Endocrine system

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Chapter 11F Endocrine System Assignment

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Endocrine system

  1. 1. Endocrine System Chapter 11F By: Candice Sherman
  2. 2. Endocrine System <ul><li>Endocrine System is made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>The endocrine hormones of the regulate the body’s growth, metabolism and sexual development. </li></ul><ul><li>Major glands are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal body and reproductive organs. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Suffixes from Endocrine System <ul><li>- emia </li></ul><ul><li>Means blood or referring to the presence of a substance in the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of –emia </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoatremia </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperalemia </li></ul><ul><li>Hypercalcemia </li></ul>
  4. 4. Hyponatremia <ul><li>Your blood level of sodium is abnormally low </li></ul><ul><li>Can be triggered from excessive water intake during endurance sports </li></ul><ul><li>Underlying medical condition can be a factor. </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on the cause simply cutting back on fluids can be a fix </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Lethargy </li></ul><ul><li>Appetite loss </li></ul><ul><li>Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased consciousness or coma </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Hyponatremia <ul><li>Hypervolemic hyponatremia-excess water dilutes the sodium concentration. May cause low levels of sodium. Can be a result of kidney failure, heart failure or even liver failure </li></ul><ul><li>Euvolemic hyponatremia-normal levels combined with low sodium levels. Can be a result due to chronic conditions, certain medicines and cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Hypovolemic hyponatremia-water and sodium levels both are low. May occur when there is a lot of exercising in the heat and not having enough fluids. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Causes of Hyponatremia </li></ul><ul><li>Consuming excessive water during exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>Hormonal changes due to adrenal gland insufficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Hormonal changes due to an underactive thyroid </li></ul><ul><li>Water pills </li></ul><ul><li>The drug Ecstasy </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration </li></ul><ul><li>Cirrhosis (liver disease) </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney problems </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Factors of Hyponatremia </li></ul><ul><li>Age (low blood sodium is more common in older adults) </li></ul><ul><li>Diet (if following a low-sodium diet) </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive physical activities (drinking too much water while running marathons) </li></ul><ul><li>Climate (new exposure to hot weather causing sodium loss through sweating </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hyperalemia <ul><li>Occurs when the level of potassium in your blood is higher than usual. </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium is a very important nutrient that is critical to the function of the nerves and the muscles especially the muscles in heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: </li></ul><ul><li>Acute kidney failure </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic kidney failure </li></ul><ul><li>Addison’s disease </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy drug use </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholism </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of red blood cells due to injury </li></ul><ul><li>Type 1 diabetes </li></ul>
  8. 8. Symptoms of Hyperkalemia <ul><li>Muscle fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Paralysis </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal heart rhythms </li></ul><ul><li>nausea </li></ul>
  9. 9. Hypercalcemia <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>A condition in which calcium levels in the blood is above normal. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent urination </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle and joint aches </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal pain </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive thirst </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Constipation </li></ul><ul><li>Lethargy and fatigue </li></ul>
  10. 10. Causes of Hypercalcemia <ul><li>Over activity of parathyroid glands- primary cause in one or more of the parathyroid glands </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer- certain types of cancer may increase the risk </li></ul><ul><li>Disease effects- some people that are ill and have to sit or lie down for a great deal of time </li></ul><ul><li>Medications </li></ul><ul><li>Supplements- excessive intake of calcium and or vitamin D </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration </li></ul>

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