Phonics in KS2 and KS3

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An introduction to Phonics for KS3 teachers who are inheriting a Year 7 with previous experience of language learning.

An introduction to Phonics for KS3 teachers who are inheriting a Year 7 with previous experience of language learning.

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  • Children don’t arrive at primary school knowing how to read English. They are taught how to read it using phonics. It’s naïve of us to think that they will learn to read another language later on without us giving them the code first. They aren’t going to simply absorb it and become confident readers and speakers by magic. Just like I couldn’t assume that as speakers of English and at least one other language you could pick up this piece of Spanish and read it confidently and correctly.
  • The primary langs community realised this, and the explicit study of phonics is included in the KS2 QCA schemes of work and also in the KS2 Framework for Languages. For example, the Y3 objectives of the KS2 Framework require children to “identify phonemes which are the same as or different to English and other known languages” (O3.2), “pronounce accurately the most commonly used characters, letters and letter strings” (L3.2), “Identify specific sounds, phonemes and words” (KAL), and “Recognise how sounds are represented in written form” (KAL). And that’s just in Y3.
  • The KS3 Framework continues this work, aware that (a) not all the work can be done in primary and (b) phonics is most effective if done little and often. The KS3 work builds on what has already been achieved in KS2. So primary colleagues, it is important that you continue to do phonics, to enable your KS3 colleagues to get off to a flying start with what they have to do, and secondary colleagues, it’s important that you continue and build on the good work that has been started for you in KS2. We need children taking GCSE in a language (because that’s where we’re all supposed to be heading, n’est-ce pas) to be confident speakers. Most are scared to speak in case they get it wrong. Here’s a way of ensuring that they get it right, that they can crack the code.
  • We’ve talked a lot about why we should do phonics across the key stages. But do you know what phonics is? This is Rachel Hawkes’s definition. More about her in a moment. The outcomes of doing this are the learner can be trusted with written text in the foreign language without the teacher having to present and pronounce it first. The learner can cope with unfamiliar language and is confident speaking and reading out loud in the language. Phonics help to eliminate the fear of speaking The learner becomes autonomous and can make links between words and apply patterns They become more independent learners with the tools in their box with which to solve puzzles and find the solution to problems. Imagine how much time you could save!
  • New Y7s will have used these technical terms throughout their primary career. Can you use them with confidence? Phoneme: smallest unit of sound in a word Grapheme: the letter or letters that correspond to a sound Blending: synthesising words from their constituent phonemes Camera words: high frequency words which the learner meets early on and which can’t be easily decoded, e.g. le un de. Digraph: a 2-letter grapheme that makes a single sound, like ch, au.
  • So what can you do to teach phonics? Here are some ideas. The ideas will all be in Spanish, as it’s the language that I teach, and also it’s the language that many of you won’t know, so I’ll be putting you in the position of the learner.
  • This is courtesy of Rachel Hawkes. I’ve used it with my KS2 and it works. The idea is that the children see an image, hear then say the word, and do the action – VAK responses all together. (do the actions etc)
  • Then once you’ve introduced the sounds you can start to incorporate them in your lessons and practise them. Focussed listening. Children listen carefully to a list of words or a short text, and make an action, or hold up a grapheme card or add a multilink cube to a stack each time they hear a certain phoneme. Pito Pito Gorgorito ¿adónde vas tú tan bonito? a la era verdadera Pim Pom Fuera Listen for “I” first then “I” and “e” Vowel sounds are crucial to Spanish A counting out rhyme and therefore intercultural understanding too!
  • Then once you’ve introduced the sounds you can start to incorporate them in your lessons and practise them. Focussed listening. Children listen carefully to a list of words or a short text, and make an action, or hold up a grapheme card or add a multilink cube to a stack each time they hear a certain phoneme. Pito Pito Gorgorito ¿adónde vas tú tan bonito? a la era verdadera Pim Pom Fuera Listen for “I” first then “I” and “e” Vowel sounds are crucial to Spanish A counting out rhyme and therefore intercultural understanding too!
  • 2. One person goes out of the room, someone chosen to give a sign to switch sound, all chant the phonemes, have to spot who it is Can also do this as a “conducting” fun activity, where one child is the conductor. Can also give 2 halves of the class their own “line to sing” This can also work well as an activity to practise longer phrases such as question forms Endless choral repetition in a fun way
  • 3. Distinguishing phonemes or graphemes. Children sort the phonemes or graphemes in a variety of ways. You say the word, they hold up a grapheme card, Examples of words: jirafa, gambas, gorro, general, paja (Click for Venn diagram)
  • Alternatively you can give the children word cards which they sort into a Venn diagram. Venn diagram with 2 graphemes. Therefore practising the [x] sound and the [ɵ] sound. Could do this as class, with you saying the word and them placing it, or give them picture cards and they have to think of the word then place it. Words: azul, rojo, pájaro, pez, mariquita, abeja, atención, ceja, página, juicio
  • Alternatively you can give the children word cards which they sort into a Venn diagram. Venn diagram with 2 graphemes. Therefore practising the [x] sound and the [ɵ] sound. Could do this as class, with you saying the word and them placing it, or give them picture cards and they have to think of the word then place it. Words: azul, rojo, pájaro, pez, mariquita, abeja, atención, ceja, página, juicio
  • 3. Number fans Cuatro Diez Trece cincuenta Quinientos Challenging for the beginner !
  • Something that’s good fun to practise phonics is animal sounds. Can children work out what the animal sound is and therefore which animals makes it?
  • Very focussed activity. Children are thinking, listening, taking decisions and really paying attention to the details of the language. They are also having to think about grammar that they know which might simplify the task. Dictation doesn’t have to be a text. It can be tailored very precisely to the needs of the class, and so can be single words, phrases where you might give them the pattern of the phrase, one gap per word. You could try leaving certain phonemes out to really concentrate on which is which and when you use each one.
  • Very focussed activity. Children are thinking, listening, taking decisions and really paying attention to the details of the language. They are also having to think about grammar that they know which might simplify the task. Dictation doesn’t have to be a text. It can be tailored very precisely to the needs of the class, and so can be single words, phrases where you might give them the pattern of the phrase, one gap per word. You could try leaving certain phonemes out to really concentrate on which is which and when you use each one.
  • Very focussed activity. Children are thinking, listening, taking decisions and really paying attention to the details of the language. They are also having to think about grammar that they know which might simplify the task. Dictation doesn’t have to be a text. It can be tailored very precisely to the needs of the class, and so can be single words, phrases where you might give them the pattern of the phrase, one gap per word. You could try leaving certain phonemes out to really concentrate on which is which and when you use each one.
  • Here are some key questions for KS3 colleagues: Do you and your department think that it’s important to teach phonics? Would learning phonics make your students better learners? Would you be able to teach phonics to your students in the same way that KS2 teachers have done? How much do your new Y7s know about phonics? This is why it’s important to open the dialogue with your KS2 colleagues, find out what they have done and how they have done it, and how it has affected the children’s learning. Students beginning a language in KS3 with no prior experience of language learning are often embarrassed about making the strange noises often required, but they’ve got used to it in KS2 – it’s time to take advantage of this!

Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. TRANSITION 28 th June 2011 SUNDERLAND LOCAL AUTHORITY Why ? Estaban todos los insectos reunidos un día en el bosque. Discutían entre ellos para determinar cual era el más trabajador, inteligente y útil de todos. En ese momento intervino el zancudo y dijo: ¡yo soy el más importante de todos ustedes, ya que con mí aguja puedo sacarle la sangre a las personas! La garrapata que estaba cerca escuchando la discusión, soltó una carcajada y dijo: ¡Qué tonto es usted amigo, recuerde que yo también puedo realizar ese trabajo y de manera más eficaz! Dando un salto, el piojo alzó la voz para decir: ¡Oigan señores, si de chupar sangre se trata, yo también puedo realizar ese trabajo! Muy molesto por el giro que había tomado la discusión la mosca dijo: ¡Disculpen amigos pero yo también soy importante, recuerden que me encargo de descomponer y dañar todos los alimentos que encuentro en mí camino! Cerca de allí, muy seria la avispa gritó: ¡Aquí estoy yo, si no me han visto, dispuesta a clavarle mí aguijón a todo el que
  • 3. TRANSITION 28 th June 2011 SUNDERLAND LOCAL AUTHORITY Why ?
  • 4. TRANSITION 28 th June 2011 SUNDERLAND LOCAL AUTHORITY Knowledge about Language (KAL) - 4.1 Letters and sounds: (Y7) "apply knowledge of common letter strings, sound patterns, accents and other characters"; (Y8) "identify and recall common exceptions to the usual patterns of sounds and spellings" Why ? Language Learning Strategies (LLS) - 5.1 Identifying patterns in the target language: (Y7/8) "identify patterns of pronunciation, word formation, word order, grammatical structure and sentence structure in the target language" Language Learning Strategies (LLS) - 5.6 Reading aloud: (Y7/8) "read aloud written texts with increasing fluency, accuracy and expression, showing awareness of meaning"
  • 5. TRANSITION 28 th June 2011 SUNDERLAND LOCAL AUTHORITY What ? “ teaching the key sounds of the foreign language and fixing them in the long-term memory” Rachel Hawkes
  • 6. TRANSITION 28 th June 2011 SUNDERLAND LOCAL AUTHORITY Terminology ? phoneme grapheme blending camera words digraph / trigraph
  • 7. TRANSITION 28 th June 2011 SUNDERLAND LOCAL AUTHORITY What ?
  • 8. a r a ñ a e l e fant e i dea o lvidar u niverso ce rdo ci clista ca sa co che cu caracha gi mnástica h ambur gue sa Espa ñ a z umo gu itarra ll a v e 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  • 9. TRANSITION 28 th June 2011 SUNDERLAND LOCAL AUTHORITY What ?
  • 10. TRANSITION 28 th June 2011 SUNDERLAND LOCAL AUTHORITY What ? Pito Pito Gorgorito, ¿adónde vas tú tan bonito? A la era verdadera Pim Pom Fuera
  • 11. TRANSITION 28 th June 2011 SUNDERLAND LOCAL AUTHORITY What ? j j j j b v b v gui gui gui gui u u u u ce ce ce ce
  • 12. TRANSITION 28 th June 2011 SUNDERLAND LOCAL AUTHORITY What ? ge gi j ga go gu
  • 13. TRANSITION 28 th June 2011 SUNDERLAND LOCAL AUTHORITY What ? ge gi j ce ci z
  • 14. TRANSITION 28 th June 2011 SUNDERLAND LOCAL AUTHORITY What ? ge gi j ce ci z azul rojo pájaro pez mariquita abeja atención ceja página juicio
  • 15. TRANSITION 28 th June 2011 SUNDERLAND LOCAL AUTHORITY What ? qu 5 cua 4 ci 3 ce 2 z 1
  • 16. un búho un perro una vaca un cerdo una gallina un mono un burro un pato una oveja una rana un gato un caballo un gallo un ratón
  • 17. ¿ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ? TRANSITION 28 th June 2011 SUNDERLAND LOCAL AUTHORITY What ? Dictation! ¿ C ó m o t e l l a m a s ?
  • 18. TRANSITION 28 th June 2011 SUNDERLAND LOCAL AUTHORITY What ? Dictation!
  • 19. TRANSITION 28 th June 2011 SUNDERLAND LOCAL AUTHORITY What ? Dictation! una vaca una oveja un rinoceronte un perro un perrito un gato un pato un caballo
  • 20. TRANSITION 28 th June 2011 SUNDERLAND LOCAL AUTHORITY So therefore…. ?
    • important
    • worthwhile
    • knowledge