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[Day 2] Center Presentation: ICRAF

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Presented by Meshack Nyabenge at the CGIAR-CSI Annual Meeting 2009: Mapping Our Future. March 31 - April 4, 2009, ILRI Campus, Nairobi, Kenya

Presented by Meshack Nyabenge at the CGIAR-CSI Annual Meeting 2009: Mapping Our Future. March 31 - April 4, 2009, ILRI Campus, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • 1. Role GIS Unit World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Research and Development Mr. Meshack Nyabenge, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) P. O Box 30667 00100 Nairobi, Kenya, E-mail: m.nyabenge@cgiar.org
  • 2. Content Introduction  GIS services in research and development domains  Targeting biofuel investment in Eastern Africa (Kenya)  • Pro-poor Rewards for Environmental Services in Africa (PRESA) Scaling up of Fardherdia Albida in cereal growing areas in E.  Africa Rainwater harvesting in Africa and selected 11 countries  Potential vegetation mapping in Eastern Africa  ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 3. Introduction • Trees play a crucial role in almost all terrestrial ecosystems and provide a range of products and services to rural and urban people. Fodder Fertilizer Income Medicine Soil Erosion protection Timber • As natural vegetation is cleared for agriculture and other types of development, the benefits that trees provide are best sustained by integrating trees into agriculturally productive landscapes — a practice known as agroforestry. ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 4. The roles GIS unit are to provide:- (a) the global coordination of spatial analysis in ICRAF (b) spatial analysis to ICRAF ECA regional office at cost recovery approach, (c) linkages to other GIS user groups within regional offices. • These support services present myriads challenges that the unit has to address within its mandated roles of establishing rich data bases, hosting both specific and general agroforestry data, acquisition different of GIS and remote sensing software, and continuous learning of new methods and tools in GIS analysis remains the keys to success. ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 5. Targeting biofuel investment in Eastern Africa (Kenya) • The current debate on climate change and rising oil price has greatly increased the interest in research and development in renewal energy, such as biofuels. • A number of industrialized and developing countries are seeking to promote biofuels, as away of reducing fossils fuel consumption and mitigating the adverse effects of climate change at the same time. • Biofuels are liquids, solids or gaseous energy sources derived from renewable biomass (GTZ & GOK, 2008). ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 6. • As global oil consumption is projected to increase by 36% by 2030 and African countries’ consumption doubled, the scramble for increasingly limited supply of oil, price and availability of fuel will become ever more challenging issues (US Department of Energy, 2007). This has made many countries to resort to biofuel as a part of solution to emerging fuels problems. • Like other counties, Eastern Africa have no proven oil reserve, but boast of suitable climate conditions for growing biofuel crops, which could limit the shock of high oil prices by developing its own supply of domestically, produced biofuels. • The number of private sectors and government agencies involved biofuel investments in these countries indicate potential and goodwill in adopting biofuel production within the eastern Africa region. ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 7. • In 2006/7, ICRAF GIS unit used Bolean modeling approach to produce Jatropha curcas suitability map of Kenya for Vanilla Foundation, an NGO working on promotion of biofuel production and development. • The resultant map created a lot enthusiasm within private investors with more requests coming to the ICRAF GIS unit to map suitability at districts and project scale levels. • In November, 2007, GTZ, through Endelevu Energy, a consultant firm also commissioned ICRAF GIS Unit to produce biofuel suitability maps for 11 biodiesel and bioethonal feedstocks in Kenya, dabbed “A Roadmap to Biofuel in Kenya” (GTZ & GOK, 2008). • “A Roadmap to Biofuel in Kenya” did not only produce suitability map for each biofuel feedstock, but also quantified feedstock suitability within the arable and non-arable areas, food and cash crop growing areas, and excluded gazetted areas. ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 8. Jatropha Suitability maps of Kenya Suitability outside Suitability within Suitability with food gazetted areas arable and non-arable and cash crop areas areas ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 9. • GTZ has funding this work to cover Ethiopia, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. • Further funding from GTZ to including socio-economic variable for investment purpose. This process will involve use Multi- Criteria Evaluation to target specific areas in Kenya for scaling-up biofuel activities ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 10. Targeting jatropha processing sites locations from MCE product ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 11. Pro-poor Rewards for Environmental Services in Africa (PRESA). Key concepts of PRESA Definition of rewards for environmental services: • realistic, voluntary, and conditional mechanisms for rewarding ecosystem stewards for legitimate actions foregone or positive actions undertaken beyond social expectations. ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 12. PRESA Goal: smallholder farmers and residents living in the highlands of East and West Africa benefit from fair and effective agreements between stewards and beneficiaries of ecosystem services. Objectives: 1. Foster workable environmental service agreements. 2. Catalyze policy support and private- sector participation in environmental service agreements 3. Community of Practice: Provide support to researchers, NGOs and government agencies interested in pro- poor rewards for environmental services in Africa ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 13. Sites Characteristics of PRESA sites • Fragile eco-systems • Reported conflicts in use of environmental services • Over exploitation of ES leading degradation. ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 14. Shamba system fields Sasumua Reservoir, Kenya ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 15. Sasumua Watershed • Located in Nyandarua South District, Central Kenya. • Consists of three sub-watershed Sasumua, Chania, Kiburu. • Provide more than a third of drinking water for City of Nairobi. • Located in agricultural area, forest reserve and Aberedare National Park- presenting a fragile-ecosystem, source conflict, and over exploitation of environmental services. ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 16. What so far has been done in Sasumua? Adopt the concept and framework of Pro- poor Rewards for Environmental Services in Africa. • Awareness creation through several meeting with communities and stakeholders. • Scientific inventory and analysis of environmental services (soil, water, landuse, land tenure, environmental audit) • Involvement of community and stakeholder during data collection and interpretation supported by community-based knowledge. • Stakeholder workshop for reporting and calibrating scientific findings and identification keys development issues for sustainable management of Sasumua system ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 17. Soil: Assessment of Land Degradation • Using Soil Health Surveillance Protocol developed by ICRAF scientists, the following sites were identified as areas with different erosion risk ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 18. Hydrological Modeling and Water Quality Assessment • Water quality measurements at selected sampling points during dry and wet season. • Watershed modeling using Soil and Water Assessment Tool, (SWAT) a watershed scale model developed in the USA (Neitsch et. Al, 2002). Strategies for reducing Sources of Sediment erosion and sedimentation • Best management practices on • Mingutii subcatchment both agricultural land from the cropped land and – Grassed waterways stream corridor • Stream bank stabilization and • protection Little Sasumua subcatchment – Riparian buffer strips (40% cropped land, 60% forest) • Road drainage • Roads, paths, cattle tracks • Drainage of built-up areas: contribute substantial sediment Njabini, Kwa Haraka, Githioro, Kanyenya-ini • Sediment traps ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 19. Water Yield 1 2 # 3 Flow % Mean Flow m3/s # 4 5 Sasumua River 66 1.72 15 7 Chania River 21 0.54 8 13 6 10 Kiburu 13 0.33 14 # 17 # # 9 12 11 # 16 30 19 18 # # # # 22 Kiburu River, # 28 13 % 31 26 # 25 21 # # 32 23# Chania River, # 34 & [ % 20 27 # 21 % ## # # 24 29 33 38 # # Sasumua # 36 River, 67 % 35 # # 37 ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 20. Landuse Change • To understand long-term utilization of resources, time series (1985-2007) landuse changes from satellite remote sensing images was undertaken. 1995 1985 2000 2007 ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 21. Landuse Change Landcover Change between 1985 and 2007 140 120 100 Agriculture Area (km2) Woodlot 80 Degraded forest 60 Forest Fallow 40 20 0 area1985 area1995 area2000 area2007 Year Drivers of Change • Population increase resulting high intensity in agriculture Land tenure changes. ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009 • Policy (
  • 22. ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 23. Land Tenure Leasehold agricultural land (1964) 1. The land was considered crown land and was allocated to European farmers by the colonial government as large scale commercial farms on 999 year agricultural leases. 2. The total land area in the basin is 5593 hectares and 49% was taken up by the leasehold farms. 3. The population on these farms was low as it often comprised only the settler farmer and his laborers. Entry into the white highlands was restricted and the laborers were not allowed to come with their families. 4. Movement permits were used to regulate the movement into and out of the region by locals. Agricultural activities tended to be expansive rather than intensive due to the large size D Athe O F O R units.Y C E N T R E W O R L of G R farm E S T R ICRAF GIS UNIT Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 24. Land Tenure Post independence freehold agricultural land (2008) 1. The Settlement Fund Trustee (SFT) was set up by the post independence government under the agriculture Act Cap 347, to identify, plan and allocate land to local farmers. 2. The farmers were allocated land and given seed money to set up their farms. They were to pay for the land and the seed money over a period of 25 years after which they obtained freehold titles. 3. The large scale farms were purchased by the government and converted to settlement schemes. The resettlement exercise was started in 1964 and continued into the 1970s. 4. By 1980 most of the prime land had been allocated but due to consistent demand even marginal areas were converted to settlement schemes. In the Sasumua watershed all leasehold farms were converted to ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE settlement schemes. Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 25. Environmental Audit Findings • Persistent grazing along the riparian reserve, which affects groundcover thus protection of the river • Pollution from livestock, especially those grazing along the riparian reserve • Planting of eucalyptus trees in proximity to the riverbanks • Inadequate physical infrastructure, especially heavy reliance on pit latrines and weak solid waste management mechanisms • Weak physical infrastructure as exemplified by lack of land use planning • Weak community participation in natural resource management, local community’s access to water • Reintroduction/illegal farming in the forest • Dwindling water resources against rising demand • Continued rapid growth of urbanisation and intensification of farming will continue to place a lot pressure on the dam. ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 26. Stakeholder Workshop • Presented all scientific findings • Deliberation on keys issue of ES (water, policy, landuse agriculture, community role and other stakeholder) • Explore benefits community can get or continue to enjoy from positive contribution in sustaining Sasumua system. • Way forward. ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 27. Current activity • Scaling up of Fardherdia Albida in cereal growing areas in E. Africa. • The inverse phonological rhythm of Faidherbia albida is important reason for the use in agroforestry systems because of lack of competition between tree and crops. • Due to success story of this tree in Eastern Zambia, increasing maize yield, ICRAF has started looking issues – (a) scaling up – (b) Genetic resources – etc • GIS is quickly needed to provide basic and ecologically-based suitability in Eastern Africa ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 28. Basic Suitability Maps of Faidherbia Albida ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 29. ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009
  • 30. THANKS ICRAF GIS UNIT WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE Meshack Nyabenge April 4, 2009