S
Nonviolent Resistance
to Nazi Occupation of
Denmark
Clark Schneider
Jamie Greenwald
Thesis
S Once the Nazis shift from benevolent occupiers to
oppressors, the goals (autonomy, independence) of the
nonviolen...
Nazi Invasion
S On April 9, 1940, the Nazis invaded Denmark with
overwhelming force
S Denmark did little to resist
S Germa...
Samarbejdspolitik
S Danish government adopted a policy of cooperation
S King Christian “wished to spare his country furthe...
Early Resistance: Symbolic
Protest
S Cultural pride
S Lays the groundwork for resistance by emphasizing continued
Danish s...
Onset of German Oppression
S Communist Crackdown
S “Clashes with the usual Danish sense of justice”
S (Petrow, Bitter Year...
“‘Down with the traitors’” (The
Times of London)
S Protests at Rigsdag
S Churchill Club
S Underground press
S Frit Danmark...
Resistance Gains Momentum
S General von Hanneken and Dr. Werner Best
S Parliamentary election
S Making a difference in Wor...
Dr. Werner Best General Von Hanneken
Government Cooperation
Ends
S Hitler instructs General von Hanneken to “rule with an iron
hand”
S (Thomas, Giant Killers, ...
The Height of Resistance
S Danish Jews saved from Nazi round-up
S Freedom Council established
S Sabotaged Nazi military fa...
People’s Strikes
S Massive strikes halt military production
S Danish endure German repercussions
S Freedom Council appreci...
Post-War
S Danish resistance forms an interim coalition government
S Danish culture, society, and economy remain intact
Goals and Values
S Initial goals
S compliance, survival, minimal bloodshed
S Eventual goals of the resistance
S Independen...
Conclusion
S In the case of Danish resistance to the Nazis, the
eventual goals of independence through strikes and
noncoop...
The Power of Nonviolence
S In Denmark’s case resisting the powerful Nazi military
through violence would have resulted in ...
Bibliography
S Ackerman, Peter, and Jack Duvall. A Force More
Powerful. 1st ed. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.
210. P...
Danish resistance schneider,greenwald
Danish resistance schneider,greenwald
Danish resistance schneider,greenwald
Danish resistance schneider,greenwald
Danish resistance schneider,greenwald
Danish resistance schneider,greenwald
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  • Danish word referring to the Danish government’s policy of compliance
  • Referendum on the people’s preference for domestic rule over imperialism
  • Freedom Council: leads resistance and serves as de-facto government
  • Danish resistance schneider,greenwald

    1. 1. S Nonviolent Resistance to Nazi Occupation of Denmark Clark Schneider Jamie Greenwald
    2. 2. Thesis S Once the Nazis shift from benevolent occupiers to oppressors, the goals (autonomy, independence) of the nonviolent conflict are indeed a viable option in changing the unjust Nazi society into a just one. Through a predominantly non-violent campaign of strikes and protests, Denmark frustrated the Nazi regime while maintaining Danish society and culture and minimizing bloodshed.
    3. 3. Nazi Invasion S On April 9, 1940, the Nazis invaded Denmark with overwhelming force S Denmark did little to resist S Germany promised not to compromise Denmark’s “political independence” S (Petrow, Bitter Years, pp. 48-49)
    4. 4. Samarbejdspolitik S Danish government adopted a policy of cooperation S King Christian “wished to spare his country further misfortune” S (Petrow, Bitter Years, p. 50) S “To survive became the goal’” S (Lennart Bergfeldt, Experiences of Civilian Resistance: The Case of Denmark, 1940-1945 (Uppsala: University of Uppsala, 1993), p. 63) S “Cooperation would be the lesser evil” S (Ackerman, and Duvall, 2010, p. 210)
    5. 5. Early Resistance: Symbolic Protest S Cultural pride S Lays the groundwork for resistance by emphasizing continued Danish society and culture despite the German occupation S 10 Commandments for Danes S Danskerens 10 bud S Danish Youth Association S Media S Ekstrabladet
    6. 6. Onset of German Oppression S Communist Crackdown S “Clashes with the usual Danish sense of justice” S (Petrow, Bitter Years, p. 163) S Anti-Comintern Pact of 1941 S “Unavoidable consequences” S (Thomas, Giant Killers, pp. 108-110) S German enlistment of Danish civilians
    7. 7. “‘Down with the traitors’” (The Times of London) S Protests at Rigsdag S Churchill Club S Underground press S Frit Danmark; Studenternes Efterretniigstjeneste S White Book S “Action is required of us all” S (Thomas, Giant Killers, pp. 124-125)
    8. 8. Resistance Gains Momentum S General von Hanneken and Dr. Werner Best S Parliamentary election S Making a difference in World War II S Sabotage S Folk strikes S Traitors black-listed
    9. 9. Dr. Werner Best General Von Hanneken
    10. 10. Government Cooperation Ends S Hitler instructs General von Hanneken to “rule with an iron hand” S (Thomas, Giant Killers, p. 122) S In response to the strikes, Germany gives Denmark’s government an ultimatum: submit to total Germen tyranny or lose power S Danish government refuses; cooperation ends S German military assumes control of Denmark
    11. 11. The Height of Resistance S Danish Jews saved from Nazi round-up S Freedom Council established S Sabotaged Nazi military factories S Frode Jakobsen: “the battle for people’s soul” is through non- violence S (Jorgen Haestrup, Secret Alliance (Odense: University of Odense, 1976), p. 45) S The Freedom Council’s resistance movement had over 45,000 by war’s end
    12. 12. People’s Strikes S Massive strikes halt military production S Danish endure German repercussions S Freedom Council appreciates the power of strikes S Encouraged nonviolent resistance over sabotage and riots S Strikes significantly impaired Nazi war machine
    13. 13. Post-War S Danish resistance forms an interim coalition government S Danish culture, society, and economy remain intact
    14. 14. Goals and Values S Initial goals S compliance, survival, minimal bloodshed S Eventual goals of the resistance S Independence, democracy, minimal bloodshed, resist the Nazis
    15. 15. Conclusion S In the case of Danish resistance to the Nazis, the eventual goals of independence through strikes and noncooperation were a viable and effective option in changing the unjust Nazi state by debilitating its capacity to fight a war.
    16. 16. The Power of Nonviolence S In Denmark’s case resisting the powerful Nazi military through violence would have resulted in slaughter S Nonviolent resistance gave the Danish people the ability to effectively resist the Nazis while avoiding sacrificial violent conflict
    17. 17. Bibliography S Ackerman, Peter, and Jack Duvall. A Force More Powerful. 1st ed. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000. 210. Print.

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