INFO 6800 (Winter 2013) Week Seven: Archives Settings and Formats
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INFO 6800 (Winter 2013) Week Seven: Archives Settings and Formats

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  • GovernmentUniversityChurchCorporateAboriginalCommunity???
  • Principle of provenance holds that a fonds must be kept together and not intermingled with other fondsPrinciple of original order holds that records must be kept in the original order that they were created and/or maintainedFonds – The entire body of records of an organization, family, or individual that have been created and accumulated as the result of an organic process reflecting the functions of the creatorThe whole of the DOCUMENTS, regardless of form or medium, automatically and organically created and/or accumulated and used by a particular individual, family, or CORPORATE BODY in the course of that creator's activities or functionsEmphasis on “creatorship”Create the recordsReceive the recordsShare and manipulate information that is in or could become recordsEarly archival theorists adopted the principle of respect des fonds because itAsserted the primary nature of archives as evidenceAsserted the archivist’s primary obligation to protect integrity of evidenceThe concept has been accepted, but...It is “easier to state than define and easier to define than to put into practice”Tension between provenance and original order can make it difficult to identify and describe fondsThe archival fonds is the foundation of archival description standardsBecause it is seen as central to preserving the integrity of recordsIt is impossible to identify a fonds without a clear understanding of the creatorThe fonds cannot be artificial or synthesized after records are createdThis is a “collection” of recordsThe fonds is meant to encompass organizational and personal recordsBut most efforts to define the fonds have focused on organizational recordsMichel Duchein’s five criteria Legal identityClearly defined mandateClearly defined position in administrative hierarchyDegree of autonomy and power of decisionOrganizational chartOther approaches to identifying fondsFocus on record-keepingIs it independent?Is there a board or a committee?Is there a system of documenting decisions? Focus on series, not fondsAnything above series is historical contextTwo approaches to defining an organizational fondsMaximalistThe fonds is defined at the highest level of the organizationMinimalistThe fonds is reduced to the smallest functional cellProblems with maximalist approachLeaves administrative levels unaccounted forLarge organizations would have sub-fonds, sub-sub-fonds, etc.Is it an unacceptable degree of complexity or unfortunate reality?Problems with minimalist approachIgnores or obscures administrative and organizational realitiesThe whole can be lost by too narrow a focus on its componentsStill need to define the organizational hierarchy
  • The ACA’s Aboriginal Archives Guide poses some good questions:In what circumstances did the community agree to lease, surrender, or sell land? What kind of payments were actually distributed and how?When, where, and in what circumstances were hunting and fishing rights exercised?Were the terms of an agreement fulfilled?
  • Booms called for archivists to set up an intellectual framework before even beginning appraisal:GovernmentUniversityChurchCorporateAboriginal???
  • Principle of provenance holds that a fonds must be kept together and not intermingled with other fondsPrinciple of original order holds that records must be kept in the original order that they were created and/or maintainedFonds – The entire body of records of an organization, family, or individual that have been created and accumulated as the result of an organic process reflecting the functions of the creatorThe whole of the DOCUMENTS, regardless of form or medium, automatically and organically created and/or accumulated and used by a particular individual, family, or CORPORATE BODY in the course of that creator's activities or functionsEmphasis on “creatorship”Create the recordsReceive the recordsShare and manipulate information that is in or could become recordsEarly archival theorists adopted the principle of respect des fonds because itAsserted the primary nature of archives as evidenceAsserted the archivist’s primary obligation to protect integrity of evidenceThe concept has been accepted, but...It is “easier to state than define and easier to define than to put into practice”Tension between provenance and original order can make it difficult to identify and describe fondsThe archival fonds is the foundation of archival description standardsBecause it is seen as central to preserving the integrity of recordsIt is impossible to identify a fonds without a clear understanding of the creatorThe fonds cannot be artificial or synthesized after records are createdThis is a “collection” of recordsThe fonds is meant to encompass organizational and personal recordsBut most efforts to define the fonds have focused on organizational recordsMichel Duchein’s five criteria Legal identityClearly defined mandateClearly defined position in administrative hierarchyDegree of autonomy and power of decisionOrganizational chartOther approaches to identifying fondsFocus on record-keepingIs it independent?Is there a board or a committee?Is there a system of documenting decisions? Focus on series, not fondsAnything above series is historical contextTwo approaches to defining an organizational fondsMaximalistThe fonds is defined at the highest level of the organizationMinimalistThe fonds is reduced to the smallest functional cellProblems with maximalist approachLeaves administrative levels unaccounted forLarge organizations would have sub-fonds, sub-sub-fonds, etc.Is it an unacceptable degree of complexity or unfortunate reality?Problems with minimalist approachIgnores or obscures administrative and organizational realitiesThe whole can be lost by too narrow a focus on its componentsStill need to define the organizational hierarchy
  • Booms called for archivists to set up an intellectual framework before even beginning appraisal:Chronicle of key dates and eventsFunctional analysisInvestigate registriesBegin appraisal
  • Booms called for archivists to set up an intellectual framework before even beginning appraisal:Chronicle of key dates and eventsFunctional analysisInvestigate registriesBegin appraisal
  • Booms called for archivists to set up an intellectual framework before even beginning appraisal:GovernmentUniversityChurchCorporateAboriginal???
  • Principle of provenance holds that a fonds must be kept together and not intermingled with other fondsPrinciple of original order holds that records must be kept in the original order that they were created and/or maintainedFonds – The entire body of records of an organization, family, or individual that have been created and accumulated as the result of an organic process reflecting the functions of the creatorThe whole of the DOCUMENTS, regardless of form or medium, automatically and organically created and/or accumulated and used by a particular individual, family, or CORPORATE BODY in the course of that creator's activities or functionsEmphasis on “creatorship”Create the recordsReceive the recordsShare and manipulate information that is in or could become recordsEarly archival theorists adopted the principle of respect des fonds because itAsserted the primary nature of archives as evidenceAsserted the archivist’s primary obligation to protect integrity of evidenceThe concept has been accepted, but...It is “easier to state than define and easier to define than to put into practice”Tension between provenance and original order can make it difficult to identify and describe fondsThe archival fonds is the foundation of archival description standardsBecause it is seen as central to preserving the integrity of recordsIt is impossible to identify a fonds without a clear understanding of the creatorThe fonds cannot be artificial or synthesized after records are createdThis is a “collection” of recordsThe fonds is meant to encompass organizational and personal recordsBut most efforts to define the fonds have focused on organizational recordsMichel Duchein’s five criteria Legal identityClearly defined mandateClearly defined position in administrative hierarchyDegree of autonomy and power of decisionOrganizational chartOther approaches to identifying fondsFocus on record-keepingIs it independent?Is there a board or a committee?Is there a system of documenting decisions? Focus on series, not fondsAnything above series is historical contextTwo approaches to defining an organizational fondsMaximalistThe fonds is defined at the highest level of the organizationMinimalistThe fonds is reduced to the smallest functional cellProblems with maximalist approachLeaves administrative levels unaccounted forLarge organizations would have sub-fonds, sub-sub-fonds, etc.Is it an unacceptable degree of complexity or unfortunate reality?Problems with minimalist approachIgnores or obscures administrative and organizational realitiesThe whole can be lost by too narrow a focus on its componentsStill need to define the organizational hierarchy
  • Booms called for archivists to set up an intellectual framework before even beginning appraisal:Chronicle of key dates and eventsFunctional analysisInvestigate registriesBegin appraisal
  • Helen Samuels (using the moon landing or “shot”) illustrates that information and institutions are inherently integrated and interconnected. What kind of problems does this pose for archivists appraising records? How does Samuels suggest archivists overcome these challenges?Samuels (1986), p. 112: “For example, how many archival repositories does it take to document thecomplexities of the moon shot?7 President Kennedy committed the nation to the task, and the National Aeronauticsand Space Administration (NASA) had the responsibility to oversee and coordinate the work. Where was the workdone? Martin Marietta built the craft. MIT's Instrumentation Laboratory built the inertial guidance system.Astronomers, mathematicians, engineers, and physicists at numerous academic and industrial sites solvedspecific problems for the flight. Where is "the collection" documenting the moon shot? It exists as a unit only in the mind; physically it does not exist in one place. To gather the records together in one place—at the Kennedy Library, the National Archives, or NASA—would be artificial. As a totality the records document the efforts of the United States to place a man on the moon, but the individual parts of "the collection" document activities in the history of each participating institution—Martin Marietta, MIT, NASA, and others.”
  • Booms called for archivists to set up an intellectual framework before even beginning appraisal:GovernmentUniversityChurchCorporateAboriginal???
  • Extremely time-consumingHeavily focused on categorizationDifficult to assess impact until system is in place for many yearsDoes not address item-level issues that invariably come up
  • These citations are provided for informational and reference purposes only. Please do not use these citations as examples for formatting your own citations. Refer to style guides.
  • These citations are provided for informational and reference purposes only. Please do not use these citations as examples for formatting your own citations. Refer to style guides.
  • These citations are provided for informational and reference purposes only. Please do not use these citations as examples for formatting your own citations. Refer to style guides.

INFO 6800 (Winter 2013) Week Seven: Archives Settings and Formats INFO 6800 (Winter 2013) Week Seven: Archives Settings and Formats Presentation Transcript

  • INFO 6800 - Archives• Announcements• Archival settings and formats• Seminar presentations• Archival formats exercise (Killam 2616)http://dilbert.com/strips/comic/2003-10-30/February 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 1
  • Archives SettingsGovernment University Religious Corporate Aboriginal CommunityFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 2
  • Aboriginal Archives Ethnographic ArchivesFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 3
  • Aboriginal Archives 1. Land claimsHow doand health care2. Court systems Aboriginal3.communities use Funding agreements4. Truth and reconciliation5. Advocacy archives? Ethnographic ArchivesFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 4
  • Aboriginal Archives Oral Tradition Ethnographic ArchivesFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 5
  • Aboriginal ArchivesACA (2007) “The written records about Aboriginal life and history found in the HBC Archives are limited in several ways. The records reflect the biases of outside observers and non-participants…Although much may be learned from the written record, it is in the oral tradition that Aboriginal life and history are Ethnographic found.” ArchivesFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 6
  • Aboriginal ArchivesACA (2007) “Aboriginal communities have long used wampum, pictographs…petroglyphs…and other non-textual means to aid in the transmission of information…but such materials have not commonly found their way into archival repositories.” Ethnographic ArchivesFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 7
  • Aboriginal Archives• In what circumstances did the community agree to lease, surrender, or sell land?• What kind of payments were actually distributed and how?• When, where, and in what circumstances were hunting and fishing rights exercised?• Were the terms of an agreement fulfilled? Ethnographic ArchivesFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 8
  • Aboriginal Archives Lindsay “Archives and archivists not (2011) only organize and preserve the historical record, they support social justice by their contributions to such critical issues as Indigenous rights…” Ethnographic ArchivesFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 9
  • Aboriginal Archives EthnographicPortrait of Willard Ireland, B.C. Government Travel Bureau ArchivesFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 10
  • Archives SettingsGovernment University Religious Corporate Aboriginal CommunityFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 11
  • University Archives ResourceProcessing a fonds at the Dalhousie University Archives AllocationFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 12
  • University Archives 1. Scholarly research How do university 2. Learning and teaching 3.communities use Records management 4. Institutional memory archives? 5. Public relations, legal & admin…February 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 13
  • University Archives Brichford “Colleges and universities have (1980) sought to…enhance their reputations as research centers by collecting historical and literary archives and manuscripts collections. The prestige factor motivates both prince and legislator, president and dean.”February 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 14
  • University Archives What kind of Reference and services do researchuniversity archives provide? Records management Reproduction services Administrative Resource support AllocationFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 15
  • University Archives Brichford “Compared to government, (1980) business, and church archives, academic archives are more likely to be associated with large libraries; have smaller staffs, budgets, and holdings; rely on students and part-time assistants; and handle records with a greater variety of subject content.”February 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 16
  • University Archives How should Adjust processinguniversity archives procedures adjust to budget cuts? Focus collecting Prioritize services Advocacy Resource campaigns AllocationFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 17
  • Archives SettingsGovernment University Religious Corporate Aboriginal CommunityFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 18
  • Religious Archives 1. Genealogy How do religious 2. Parish, church history 3.communities use Records management 4. Institutional memory archives? 5. Truth and reconciliationFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 19
  • Religious Archives What kind of Administrative records do and committee religious records institutions hold? Vital records School and orphanage Records of churches, records parishes, synagogues, etc.February 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 20
  • Religious ArchivesFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 21
  • Religious ArchivesFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 22
  • Religious Archives What challenges Truth and does the TRC reconciliation present forreligious archives? PrivacyPublic perception Cost of reproductionsFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 23
  • Religious ArchivesJohn Milloy "The churches are not being co- operative at all…the Catholics are especially wary. They might say, If we give you the documents, John, and theyre the diary of priest so-and-so and this opens him up to liability…and he sues us [the church] were in all sorts of trouble. "February 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 24
  • Archives SettingsGovernment University Religious Corporate Aboriginal CommunityFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 25
  • Community Archives Labour What are LGBT Theatre / Film community Ethnic archives? ? Intangible CultureFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 26
  • Community Archives What are some of Stable fundingthe challenges with and resources community archives? Acquiring records Donor and researcher Finding archivists relationships with knowledge baseFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 27
  • Canadian Archival System Canadian Provincial Archives Council Councils Federal Provincial MunicipalGovernment Government GovernmentFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 28
  • Archival Formats Moving Audio Paper images recordings Technical Electronic Objects Drawings RecordsFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 29
  • Electronic records Textual records Graphic materials Electronic Records Moving images Sound recordingsFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 30
  • Electronic records What are the Fixity and challenges with verificationelectronic records? Duplication Storage and access Preservation of form and contentFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 31
  • Archival Formats Moving Audio Paper images recordings Technical Electronic Objects Drawings RecordsFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 32
  • Paper records Letters, diaries,Textual records memos, deeds Technical Blueprints, drawings designs… Artwork, Graphic printed images, materials newspaperFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 33
  • Paper records What are the Access and challenges with digitization paper records? Volume Identifying records of value DuplicationFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 34
  • Sources (in order of appearance)Adams, Scott (1995). Dilbert comic. http://dilbert.com/strips/comic/2003-10- 30/.Portrait of Willard Ireland. http://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/willard-e- ireland;rad.Lindsay, Anne, “Archives and Justice: Willard Ireland’s Contribution to the Changing Legal Framework of Aboriginal Rights in Canada, 1963–1973,” Archivaria 71 (Spring 2011), p. 36. http://journals.sfu.ca/archivar/index.php/archivaria/article/view/13330/ 14630.Association of Canadian Archivists, “Aboriginal Archives Guide,” (2007), p. 10. http://www.archivists.ca/sites/default/files/Attachments/Outreach_attac hments/Aboriginal_Archives_English_WEB.pdf.Story of Creation. http://www.manitobamuseum.ca/callithome/home/in- class/aboriginal-peoples-of-the-plains/.February 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 35
  • Sources (in order of appearance)Drone image. http://mashable.com/2012/12/11/student-tweets-drone- strikes/.Idle no More image. http://www.torontosun.com/2013/01/05/idle-no-more- protest-blocks-canada-us-border-traffic.University archives image. https://twitter.com/Univ_Archives.Brichford, Maynard, “Academic Archives: Uberlieferungsbildung,” American Archivist, Vol. 43, No. 4 (1980): 449-460. http://archivists.metapress.com/content/23436648670625l1/fulltext.pdf.Anglican Church of Canada map. http://www.anglican.ca/resources/gsarchives/incanada/.Residential school image. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/story/2008/05/16/f-timeline- residential-schools.html.Aboriginal artwork image. http://www.united-church.ca/aboriginal/schools/.February 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 36
  • Sources (in order of appearance)Parish register image. http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/022/f1/e002343050.jpg.Photographs of Dalhousie University Archives and the Killam Library were taken by Dalhousie Libraries staffFebruary 18, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Seven 37