Overview of the Period Roman Decline Spread of Islam & Buddhism Splintering of Orthodoxy The winning of Europe The turning...
Ch. 12 – Medieval and Renaissance Missions (500-1792) <ul><li>Christianity did NOT spread throughout the world in the firs...
Advance and Retreat (500-1215) Nestorian Church Christianization of Europe Encountering Islam <ul><li>Premier missionaries...
Reaction and Renewal (1215-1650) Roman Catholic Missions Representative Missionaries <ul><li>Dominated Europe politically,...
Orthodox, Dissident, and Protestant Missions Orthodox Missions Dissidents Protestant Reformers and Missions <ul><li>Not as...
Reform and Revival (1650-1792) Roman Catholic MIssions Protestant Precursors <ul><li>Propaganda Fide redefines missions  <...
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Ch.12 medieval and renaissance missions

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Ch.12 medieval and renaissance missions

  1. 1. Overview of the Period Roman Decline Spread of Islam & Buddhism Splintering of Orthodoxy The winning of Europe The turning tide <ul><li>Roman Empire is in decay and breaking up </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural identification with Rome/Greece/Copts/Syria becomes a disadvantage </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic armies sweep Christianity out of North Africa, Persia, and Arabia. Buddhism supplants the faith in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Celtic, Roman, Orthodox, Nestorian, and splinter groups resist each other </li></ul><ul><li>Celtic and Roman missionaries worked throughout the continent and in Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Europe was basically Christian by 1215AD </li></ul><ul><li>Turks were pushed back from carrying Islam into Europe proper </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims invaders were stopped in Spain and slowly pushed back into Northern Africa </li></ul><ul><li>European exploration carried Christianity around the world </li></ul>
  2. 2. Ch. 12 – Medieval and Renaissance Missions (500-1792) <ul><li>Christianity did NOT spread throughout the world in the first five centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity DID spread throughout the Roman empire in the first five centuries – a tremendous accomplishment! </li></ul>Last Updated: February 7, 2012
  3. 3. Advance and Retreat (500-1215) Nestorian Church Christianization of Europe Encountering Islam <ul><li>Premier missionaries of this period </li></ul><ul><li>Spread Christianity to the caravan cities of Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced the faith to China in 635AD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread rapidly to over 100 cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endured for two centuries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Celts a strong missionary force </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based in Ireland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evangelized Britain and northern Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Columba most influential with his missionary training centers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roman monks also spread the faith widely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevailed in Britain, Germany and Scandinavia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used missionaries from Columba’s training centers to win Scandinavia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Byzantine branch of the faith reaches eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compete with Roman branch, divide in 1054AD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish orthodox churches in Russia and other eastern areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Islamic armies and missionaries spread their faith rapidly in the 7 th , 8 th , and 15 th century, threatening the demise of Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>The violent response of the Crusades is a bitter failure of Christianity which left a legacy of hate in Muslim lands </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reaction and Renewal (1215-1650) Roman Catholic Missions Representative Missionaries <ul><li>Dominated Europe politically, culturally, economically, and religiously </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of missions corresponded to the exploration of other lands and the building of European colonial empires </li></ul><ul><li>Raymond Lull – first missiologist, first training center specifically to reach Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>1493AD papal bull dividing world into Portuguese and Spanish spheres of influence made missions an arm of government </li></ul><ul><li>French missions did extensive work as well – Canada is part of that legacy </li></ul><ul><li>The Propaganda (1622) sought to centralize missions </li></ul><ul><li>Francis Xavier – south India, Malay Peninsula , Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Matteo Ricci – contextualized approach to China </li></ul><ul><li>Father Legaspi - Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Robert de Nobili – contextualized approach to India </li></ul><ul><li>Bartolomew de las Casas – champion of SA Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Jesuit reductions in Paraguay – Christian communities of faith </li></ul>
  5. 5. Orthodox, Dissident, and Protestant Missions Orthodox Missions Dissidents Protestant Reformers and Missions <ul><li>Not as missionary, tending to introvert in monasticism and asceticism </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining close ties with political system, so expansion was seen as primarily political </li></ul><ul><li>Spread the faith to Finland, Russia and among the Slavic peoples </li></ul><ul><li>There existed many more evangelical groups, suppressed and persecuted by the dominant religious group </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Petrobrusians, Arnoldists, Henricians, Waldensians, Bohemian Brethren, Lollards, Hussites, and Taborites </li></ul><ul><li>The Magisterial Reformers (Luther, Zwingli, Calvin) lacked missionary zeal </li></ul><ul><li>Many cultural, social, and political factors contributed to this lack of missionary fervor </li></ul><ul><li>There were, however, isolated individuals who attempted missions – usually with little success </li></ul>
  6. 6. Reform and Revival (1650-1792) Roman Catholic MIssions Protestant Precursors <ul><li>Propaganda Fide redefines missions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freed from Spanish and Portuguese control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More secular clergy to counter the monastic orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigenous clergy as fast as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contextual approaches are rebuffed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>India – Nobili’s philosophy rejected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China – Rite’s controversy – Roman practice to be duplicated in every detail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesuits suppressed then abolished in 1767 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pietism spawned spiritual renewal and missions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Danish-Halle mission in Tranquebar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenland mission </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moravian missions was the most influential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Count Zinzendorf promoted missions his whole life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He sheltered a community of Moravians on his lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moravians started missions worldwide </li></ul></ul>
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