Botany 101b


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  • Vegetative parts can be used in asexual reproduction.
  • Botany 101b

    1. 1. Warren County Master Gardener Class Botany 101 Carol La Faver CEA for Horticulture—Warren County
    2. 5. When Is a Tree a Tree?
    3. 6. Tree <ul><li>A woody perennial plant having a single usually elongate stem generally with few or no branches on its lower part. </li></ul>
    4. 7. Shrub <ul><li>A low usually several stemmed woody plant. </li></ul>
    5. 8. Herb <ul><li>A seed-producing, biennial, or perennial that does not develop persistent woody tissue but dies down at the end of a growing season. </li></ul>
    6. 9. Plants Have Two Parts <ul><li>Sexual </li></ul><ul><li>Flower Buds </li></ul><ul><li>Flowers </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetative </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf Buds </li></ul><ul><li>Roots </li></ul><ul><li>Stems </li></ul>
    7. 10. Stems Structures which support buds and leaves and serves as conduits for carrying water, minerals and sugars
    8. 11. Three Major Internal Parts of Stems <ul><li>Xylem – conduct water and minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Phloem – conduct sugars </li></ul><ul><li>Cambium – a meristem, the site of cell division and active growth, located between the xylem and phloem </li></ul>
    9. 12.     Table 1. Comparison between monocots and dicots.   Structure   Monocot   Dicot   Seed leaves   1   2   Vascular system Xylem and phloem are paired in bundles, which are dispersed throughout the stem. Xylem and phloem inside the stem. The ring of phloem is near the bark; the xylem forms the inner ring.   Floral parts Usually in multiples of three. Usually in multiples of four or five.   Leaves Often parallel-veined. Usually net-veined
    10. 13. Cross-section of Stems
    11. 17. Pith
    12. 18. Node and Internode <ul><li>A node is the area of stem where leaves are located. </li></ul><ul><li>An internode is the area of a stem between the nodes. </li></ul>
    13. 19. Modified Stems <ul><li>Crown – compressed stem tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Runner – stem that grows on the soil surface </li></ul><ul><li>What is an example of a plant that has both of these “stems”? </li></ul><ul><li>Strawberry </li></ul>
    14. 20. Modified Stems (cont.) <ul><li>Spurs – Short stubby side stems. </li></ul><ul><li>Stolon – aboveground horizontal stem </li></ul><ul><li>Tuber – the eyes are the nodes of the “stem” </li></ul>
    15. 21. Modified Stems (cont.) <ul><li>Rhizomes – Underground horizontal stem, i.e. iris, johnsongrass. </li></ul><ul><li>Bulbs – Compressed underground stems surrounded by fleshy leaves, i.e. tulips, daffodils,lilies, and onions. </li></ul>
    16. 22. Modified Stems (cont.) <ul><li>Corms – Similar to bulbs but do not have fleshy scales </li></ul><ul><li>Tuberous Stems – shortened, flattened, enlarged and underground, i.e. tuberous begonia </li></ul>
    17. 23. Tuberous Root <ul><li>Not a stem but an underground storage organ </li></ul><ul><li>Stems have nodes but roots do not. </li></ul>
    18. 24. Stem Terminology  - Shoot - A young stem (1 year old or less) with leaves. Twig - A young stem (1 year old or less) that is in the dormant winter stage (has no leaves). Branch - A stem that is more than 1 year old, typically with lateral stems radiating from it. Trunk - A woody plant's main stem.
    19. 25. Vines <ul><li>Attach by Twining </li></ul><ul><li>Morning glory </li></ul>
    20. 26. Vines <ul><li>Attach by Aerial Roots </li></ul><ul><li>Poison Ivy </li></ul>
    21. 27. Vines <ul><li>Attach by tendrils </li></ul><ul><li>Some wrap around and some with adhesive pads </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia Creeper </li></ul>
    22. 28. Leaf Scar
    23. 29. Lenticels
    24. 30. Thorns
    25. 31. Parts of a Leaf <ul><li>Blade </li></ul><ul><li>Midrib </li></ul><ul><li>Vein </li></ul><ul><li>Petiole </li></ul>
    26. 32. Leaf Facts <ul><li>Principle function of leaves is to absorb sunlight for photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>What are leaves flat? (except conifers) </li></ul><ul><li>Petiole is attached to the stem at a node </li></ul><ul><li>Angle between the petiole and the stem is the leaf axil </li></ul><ul><li>Buds are located in the leaf axil </li></ul>
    27. 33. Leaf Facts (cont.) <ul><li>Epidermis – thickened layer on top & bottom of leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Primary function is leaf protection </li></ul><ul><li>Some epidermis cells have hairs </li></ul>
    28. 34. Leaf Facts (cont.) <ul><li>Cuticle has a waxy substance called cutin </li></ul><ul><li>Protects the leaf from dehydration and disease </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of cutin is direct response to sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>What does this have to do with hardening a plant off? </li></ul>
    29. 35. Leaf Facts (cont.) <ul><li>Guard cells on the underside of leaf can open and close </li></ul><ul><li>The opening is a stoma </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for the passage of water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide </li></ul>
    30. 36. Leaf Facts (cont.) <ul><li>Weather determines the opening and closing of the guard cells </li></ul><ul><li>Guard cells will close during darkness </li></ul>
    31. 38. Leaf Types <ul><li>Cotyledons or seed leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Spines </li></ul><ul><li>Scale leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Tendrils </li></ul><ul><li>succulent storage leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Bracts -- Dogwood </li></ul>
    32. 39. Leaf Venation – Parallel, Pinnate, and Palmate
    33. 40. Shapes of Leaves – Simple, Palmate Compound, Pinnate Compound, & Double Pinnate Compound
    34. 41. Shape of Leaf Blade – Oblong, Lanceolate, Linear, Ovate, Elliptical, Orbicular, Cordate
    35. 42. Shape of Leaf Base - Hastate, Sagittate, Peltate, Perfoliate,Terete
    36. 43. Leaf Margin – Entire, Serrate, Serrulate, Dentate, Undulate, Crisped, Pinnatifid
    37. 44. Leaf Arrangement on Stem <ul><li>Alternate </li></ul><ul><li>Opposite </li></ul><ul><li>Whorled </li></ul>
    38. 45. A Bud Is an Undeveloped Shoot <ul><li>Leaf bud – short stem with embryonic leaves, less plump and more pointed than flower buds </li></ul><ul><li>Flower bud – a short stem with embryonic flower parts </li></ul>
    39. 46. Types of Buds <ul><li>Terminal bud - at end of stem </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral bud - on the sides of stem </li></ul><ul><li>Axillary bud - in axis of leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Adventitious bud – i.e. on root or edge of leaf </li></ul>
    40. 47. Roots <ul><li>Originate from lower part of plant or cutting </li></ul><ul><li>Have a root cap, no nodes, and never have leaves or flowers </li></ul>
    41. 48. Principle Functions of Roots <ul><li>Absorb nutrients and moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Anchor the plant in the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Furnish physical support of the stem </li></ul><ul><li>Serve as food storage organs </li></ul><ul><li>May be used as a means of propagation </li></ul>
    42. 49. Types of Roots <ul><li>Primary (radicle) root from embryo </li></ul><ul><li>Taproot </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral or secondary root </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrous root </li></ul>
    43. 50. Parts of a Root <ul><li>Meristem- area of cell division and growth </li></ul><ul><li>Zone of elongation – cells increase in size, push root through soil </li></ul><ul><li>Maturation zone – become specific tissue, i.e. epidermis, vascular tissue </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    44. 51. Parts of a Root <ul><li>Root hairs – water & nutrient absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Root cap – covers and protects the meristem </li></ul>
    45. 53. What Does This Picture Tell You?
    46. 54. Parts of a Flower <ul><li>Sepals – leaf-like structures at base of flower for protection </li></ul><ul><li>Petals – highly colored often fragrant </li></ul><ul><li>Petals are often used for ID of plant family </li></ul><ul><li>Nectar glands </li></ul>
    47. 55. Parts of a Flower (cont.) <ul><li>Stamen – male reproductive organ consisting of anther and filament </li></ul><ul><li>Pistil – female part of the plant. It consists of stigma, style, ovary, ovules and eggs </li></ul>
    48. 56. Types of Flowers <ul><li>Complete flower – has stamen, pistils, petals, and sepals </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete flower- has one of these parts missing </li></ul>
    49. 57. Types of Flowers <ul><li>Perfect flower – has functional stamens & pistils </li></ul><ul><li>Imperfect flower – if either pistil or stamen is missing </li></ul>
    50. 58. Types of Flowers <ul><li>Pistillate or female flowers have no stamen </li></ul><ul><li>Staminate or male flowers have no pistils </li></ul>
    51. 59. Types of Plants <ul><li>Dioecious – has only a male or a female flower – Holly, gingko </li></ul><ul><li>Monecious – plant has both separate male and female flowers - corn </li></ul>
    52. 60. Inflorescence – Spike, Panicle, Raceme, Head, Umbel
    53. 61. Pollination & Fertilization
    54. 62. Types of Fruit <ul><li>Simple – develop from a single ovary </li></ul><ul><li>Aggregate – develop from a single flower which has many ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple – tight cluster of individual flowers borne on a single cluster </li></ul>
    55. 64. Parts of a Seed (a Mature Ovule) <ul><li>Embryo – a miniature plant in an arrested state of development </li></ul><ul><li>Endosperm – built in food supply </li></ul><ul><li>Seed Coat – hard outer covering to protect seed </li></ul>
    56. 65. Germination <ul><li>The resumption of active embryo growth </li></ul><ul><li>Radicle (root) emerges first </li></ul><ul><li>Hypocotyl – area between the first leaves and root (stem) </li></ul><ul><li>Seed leaves encase the embryo </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    57. 66. The Three Major Plant Functions <ul><li>Photosynthesis – food production </li></ul><ul><li>Respiration – uses food for plant energy </li></ul><ul><li>Transpiration – process for moving/losing water </li></ul>
    58. 67. Photosynthesis Carbon dioxide + Water + Sunlight = Sugar + Oxygen or 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 0 + Energy => C 6 H 12 0 6 + 6 0 2
    59. 69. Photosynthesis Occurs in Chloroplasts
    60. 70. Factors Affecting Photosynthesis <ul><li>Light availability – increases as light increases </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide – carbon & oxygen are used to make carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature – photosynthesis highest in the range of 65 to 85 degrees F, decreases when above and below </li></ul>
    61. 71. Factors Affecting Photosynthesis <ul><li>Water – split by the sun’s energy into hydrogen and oxygen, oxygen released while hydrogen is used to make carbohydrates </li></ul>
    62. 72. Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 => 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + Energy
    63. 74.     Table 2. Photosynthesis and Respiration. Photosynthesis Respiration <ul><ul><li>produces food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stores energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uses water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uses carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>releases oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>occurs in sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uses food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>releases energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produces water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produces carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uses oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>occurs in the dark as well as light </li></ul></ul>
    64. 77. Transpiration is responsible for: <ul><ul><li>Transporting minerals from the soil throughout the plant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooling the plant through evaporation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving sugars and plant chemicals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining turgor pressure. </li></ul></ul>
    65. 80. Photosynthesis, Respiration and Transpiration Work Together
    66. 81. Environmental Factors That Affect Plant Growth <ul><li>Light </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul>
    67. 82. Light <ul><li>Quantity – concentration of sunlight, varies with season. How can you decrease it? </li></ul><ul><li>Quality – color reaching the plant. Red & blue have greatest effect on growth, green is reflected. </li></ul><ul><li>Blue light = leaf growth; Blue light + red light = flowering. </li></ul><ul><li>What light do you want for seedlings? </li></ul>
    68. 83. Light (cont.) <ul><li>Duration – Amount of time a plant is exposed to light. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants flower in response to uninterrupted dark periods. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants are classified as either Short-day or long-day or Day-neutral. </li></ul>
    69. 84. Light (cont.) <ul><li>Short-day plants – form flowers when day length is less than 12 hours in duration. Mums & Pointsettia </li></ul><ul><li>Long-day plants – form flowers when day length exceed 12 hours. Lettuce & Rudbekia </li></ul><ul><li>Day-neutral plants – form flowers regardless of day length. Petunia </li></ul>
    70. 85. Temperature <ul><li>If temperature is high and day length long cool season crops will bolt. </li></ul><ul><li>If temperatures are too low then warm season crops may not set fruit. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverse temperatures will cause stunted growth and poor quality, i.e. bitter lettuce in high temperature. </li></ul>
    71. 86. Temperature Effects on Plant Growth <ul><li>Photosynthesis – increase with temp to a point </li></ul><ul><li>Respiration – rapidly increase with temp </li></ul><ul><li>Transpiration – increase with temp </li></ul><ul><li>Flowering – partially triggered by temp </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar storage – low temp reduce energy use increase sugar storage </li></ul><ul><li>Dormancy – warmth will break dormancy </li></ul>
    72. 87. Water <ul><li>Maintains turgor pressure which regulates the opening and closing of the stoma. </li></ul><ul><li>Stoma are involved in the gradual evaporation of water from the leaf surface which help stabilize the plant temperature. </li></ul>
    73. 88. Relative Humidity <ul><li>The water in the air divided by the amount of water the air can hold (at constant temperature and pressure). </li></ul>
    74. 89. Relative Humidity <ul><li>Warm air can hold more water so if water amount remains the same and temps go up then relative humidity goes down. </li></ul><ul><li>Water vapor will move from an area of high humidity to one of low humidity. </li></ul><ul><li>Humidity inside a leaf is close to 100% </li></ul><ul><li>When stoma opens the water vapor rushes out causing the humidity on leaf surface to go up. </li></ul>
    75. 90. Relative Humidity (Cont.) <ul><li>The “cloud” of humidity slows down transpiration and cools the leaf. </li></ul><ul><li>What happens to transpiration if the wind starts to blow? </li></ul>
    76. 91. Nutrients Essential for Plant Growth Chlorine (Cl) Cobalt (Co) Copper (Cu) Sulfur (S) Boron (B) Calcium (Ca) Manganese (Mn) Magnesium (Mg) Molybdenum (Mo) Phosphorus (K) Oxygen (O) Zinc (Zn) Potassium (P) Hydrogen (H) Iron (Fe) Nitrogen (N) Carbon (C) Micronutrients Macronutrients Air/water