ERGONOMICS

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ERGONOMICS

  1. 1. ASSIGNMENT ON ERGONOMICS .
  2. 2. What Is ERGONOMICS ? ? ? • Ergonomics is derived from two Greek words: ergon, meaning work; and nomoi, meaning natural laws. • Thus ergonomics means the science of work and a person’s relationship to that work. • Ergonomics is the science of making things comfy. It also makes things efficient. • Ergonomists study work, how work is done and how to work better. • Ergonomics is commonly thought of in terms of products. But it can be equally useful in the design of services or processes.
  3. 3. What is comfort ? • Physical comfort : If you do not like to touch an item you won't. If you do not touch it you will not operate it. If you do not operate it, then it is useless. • The utility of an item is the only true measure of the quality of its design. • The mental aspect of comfort in the human-machine interface is found in feedback. What is efficiency? • Efficiency is quite simply making something easier to do. • Reducing the strength required makes a process more physically efficient. • Reducing the number of parts makes repairs more efficient.
  4. 4. Types of ergonomics : • Physical ergonomics: the science of designing user interaction with equipment and workplaces to fit the user. • Cognitive ergonomics is concerned with mental processes, such as perception, memory, reasoning, and motor response, as they affect interactions among humans and other elements of a system. • Organizational ergonomics is concerned with the optimization of socio-technical systems, including their organizational structures, policies, and processes
  5. 5. Principles of ergonomics : 1. Work in Neutral Postures. 2. Reduce Excessive Force. 3. Keep Everything in Easy Reach. 4. Work at Proper Heights. 5. Reduce Excessive Motions. 6. Move, Exercise, and Stretch. 7. Maintain a Comfortable Environment.
  6. 6. Ergonomic injuries : Ergonomic injuries are those injuries caused by the presence of ergonomic risk factors. Ergonomic injuries may be referred to as : • Repetitive Stress Injuries (RSIs), • Repetitive Motion Injuries (RMIs), • Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs), • Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs), or • Cumulative Trauma Injuries (CTIs).
  7. 7. Common causes of MSD : • Repetitive and/or prolonged activities • Awkward postures/positions for an extended time • Static postures • Vibration • High/low Temperatures for an extended time • Forceful exertions
  8. 8. Signs and symptoms of MSD : • Pain in the fingers, wrists, or other parts of the body • Numbness, particularly in the hands or fingers • Swelling, inflammation, or joint stiffness • Loss of muscle function or weakness • Discomfort or pain in the shoulders, neck, or upper or lower back , etc.
  9. 9. Ergonomic controls : • Engineering – Modify the tool or work area design • Administrative – Don’t do one thing too long • Work Practices – Use the right tool
  10. 10. Administrative control : • Employee rotation/job task expansion • Physical adjustments to the work place • Redesign of work methods • Alternative tasks • Breaks Work Practice control : • Safe & proper work techniques & procedures • Training • Physical conditioning period

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