Transcript of "Land livelihoods convergence cysd_22 nov 2011"
22 Nov 2011 Land for the Landless and Livelihoods Convergence Sibabrata Choudhury IDENTIFYING STRATEGIES AND APPROACH FORSELECTED DEVELOPMENT SECTORS IN THE 12TH FIVE YEAR PLAN OF ODISHA
Content• Strong correlation between landlessness, poverty and food security• 11th & 12th FYPs : reference to land tenure, housing and habitat development, tribal land rights• State Initiatives: – Land allocation under Vasundhara Scheme – Distribution of house-sites for the homesteadless – Rural housing – IAY and Mo Kudia• Suggested provisions in 12th FYP to address landlessness and livelihoods convergence 2
Land rights and poverty relations Footer Text 3
Strong co-relation between landlessness and poverty“Secure access to land and other natural resources is a direct factorin the alleviation of hunger and rural poverty. Rural landlessness isoften the best predictor of poverty and hunger: the poorest areusually landless or land-poor. Inadequate rights of access to land andother natural resources, and insecure tenure of those rights, oftenresult in extreme poverty and hunger.” (http://www.fao.org/nr/tenure/lt-home/en/)“Millions of poor rural people depend on farming for their livelihoods,but they control very little land…redistributing land to small scalefarmers can do much to reduce their poverty…land security canmean food security” (http://www.ifad.org/media/pack/land.htm) Footer Text 4
Secure land rights fundamental for developmentSecure, long-term rights to land are fundamental for ruraldevelopment• Secure land rights allow mid- to long-term improvements on the land (multi-year investment horizon)• Inequitable land distribution and land rights environment precursor to social unrest and political instabilityFor small holder farmers and near-landless groups, homestead plotscan be effective for:• Access to diversified high-value outputs (e.g., vegetables, fruit trees, animal husbandry)• Improving family nutrition (including child nutrition)• Production/income controlled by women to meet basic needs Footer Text 5
Secure land rights lead to several benefits…• Secured rights over Social and political land triggers number recognition of benefits Household food – Increased access to security and economic gains government services Homestead – Access to credit development – Home-based food Government extension services production – Improved family Social security nutrition – Definite economic Land allocation and social benefits 6
Land allocation and livelihoods convergence: Investment vs. returns• Land allocation – homesteads and farm land Investments• Capacity building on organic gardening, vermi-compost, irrigation etc.• Vegetable mini-kit, seedlings, etc. for home garden and agriculture development• Financial assistance for housing• Linkage with MGNREGS – village road, farm pond, land development, etc. Returns Increased investments on Improved homesteads household Savings on account nutrition leading to of money that improved would have been attendance in Vegetable schools production and spent on consumption vegetables and health expenses 7
Land tenure, housing, habitat development: Planning Commission Five Year Plans Initiatives in Odisha Footer Text 8
Land rights, housing and habitat development in FYPWorking group on land relations (11th FYP) – 10-15 cents of land each for all landless families with no homestead landWorking group on rural housing (11th FYP) – ‘Shelter for all’ to be achieved through ensuring homestead land availability for all within the 11th Plan in a phased manner – Rural housing and habitat policyMid term appraisal of 11th FYP (2010) – Quality of housing - inadequate unit cost – Technical inputs and support – Habitat development approachAP to 12th FYP – for faster, more inclusive and sustainable growth and targetingGDP growth of 9 to 9.5% – Special focus on vulnerable groups and backward regions – Tenancy reforms and land rights for tribals Footer Text 9
Landlessness & interventions in Odisha• 2.49 lakh homesteadless and 4.45 lakh landless households identified in an enumeration in 2004-05• Vasundhara scheme launched in 2005-06 to provide homestead land upto 4 cents (now 10) to homesteadless families• 2.75 lakh families allotted homestead land between 2005-06 and 2010-11 (Revenue and Disaster Management Deptt.)• Implementation challenges (assessment study done by RDI in 88 villages across 10 districts during 2009-10) – Patta without identification, demarcation and possession – Allotted land far from habitation – About 40% of households did not have secured rights over homestead land – Capacity gaps at different levels 10
Rural Housing Programme in Odisha• IAY & Mo Kudia (special IAY & MK: Targets for the year programme for genuinely poor) 350000• Unfulfilled targets vs. unfulfilled 300000 demands• IAY without land and land 250000 without IAY 200000• Technical assistance 150000• 1 or 2 allotments per village in a 100000 year is not proving efficient• “A very large population (80%) in 50000 rural Odisha is without pucca 0 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 houses.” (Review of implementation of flagship schemes and programmes in Odisha, Planning Commission, Oct 2009) IAY MK 11
Tenancy reforms and agriculture impacts• Prevalence of concealed tenancy• Tenancy reforms (recognition of tenancy) – Protect share croppers rights (small and marginal farmers) – Sufficient protection to land owners so as to avoid mass eviction• Impacts and possibilities – Access to institutional credit – Insurance against crop damage and govt. support – Reduction in fallow period and increase in agriculture productivity – Effects on distress migration 12
Key areas of intervention in 12FYP: Land allocation to the homesteadless and landless Agriculture development and Livelihoods Convergence Footer Text 13
Local capacity model for allocating land to the landless• Local capacity model to provide additional capacity to field level revenue officials• Being adopted in over 1000 villages in 7 districts• Key components of local capacity model – Local facilitation through Community Resource Persons – Capacity building and facilitation – Identification of the landless including vulnerable women – Time-bound process (land allocation takes 6-8 months) 14
Local capacity model for land allocation• CRPs are being employed to identify agriculture landlessness and forestland• CRPs can also be employed in pending land surveys• CRPs can also be used for post land allocation – livelihoods convergence• Government need to focus on tenancy reforms through protection of sharecroppers’ rights• Amendment of relevant laws (OGLS)• Government may consider extension of the provisions of FRA to revenue land – settling current occupations – legal reforms for objectionable land Footer Text 15
Government provisions under current context• Allocation of land to the landless – Circulars on enumeration of homesteadlessness (3rd May) and landlessness (13th June)• Homestead scheme (Govt. of India) since Aug. 2009 – Housesite allocation through regularization, allotment of govt. land, purchase or acquisition – Additional funds under IAY to the extent households are allotted house-sites• Backyard planation and homestead garden – Seedling distributed for backyard plantation – Vegetable seed mini kit – Plantation – Vermicomposting unit 16
Agriculture development and livelihoods convergence• Different programs for the poor are implemented in isolation by different departments resulting in dispersed targeting and diffused impacts• Convergence of government schemes for landless poor – Leveraging and dovetailing of existing programs (backyard plantation, vegetable mini-kit, IAY, etc.) for beneficiaries of land allocation…harmonisation of eligibility criteria• Land allocation as an entry point activity in all livelihoods and poverty alleviation programmes – Focus on watershed projects/livelihoods programmes 17
Thanks for your kind attention… Footer Text 18
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