A Brief History of the Internet
Dr. Charles Severance
Clinical Associate Professor
University of Michigan School of Inform...
https://www.coursera.org/course/insidetheinternet
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sYNUcFMCIzw
What year was this ad on
Television? What
company made the ad?
0:30
December 11-14, 1995
Internet:TCI Show 08
http://www.vimeo.com/4275919
http://www.w3.org/Conferences/WWW4/
1:22
• World War II - 1939 - 1945
• National Science Foundation (NSF) - 1950
• Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA...
Alan Turing and Bletchley Park
• Top secret code breaking effort (10,000)
• BOMBE: Mechanical Computer
• Colossus: Electro...
Post-War (late 1940s)
• Alumni of the US and UK codebreaking efforts
and other started building general purpose
computers
...
Research Networks
• 1960's - 1980's
• What is the best protocol fairly to solve
all of the competing needs?
• ARPANET was ...
University of Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign
Supercomputers...
• As science needed faster and faster
computers, more universities asked
for their own Multimillion doll...
NCSA - Innovation
• We now “assume” the Internet and
the Web - it was not so easy...
• A number of breakthrough
innovation...
University of Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign
University of
Michigan
NSFNet @ University of Michigan
• University of Michigan failed to get one
of the five Supercomputer Centers
• Partners: Un...
Source: http://hpwren.ucsd.edu/~hwb/NSFNET/NSFNET-200711Summary/
NSF Net
• NSFNet was the first network that was “inclusive”
• Standardized on TCP/IP
• Initially the goal was all research ...
http://virdir.ncsa.uiuc.edu/virdir/raw-material/networking/nsfnet/NSFNET_1.htm
NSFNET T1
Backbone and
Regional
Networks, 1...
University of Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign
University of
Michigan
CERN
The Beginning of the Web: CERN
• The Internet was infrastructure -
the web gave the Internet a “user
interface and URLs
• ...
University of Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign
University of
Michigan
CERN
Stanford
The First Web Server in America
• Stanford Linear Accelerator
(SLAC) - Dr. Paul Kunz
• It was a database of 300,000
resear...
1993: Gopher is Dominant
• Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Meeting
• March 29-April 2, 1993 - Columbus, Ohio, USA (...
University of Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign
University of
Michigan
CERN
Stanford
Joseph Hardin, UM
Mosaic - Netscape - Mozilla - Firefox
• Mosaic was developed at NCSA - Unix /
Windows / Mac - Easy Insta...
1994:Year of the Web
• Netscape Founded - April 4, 1994
• WWW Conf: May 25-26-27 1994, CERN,
Geneva (Switzerland)
• WWW Co...
• Larry Smarr wanted to make supercomputers available
to physicists
• Unversity of Michigan snuck in 1.54Mb/sec instead of...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sYNUcFMCIzw
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sYNUcFMCIzw
What is the flaw in
the logic of the 'You
Will' commercials?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sYNUcFMCIzw
Monopoly and
innovation are seldom
co-located.
My Dystopian Present
• The network would be from AT&T
• Our laptop would be from AT&T
• Our PDA would be from AT&T
• E-Mai...
My Dystopian Present
• Hardware would work flawlessly
• Hardware would be seldom be upgraded
• Technology hardware would be...
1997:The Web Land Rush...
• In the late 1990’s there were many
fortunes to be made - simply by being
first in a market
• Ma...
Why should we all understand this?
Network
Creatives
1970-2000
Building
Products
2000-
Network
Creatives
1970-2000
Companies and
Governments...
• World War II - 1939 - 1945
• National Science Foundation (NSF) - 1950
• Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA...
ThankYou, Questions,
Comments
Dr. Charles Severance
University of Michigan School of Information
www.dr-chuck.com
A Brief History of the Internet
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A Brief History of the Internet

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This was a guest lecture in the LHC 329 course in our business school. It talks about the history and lays down a few scary notions about how the future might not be as rosy as the present.

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A Brief History of the Internet

  1. 1. A Brief History of the Internet Dr. Charles Severance Clinical Associate Professor University of Michigan School of Information www.dr-chuck.com http://www.slideshare.net/csev
  2. 2. https://www.coursera.org/course/insidetheinternet
  3. 3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sYNUcFMCIzw What year was this ad on Television? What company made the ad? 0:30
  4. 4. December 11-14, 1995 Internet:TCI Show 08 http://www.vimeo.com/4275919 http://www.w3.org/Conferences/WWW4/ 1:22
  5. 5. • World War II - 1939 - 1945 • National Science Foundation (NSF) - 1950 • Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) - 1958 The American people recognized that scientists and engineers had helped win World War II. Penicillin and the atomic bomb were but the two best known of the many contributions made by the research community. ... http://www.nsf.gov/about/history/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vannevar_Bush
  6. 6. Alan Turing and Bletchley Park • Top secret code breaking effort (10,000) • BOMBE: Mechanical Computer • Colossus: Electronic Computer • Communication + Computing http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5nK_ft0Lf1s
  7. 7. Post-War (late 1940s) • Alumni of the US and UK codebreaking efforts and other started building general purpose computers • Manchester Baby • Ferranti Mark I • Harvard Mark I • US Army ENIAC http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bb/SSEM_Manchester_museum.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Classic_shot_of_the_ENIAC.jpg
  8. 8. Research Networks • 1960's - 1980's • What is the best protocol fairly to solve all of the competing needs? • ARPANET was a small well-funded community Source: Unknownhttp://youtu.be/jZJzNWOY0QI
  9. 9. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  10. 10. Supercomputers... • As science needed faster and faster computers, more universities asked for their own Multimillion dollar supercomputer • The National Science Foundation asked,“Why not buy a few supercomputers, and build up a national shared network?” CC: BY-SA: Rama (Wikipedia) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/ 2.0/fr/deed.en_GB
  11. 11. NCSA - Innovation • We now “assume” the Internet and the Web - it was not so easy... • A number of breakthrough innovations came from the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois • High Performance Computing and the Internet were deeply linked Larry Smarr, NCSA (2:51)http://www.vimeo.com/6982439
  12. 12. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign University of Michigan
  13. 13. NSFNet @ University of Michigan • University of Michigan failed to get one of the five Supercomputer Centers • Partners: University of Michigan, Merit Network, IBM Corporation, MCI, and State of Michigan • Proposed a $55M high-speed network for $15M • Operated from 1988-1995 http://www.vimeo.com/11044819 2:49
  14. 14. Source: http://hpwren.ucsd.edu/~hwb/NSFNET/NSFNET-200711Summary/
  15. 15. NSF Net • NSFNet was the first network that was “inclusive” • Standardized on TCP/IP • Initially the goal was all research universities • In the early 1990’s commercial companies (Internet Service Providers) could join and resell service
  16. 16. http://virdir.ncsa.uiuc.edu/virdir/raw-material/networking/nsfnet/NSFNET_1.htm NSFNET T1 Backbone and Regional Networks, 1991
  17. 17. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign University of Michigan CERN
  18. 18. The Beginning of the Web: CERN • The Internet was infrastructure - the web gave the Internet a “user interface and URLs • The Web was invented at CERN by Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau • CERN developed browsers and servers - with a goal of worldwide hyperlinked documents Robert Cailliau CERN http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x2GylLq59rI (1:59)
  19. 19. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign University of Michigan CERN Stanford
  20. 20. The First Web Server in America • Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) - Dr. Paul Kunz • It was a database of 300,000 research papers • December 12, 1991 • The first "search engine"? Paul Kunz SLAC http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lOgqP2yoKwc (2:22)
  21. 21. 1993: Gopher is Dominant • Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Meeting • March 29-April 2, 1993 - Columbus, Ohio, USA (638 attendees) • Gopher BOF - 200 attendees • World-Wide Web BOF - 15 attendees including Tim Berners-Lee • P.S. DVD is invented this year http://www.ietf.org/proceedings/26.pdf
  22. 22. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign University of Michigan CERN Stanford
  23. 23. Joseph Hardin, UM Mosaic - Netscape - Mozilla - Firefox • Mosaic was developed at NCSA - Unix / Windows / Mac - Easy Install • NCSA created the httpd web server which is the basic for the Apache web server • While most of the NCSA programmers formed Netscape and made their fortunes, NCSA released their browser for free and focused on building standards to keep the web open http://www.vimeo.com/7053726 3:11
  24. 24. 1994:Year of the Web • Netscape Founded - April 4, 1994 • WWW Conf: May 25-26-27 1994, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) • WWW Conf: October 17-19, 1994, Chicago, IL • October 1994,Tim Berners-Lee founded the (W3C) at MIT • November 8, 1994 - Windows 95 beta 2 0:49 0:54
  25. 25. • Larry Smarr wanted to make supercomputers available to physicists • Unversity of Michigan snuck in 1.54Mb/sec instead of 56kb/sec backbone for the NSFNet • Tim Berners-Less and Robert Cailliau were building a system for network hosted documentation • Paul Kunz was trying to make his article database easier to use • Joseph Hardin wanted to make supercomputers more user friendly
  26. 26. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sYNUcFMCIzw
  27. 27. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sYNUcFMCIzw What is the flaw in the logic of the 'You Will' commercials?
  28. 28. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sYNUcFMCIzw Monopoly and innovation are seldom co-located.
  29. 29. My Dystopian Present • The network would be from AT&T • Our laptop would be from AT&T • Our PDA would be from AT&T • E-Mail addresses would be numeric and have an area code (734) 684-0982-4016 - there would be no spam - caller id for e-mail • We would be charged for every byte we transferred
  30. 30. My Dystopian Present • Hardware would work flawlessly • Hardware would be seldom be upgraded • Technology hardware would be very uniform • No user-serviceable parts inside- repairs would be at a AT&T service center • There would be no free Wifi at airports - nothing would be free
  31. 31. 1997:The Web Land Rush... • In the late 1990’s there were many fortunes to be made - simply by being first in a market • Many things were “novel” when it was re-invented on the web • New brands were quickly established and became dominant 1:49 http://www.vimeo.com/7048422
  32. 32. Why should we all understand this?
  33. 33. Network Creatives 1970-2000 Building Products 2000-
  34. 34. Network Creatives 1970-2000 Companies and Governments...
  35. 35. • World War II - 1939 - 1945 • National Science Foundation (NSF) - 1950 • Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) - 1958 The American people recognized that scientists and engineers had helped win World War II. Penicillin and the atomic bomb were but the two best known of the many contributions made by the research community. ... http://www.nsf.gov/about/history/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vannevar_Bush
  36. 36. ThankYou, Questions, Comments Dr. Charles Severance University of Michigan School of Information www.dr-chuck.com
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