surveys, 1971-2008, in The Condition of Education 2009. http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/2009/pdf/23_2009.pdf
    25. 25. Of Every 100 African American Kindergartners: (25-to 29-Year-Olds) Source : US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. March Current Population Surveys, 1971-2008, in The Condition of Education 2009. http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/2009/pdf/23_2009.pdf
    26. 26. Of Every 100 Latino Kindergartners : (25-to 29-Year-Olds) Source : US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. March Current Population Surveys, 1971-2008, in The Condition of Education 2009. http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/2009/pdf/23_2009.pdf
    27. 27. Of Every 100 American Indian/Alaskan Native Kindergartners: (25 Years Old and Older) Source: U.S. Census Bureau, We the People: American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States . Data source: Census 2000, www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/race/censr-28.pdf
    28. 28. College Graduates by Age 24 Source: Tom Mortenson, Postsecondary Educational Opportunity..
    29. 29. <ul><li>Dropouts in 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>33% overall dropout rate </li></ul><ul><li>29% female </li></ul><ul><li>36% males </li></ul><ul><li>24% Caucasians </li></ul><ul><li>42% Hispanic </li></ul><ul><li>38% African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>13% Asian Americans </li></ul>
    30. 30. 2008 NAEP vs. The TAKS <ul><li>NAEP 4 th Graders in Reading – 29% </li></ul><ul><li>Reading TAKS – 79 </li></ul><ul><li>NAEP Ranked #33 </li></ul><ul><li>NAEP 4 th Graders in Math 40% </li></ul><ul><li>TAKS 81% </li></ul><ul><li>NAEP Rank #13 </li></ul>
    31. 31. 2008 NAEP vs. The TAKS <ul><li>NAEP 8 th Graders in Reading 26% </li></ul><ul><li>8 th Grade Reading TAKS 83% </li></ul><ul><li>NAEP Ranked #34 </li></ul><ul><li>NAEP 8 th Graders in Math 31% </li></ul><ul><li>8 th Grade Math TAKS 61% </li></ul><ul><li>NAEP Ranked #20 </li></ul>
    32. 32. Economic Implications <ul><li>If the United States had in recent years closed the gap between its educational achievement levels and those of better-performing nations such as Finland and Korea, GDP in 2008 could have been $1.3 trillion to $2.3 trillion higher. This represents 9 to 16 percent of GDP. </li></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><li>If the gap between black and Latino student performance and white student performance had been similarly narrowed, GDP in 2008 would have been between $310 billion and $525 billion higher , or 2 to 4 percent of GDP. The magnitude of this impact will rise in the years ahead as demographic shifts result in blacks and Latinos becoming a larger proportion of the population and workforce. </li></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><li>If the gap between low-income students and the rest had been similarly narrowed, GDP in 2008 would have been $400 billion to $670 billion higher , or 3 to 5 percent of GDP. </li></ul>
    35. 35. <ul><li>If the gap between America’s low-performing states and the rest had been similarly narrowed, GDP in 2008 would have been $425 billion to $700 billion higher , or 3 to 5 percent of GDP. </li></ul>
    36. 36. <ul><li>Put differently, the persistence of these educational achievement gaps imposes on the United States the economic equivalent of a permanent national recession. </li></ul>
    37. 38. <ul><li>Discrimination is not limited to race. The line that separates the well-educated from the poorly educated is the harshest fault line of all. </li></ul><ul><li>Education Commission of the States </li></ul>
    38. 39. <ul><li>American education cannot-as Detroit discovered – continue to rely on traditional models. </li></ul><ul><li>– David Matthews, Kettering Foundation president. </li></ul>
    39. 40. <ul><li>America’s education system is in the sort of crisis that Detroit’s car industry faced in the 1970’s before Japanese imports almost destroyed it in the 1980’s. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-The Economist </li></ul>
    40. 41. <ul><li>As recently as 1995 America was tied for first in college graduation rates; by 2006 this ranking had dropped to 14th. </li></ul>
    41. 42. <ul><li>The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a respected international comparison of 15-year-olds by the OECD that measures “real-world” (applied) learning and problem-solving ability. In 2006 the United States ranked 25th of 30 nations in math and 24th of 30 in science. </li></ul>
    42. 44. PISA Performance U.S.A. Ranks Near Bottom, Has Fallen Since 2000 Rankings are for the 26 OECD countries participating in PISA in 2000, 2003, and 2006. Source : Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2006 Results , http://www.oecd.org/ Subject 2000 Rank (out of 26) Mathematics 17 th Science 13 th 2003 Rank (out of 26) 22 nd Tied for 17 th 2006 Rank (out of 26) 22 nd 19 th
    43. 45. <ul><li>This ranking signals the striking erosion of America’s onetime leadership in education. Forty years ago the United States was a leader in high school graduation rates; today it ranks 18th out of 24 industrialized nations. </li></ul>
    44. 46. <ul><li>17 countries have higher average test scores and lower income-based inequality than the United States. </li></ul>
    45. 49. <ul><li>The United States has among the smallest proportion of 15-year-olds performing at the highest levels of proficiency in math. Korea, Switzerland, Belgium, Finland, and the Czech Republic have at least five times the proportion of top performers as the United States. </li></ul>
    46. 50. <ul><li>“ Our nation’s long-term ability to succeed in exporting to the growing global marketplace hinges on the abilities of today’s students.” </li></ul><ul><li>J. Willard Marriott, Chairman & CEO </li></ul><ul><li>Marriott International, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    47. 51. <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The gap between students from rich and poor families is much more pronounced in the United States than in other OECD nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning for Tomorrow’s World –PISA 2003; McKinsey Analysis </li></ul>
    48. 52. <ul><li>The United States spends more than any other country per point on PISA Mathematics. The US spends $165 per student to get one point on the PISA test, about 60% more than the OECD average . </li></ul>
    49. 54. Of 29 OECD Countries, U.S.A. Ranked 24 th <ul><li>PISA 2003 Results, OECD </li></ul>U.S.A.
    50. 55. U.S. Ranks Low in the Percent of Students in the Highest Achievement Level (Level 6) in Math Source : Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results , data available at http:// www.oecd.org /
    51. 56. U.S. Ranks 23 rd out of 29 OECD Countries in the Math Achievement of the Highest-Performing Students* * Students at the 95 th Percentile Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results , data available at http:// www.oecd.org /
    52. 57. U.S. Ranks 23 rd out of 29 OECD Countries in the Math Achievement of High-SES Students Source : Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results , data available at http:// www.oecd.org /
    53. 58. PISA 2006 Science Of 30 OECD Countries, U.S.A. Ranked 21 st U.S.A. Source : NCES, PISA 2006 Results , http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pisa/ Higher than U.S. average Not measurably different from U.S. average Lower than U.S. average
    54. 59. Immigrants? The U.S.A. does have a larger percentage of immigrants and children of immigrants than most OECD countries Source : OECD, PISA 2006 Results , table 4.2c, http://www.oecd.org/ U.S.A.
    55. 60. But ranks 21 st out of 30 OECD countries when only taking into account native student* scores PISA 2006 Science U.S.A. * Students born in the country of assessment with at least one parent born in the same country Source : OECD, PISA 2006 Results , table 4.2c, http://www.oecd.org/
    56. 61. U.S.A. Ranks 24 th Out of 29 OECD Countries in Problem-Solving <ul><li>PISA 2003 Results, OECD </li></ul>U.S.A.
    57. 62. PISA 2003: Gaps in Performance Of U.S.15 Year-Olds Are Among the Largest of OECD Countries * Of 29 OECD countries, based on scores of students at the 5 th and 95 th percentiles. Source : Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results , data available at http:// www.oecd.org /
    58. 63. Among OECD Countries, U.S.A. has the 4 th Largest Gap Between High-SES and Low-SES Students <ul><li>PISA 2006 Results, OECD, table 4.8b </li></ul>U.S.A.
    59. 64. National Inequities in State and Local Revenue Per Student <ul><li>Education Trust analyses based on U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Census Bureau data for the 2005-06 school year. </li></ul>Gap High Poverty vs. Low Poverty Districts – $773 per student High Minority vs. Low Minority Districts – $1,122 per student
    60. 65. <ul><li>Neighboring states with similar overall scores can have large achievement gap differences. </li></ul>
    61. 67. <ul><li>China has a long history of standardized tests, beginning with the ancient imperial exams initiated during the Sui Dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>The Globalist China Vs. America? </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Strategies in the 21st Century   By Anna Greenspan | </li></ul>
    62. 68. Average Number of Instructional Days in School Year By Country International Average = 193 School Days/Year SOURCE: Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003
    63. 69. International Average = 1,027 Instructional Hours/Year Average Number of Hours of Instruction Per Year By Country SOURCE: Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003
    64. 70. Total Time in School vs. Instructional Time (Hours) By Country 536 379 375 368 318 292 283 251 242 SOURCE: Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 NOTE: Numbers in bold represent differential
    65. 71. How Students Spend Their Time Out of School on a Typical School Day (Hours Per Day, Grade 8) By Country Total Non-School Time 10.6 10.1 11.8 10.7 9.6 10.1 8.7 8.8 8.8 SOURCE: Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003
    66. 72. Average Number of Hours of Extra School Instruction Per Day By Country SOURCE: Secondary Analysis of TIMSS Data 2002
    67. 74. The Widget Effect <ul><li>“ When it comes to measuring instructional performance, current policies and systems overlook significant differences between teachers. There is little or no differentiation of excellent teaching from good, good from fair, or fair from poor. This is the Widget Effect: a tendency to treat all teachers as roughly interchangeable, even when their teaching is quite variable. Consequently, teachers are not developed as professionals with individual strengths and capabilities, and poor performance is rarely identified or addressed.” </li></ul><ul><li>The New Teacher Project, 2009 </li></ul>
    68. 75. <ul><li>“ Without the right people standing in front of the classroom, school reform is a futile exercise.” </li></ul><ul><li>Hamilton Project at the Brookings Institution </li></ul>
    69. 76. <ul><li>In Dallas, students who had three consecutive years of effective teachers improved their math test scores by 21 points, students with three years of ineffective teachers fell 30 points behind. </li></ul><ul><li>Education Equality Project </li></ul>
    70. 77. <ul><li>“ The single most important factor in determining student achievement is not the color of their skin or where they come from. It’s not who their parents are or how much money they have-it’s who their teacher is.” </li></ul><ul><li>President Obama </li></ul>
    71. 78. <ul><li>For some children, the quality of their teacher is the difference between success and failure. </li></ul><ul><li>Diane Ravitch </li></ul>
    72. 79. National Center for Education Statistics
    73. 80. If we are to deliver on the promise of better use of learning time, we must have the highest quality teachers and school leaders. AMERICAN PROGRESS
    74. 82. More Classes in High-Poverty, High-Minority Schools Taught By Out-of-Field Teachers *Teachers lacking a college major or minor in the field. Data for secondary-level core academic classes. Source: Richard M. Ingersoll, University of Pennsylvania. Original analysis for the Ed Trust of 1999-2000 Schools and Staffing Survey . High poverty Low poverty High minority Low minority Note: High Poverty school-50% or more of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch. Low-poverty school -15% or fewer of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch. High-minority school - 50% or more of the students are nonwhite. Low-minority school- 15% or fewer of the students are nonwhite.
    75. 83. Poor and Minority Students Get More Inexperienced* Teachers Source: National Center for Education Statistics, “Monitoring Quality: An Indicators Report,” December 2000. *Teachers with 3 or fewer years of experience. High poverty Low poverty High minority Low minority Note: High poverty refers to the top quartile of schools with students eligible for free/reduced price lunch. Low poverty-bottom quartile of schools with students eligible for free/reduced price lunch. High minority-top quartile; those schools with the highest concentrations of minority students. Low minority-bottom quartile of schools with the lowest concentrations of minority students
    76. 84. Math Classes at High-Poverty and High- Minority Schools More Likely to be Taught by Out of Field* Teachers Note: High Poverty school-75% or more of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch. Low-poverty school -15% or fewer of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch. High minority school-75% or more of the students are Black, Hispanic, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian or Pacific Islander. Low-minority school -10% or fewer of the students are non-White students. *Teachers with neither certification nor major. Data for secondary-level core academic classes (Math, Science, Social Studies, English) across USA. Source : Analysis of 2003-2004 Schools and Staffing Survey data by Richard Ingersoll, University of Pennsylvania 2007.
    77. 85. Students at High-Minority Schools More Likely to Be Taught By Novice* Teachers *Novice teachers are those with three years or fewer experience. Source : Analysis of 2003-2004 Schools and Staffing Survey data by Richard Ingersoll, University of Pennsylvania 2007. Note: High minority school-75% or more of the students are Black, Hispanic, American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian or Pacific Islander. Low-minority school -10% or fewer of the students are non-White students.
    78. 86. Low-Achieving Students are More Likely to be Assigned to Ineffective Teachers than Effective Teachers Source : Sitha Babu and Robert Mendro, Teacher Accountability: HLM-Based Teacher Effectiveness Indices in the Investigation of Teacher Effects on Student Achievement in a State Assessment Program, AERA Annual Meeting, 2003.
    79. 87. 10 Percentile Point Average Difference for Students who have Top and Bottom Quartile Teachers Source: Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., and Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying Effective teachers Using Performance on the Job. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.
    80. 89. <ul><li>There is no “silver bullet” for closing the achievement gap, and any person who tells you differently is speaking from something more like religious conviction than evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Caroline Hoxby , professor of economics at Stanford and senior fellow at the Hoover Institution </li></ul>
    81. 90. <ul><li>Closing the achievement gap in the United States will require a confluence of strategies and an unprecedented level of energy and focus, both of which are key to maintaining American prosperity in an increasingly Darwinian global economy. </li></ul>American Association of State Colleges and Universities
    82. 91. <ul><li>Within the lifetimes of today’s teenagers, two of every five American workers will be black or brown, and the nation’s economic and social future will depend critically on their skills. </li></ul>Richard J. Murnane , professor of education and society at Harvard:
    83. 92. <ul><li>Different schools have different effects on similar students. Schools matter. They can be a powerful force to address the gap, and demographics are not destiny for students. </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Rotherham , co-director of Education Sector and a member of Virginia’s Board of Education. </li></ul>
    84. 93. <ul><li>Teacher effectiveness is the most important in-school factor affecting student learning. Good teachers can actually close or eliminate the gaps in achievement on standardized tests that separate white and minority students. </li></ul>William Sanders and Eric Hanushek, Freakonomics
    85. 94. <ul><li>Today we have as much a shortage of places where good teachers want to work as we do a shortage of good teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>Reed Hastings California Board of Education president and Netflix founder </li></ul>
    86. 95. This is not just a teacher problem, it’s a systemic one. But if we organize the public education system around the idea that teachers and schools matter to student outcomes — instead of implicitly around the idea that they don’t — we’ll see results and gap closing. Hastings

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