PAPER PRESENTATION ON Application Of Graphene In Modern Electronics Presented By- ChinmayChepurwar G.H Raisoni College Of Engineering (An Autonomous Institute under UGC act 1956,affilated to RTMNU, Nagpur) Department of Electronics Engineering
Obtained from simple and abundant form of carbon
Thinnest ever material in the world.
The Graphene Electron microscopic image on Sio2 surface
The inventers Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov have shown that carbon in such a flat form has exceptional properties Konstantin Novoselow and Andre Geim were awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize for physics.
Physical properties of Graphene Density- density of graphene 0.77 mg/m2. Strength- With its breaking strength 42 N/m it is 1000 times stronger than steel. Optical transparency- graphene is almost transparent with its ability of absorb just 2.3% of light falling on it. Thinnest possible material
Electronic properties 15,000 cm2V−1s−1 Graphene differs from most conventional three-dimensional materials. . Intrinsic graphene is a semi-metal or zero-gap semiconductor Graphene has a remarkably high electron mobility at room temperature The mobility is nearly independent of temperature between 10 K and 100 K Resistivity of the graphene sheet would be 10−6 Ω·cm. Optical properties it absorbs πα ≈ 2.3% of white light Unexpectedlyhigh opacity for an atomic monolayer This is "a consequence of the unusual low-energy electronic structure of monolayer graphene It is further confirmed that such unique absorption could become saturated when the input optical intensity is above a threshold value Due to this special property, graphene has wide application in ultrafast photonics
Thermal properties The near-room temperature thermal conductivity of graphene was recently measured to be between (4.84±0.44) ×103 to (5.30±0.48) ×103 Wm−1K−1. Mechanical properties As of 2009, graphene appears to be one of the strongest materials ever tested. 200 times greater than steel Bulk strength is 130GPa Graphene sheets, held together by van der Waals forces
The large scale production of highly transparent graphene films by chemical vapour deposition three years ago. In this process, researchers create ultra-thin graphene sheets by first depositing carbon atoms in the form of graphene films on a nickel plate from methane gas. Then they lay down a protective layer of thermo plastic over the graphene layer and dissolve the nickel underneath in an acid bath. In the final step they attach the plastic-protected graphene to a very flexible polymer sheet, which can then be incorporated into a OPV cell (graphenephotovoltaics).
High transperancy will increase efficiency of solar cells
Graphene's modifiable chemistry, large surface area, atomic thickness and molecularly-gatable structure make antibody-functionalized graphene sheets excellent candidates for mammalian and microbial detection and diagnosis devices. The most ambitious biological application of graphene is for rapid, inexpensive electronic DNA sequencing. Integration of graphene (thickness of 0.34 nm) layers as nanoelectrodes into a nanopore can solve one of the bottleneck issues
Nanopore-based single-molecule DNA sequencing.
Fabrication of electronic devices
Graphene when converted into nanoribbon and nanotubes will replace silicon as semiconducting material.
Due to its high electronic quality, graphene has also attracted the interest of technologists who see it as a way of constructing ballistic transistors. Graphene exhibits a pronounced response to perpendicular external electric fields, allowing one to build FETs.
Graphene has excellent properties to be a vital component of integrated circuits
Graphene transistors are conceivable and are ready to replace silicon transistors
In 2009 researchers demonstrated four different types of logic gates, each consisting of a single graphene transistor
It is capable of taking an incoming electrical signal of a certain frequency and an producing output signal that is a multiple of that frequency
A recent publication has described a process for producing gram-quantities of graphene, by the reduction of ethanol by sodium metal, followed by pyrolysis of the ethoxide product, and washing with water to remove sodium salts.
POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF GRAPHENE
Single molecule gas detection
Graphene-based sensors could sniff out dangerous molecules