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Endocrine system


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Chapter 11F Endocrine System Assignment

Chapter 11F Endocrine System Assignment

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  • 1. Endocrine System Chapter 11F By: Candice Sherman
  • 2. Endocrine System
    • Endocrine System is made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones.
    • The endocrine hormones of the regulate the body’s growth, metabolism and sexual development.
    • Major glands are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal body and reproductive organs.
  • 3. Suffixes from Endocrine System
    • - emia
    • Means blood or referring to the presence of a substance in the blood.
    • Examples of –emia
    • Hypoatremia
    • Hyperalemia
    • Hypercalcemia
  • 4. Hyponatremia
    • Your blood level of sodium is abnormally low
    • Can be triggered from excessive water intake during endurance sports
    • Underlying medical condition can be a factor.
    • Depending on the cause simply cutting back on fluids can be a fix
    • Symptoms
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Headache
    • Confusion
    • Fatigue
    • Lethargy
    • Appetite loss
    • Seizures
    • Decreased consciousness or coma
  • 5. Types of Hyponatremia
    • Hypervolemic hyponatremia-excess water dilutes the sodium concentration. May cause low levels of sodium. Can be a result of kidney failure, heart failure or even liver failure
    • Euvolemic hyponatremia-normal levels combined with low sodium levels. Can be a result due to chronic conditions, certain medicines and cancer
    • Hypovolemic hyponatremia-water and sodium levels both are low. May occur when there is a lot of exercising in the heat and not having enough fluids.
  • 6.
    • Causes of Hyponatremia
    • Consuming excessive water during exercise.
    • Hormonal changes due to adrenal gland insufficiency
    • Hormonal changes due to an underactive thyroid
    • Water pills
    • The drug Ecstasy
    • Dehydration
    • Cirrhosis (liver disease)
    • Kidney problems
    • Risk Factors of Hyponatremia
    • Age (low blood sodium is more common in older adults)
    • Diet (if following a low-sodium diet)
    • Intensive physical activities (drinking too much water while running marathons)
    • Climate (new exposure to hot weather causing sodium loss through sweating
  • 7. Hyperalemia
    • Occurs when the level of potassium in your blood is higher than usual.
    • Potassium is a very important nutrient that is critical to the function of the nerves and the muscles especially the muscles in heart.
    • Causes:
    • Acute kidney failure
    • Chronic kidney failure
    • Addison’s disease
    • Heavy drug use
    • Alcoholism
    • Destruction of red blood cells due to injury
    • Type 1 diabetes
  • 8. Symptoms of Hyperkalemia
    • Muscle fatigue
    • Weakness
    • Paralysis
    • Abnormal heart rhythms
    • nausea
  • 9. Hypercalcemia
    • Definition:
    • A condition in which calcium levels in the blood is above normal.
    • Symptoms:
    • Frequent urination
    • Muscle and joint aches
    • Abdominal pain
    • Excessive thirst
    • Loss of appetite
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Constipation
    • Lethargy and fatigue
  • 10. Causes of Hypercalcemia
    • Over activity of parathyroid glands- primary cause in one or more of the parathyroid glands
    • Cancer- certain types of cancer may increase the risk
    • Disease effects- some people that are ill and have to sit or lie down for a great deal of time
    • Medications
    • Supplements- excessive intake of calcium and or vitamin D
    • Dehydration