Ch.12   medieval and renaissance missions
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Ch.12 medieval and renaissance missions

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  • 1. Overview of the Period Roman Decline Spread of Islam & Buddhism Splintering of Orthodoxy The winning of Europe The turning tide
    • Roman Empire is in decay and breaking up
    • Cultural identification with Rome/Greece/Copts/Syria becomes a disadvantage
    • Islamic armies sweep Christianity out of North Africa, Persia, and Arabia. Buddhism supplants the faith in Asia
    • Celtic, Roman, Orthodox, Nestorian, and splinter groups resist each other
    • Celtic and Roman missionaries worked throughout the continent and in Britain
    • Europe was basically Christian by 1215AD
    • Turks were pushed back from carrying Islam into Europe proper
    • Muslims invaders were stopped in Spain and slowly pushed back into Northern Africa
    • European exploration carried Christianity around the world
  • 2. Ch. 12 – Medieval and Renaissance Missions (500-1792)
    • Christianity did NOT spread throughout the world in the first five centuries.
    • Christianity DID spread throughout the Roman empire in the first five centuries – a tremendous accomplishment!
    Last Updated: February 7, 2012
  • 3. Advance and Retreat (500-1215) Nestorian Church Christianization of Europe Encountering Islam
    • Premier missionaries of this period
    • Spread Christianity to the caravan cities of Asia
    • Introduced the faith to China in 635AD
      • Spread rapidly to over 100 cities
      • Endured for two centuries
    • Celts a strong missionary force
      • Based in Ireland
      • Evangelized Britain and northern Europe
      • Columba most influential with his missionary training centers
    • Roman monks also spread the faith widely
      • Prevailed in Britain, Germany and Scandinavia
      • Used missionaries from Columba’s training centers to win Scandinavia
    • Byzantine branch of the faith reaches eastern Europe
      • Compete with Roman branch, divide in 1054AD
      • Establish orthodox churches in Russia and other eastern areas
    • Islamic armies and missionaries spread their faith rapidly in the 7 th , 8 th , and 15 th century, threatening the demise of Christianity
    • The violent response of the Crusades is a bitter failure of Christianity which left a legacy of hate in Muslim lands
  • 4. Reaction and Renewal (1215-1650) Roman Catholic Missions Representative Missionaries
    • Dominated Europe politically, culturally, economically, and religiously
    • The rise of missions corresponded to the exploration of other lands and the building of European colonial empires
    • Raymond Lull – first missiologist, first training center specifically to reach Muslims
    • 1493AD papal bull dividing world into Portuguese and Spanish spheres of influence made missions an arm of government
    • French missions did extensive work as well – Canada is part of that legacy
    • The Propaganda (1622) sought to centralize missions
    • Francis Xavier – south India, Malay Peninsula , Japan
    • Matteo Ricci – contextualized approach to China
    • Father Legaspi - Philippines
    • Robert de Nobili – contextualized approach to India
    • Bartolomew de las Casas – champion of SA Indians
    • Jesuit reductions in Paraguay – Christian communities of faith
  • 5. Orthodox, Dissident, and Protestant Missions Orthodox Missions Dissidents Protestant Reformers and Missions
    • Not as missionary, tending to introvert in monasticism and asceticism
    • Maintaining close ties with political system, so expansion was seen as primarily political
    • Spread the faith to Finland, Russia and among the Slavic peoples
    • There existed many more evangelical groups, suppressed and persecuted by the dominant religious group
    • Examples: Petrobrusians, Arnoldists, Henricians, Waldensians, Bohemian Brethren, Lollards, Hussites, and Taborites
    • The Magisterial Reformers (Luther, Zwingli, Calvin) lacked missionary zeal
    • Many cultural, social, and political factors contributed to this lack of missionary fervor
    • There were, however, isolated individuals who attempted missions – usually with little success
  • 6. Reform and Revival (1650-1792) Roman Catholic MIssions Protestant Precursors
    • Propaganda Fide redefines missions
      • Freed from Spanish and Portuguese control
      • More secular clergy to counter the monastic orders
      • Indigenous clergy as fast as possible
    • Contextual approaches are rebuffed
      • India – Nobili’s philosophy rejected
      • China – Rite’s controversy – Roman practice to be duplicated in every detail
      • Jesuits suppressed then abolished in 1767
    • Pietism spawned spiritual renewal and missions
      • The Danish-Halle mission in Tranquebar
      • Greenland mission
    • Moravian missions was the most influential
      • Count Zinzendorf promoted missions his whole life
      • He sheltered a community of Moravians on his lands
      • Moravians started missions worldwide