INFO 6800 - Archives• Announcements• Brief history• Introduction to arrangement and  descriptionhttp://dilbert.com/strips/...
History and Development of Archives                   Roman Tabulariumwww.historyofinformation.comJanuary 14, 2013        ...
History and Development of Archives                                                   Hunain ibn Ishaq manuscriptDomesday ...
History and Development of Archives                                          In the Salon of Madame Geoffrin in 1755 (1812...
History and Development of Archives12th - 18th century  Physical Arrangement                                             D...
History and Development of Archives                   French RevolutionStorming of the Bastille and arrest of the Governor...
History and Development of Archives19th - 20th century Dismembered fonds                                      Open fonds  ...
History and Development of ArchivesJanuary 14, 2013   INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two   8
History and Development of Archives                                                   Redefining                          ...
History and Development of ArchivesLibrary and Archives Canada, Canadian Directory ServicesJanuary 14, 2013               ...
Arrangement                                   Description     Preservation                                                ...
Respect des fonds    Fonds           Fonds    Fonds           Fonds  Collection        Fonds    Fonds           Fonds     ...
Respect des fonds                                                                     EthnographicHelen Creighton with the...
Respect des fondsPhotographs from the Oland and Son and Affiliated Companies fonds (MS-4-135)January 14, 2013             ...
Respect des fondsPhotographs from the Oland and Son and Affiliated Companies fonds (MS-4-135) Collection of audio recordin...
Respect des fonds                                                               RedefiningThe First Panchen Lama, Lobzang ...
ArrangementArranging a fonds at the Dalhousie University ArchivesJanuary 14, 2013                INFO 6800 Archives – Week...
Arrangement                   Files or records within a fonds   Series                   arranged systematically or       ...
ArrangementPhysically organizing business correspondence at Dalhousie University ArchivesJanuary 14, 2013               IN...
Archival DescriptionJanuary 14, 2013        INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two   20
Archival DescriptionISAD(G), International Council on Archives (2000)January 14, 2013                INFO 6800 Archives – ...
Archival DescriptionOld folder labels at the Dalhousie University ArchivesJanuary 14, 2013                 INFO 6800 Archi...
Archival Description                                                        Archives and                                  ...
Rules for Archival Description                                                    Facilitate                       Authent...
Rules for Archival Description                   Attention to                      Integrated                       use   ...
Rules for Archival Description                    AACR2                                   RADTitle and statement of       ...
Rules for Archival Description                                                                    Archives andCanadian Arm...
Sources (in order of appearance)Adams, Scott (2000). Dilbert comic. http://dilbert.com/strips/comic/2000-03-    27/.Counci...
Sources (in order of appearance)National Archives (n.d.). An extract from Domesday Book, Westminster.    (Catalogue ref: E...
Sources (in order of appearance)Library and Archives Canada(1983). Canadian stamp of Josiah Henson. In The     Anti-Slaver...
Sources (in order of appearance)National Defense Directorate of History and Heritage. Canadian Army    Historical Section ...
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INFO 6800 (Winter 2013) Week Two: Brief History, Arrangement and Description

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  • Ancient ArchivesTabularium considered the first archivesIn ancient civilizations, archives were only preserved for the administrative use of their creatorsDescription primarily for inventory purposes (chronological order)In ancient Greece and Rome, description meant copying for external consultationMost often, the Tabularium in 1st century BCE Rome (Rome State Archives) is cited as the first archivesThis is a photo I found onlineIt’s in the Roman ForumThe earliest known archives is the royal palace at Elba in modern-day Syria. In 1974, approximately 20,000 cuneiform tablets from the 3rd millennium BC were found. The tablets provide evidence of a 150 year period of the cultural and commercial activities of a Sumerian kingdom. There are other examples in the Roman EmpireTemple of CeresLuciana Duranti has argued that concepts of “perpetual memory” and “public faith” – fundamental concepts of archival theory – are embedded in Roman Law (Duranti, 1994, p. 331)
  • Medieval AgesIn the Middle Ages, the need to consult documents grewRecords were listeditem by item, in physical arrangement (e.g., cabinet by cabinet)Guides served juridical and administrative purposesSo descriptive guides helped people find items, but also helped preserve the integrity of the archivesEarly mediaeval archives (ecclesiastical and secular) primarily held “instruments that had some financial or legal bearing” (Posner 1940, p. 159)They also contained relics – bones of the saints encased in gold, Gospel books studded with gems, charters and seals wrapped in Asiatic silks, knives and swords, etc.“Kings and princes…used to preserve these documents, together with the treasury and precious relics of the saints, in a safe place or to deposit them with the institutions of the church, which were the first to develop a certain system in keeping records” (Posner 1940, pp 159-160)These accumulations of documents were usually not connected to the chanceries (“writing offices” that issued official documents)Documents were classified by theme or subject and arranged chronologicallyThe practice of registering outgoing letters, which faded out began to prevail againInventories and lists were being drawn up all over Europe in the 13th and 14th centuries. The fonds was not an articulated concept, but it was more or less in practice because asa general rule, each government office kept its own noncurrent records
  • In the Renaissance, archives were more widely usedFirst “archives of concentration”Increasing use of archives for historical researchHistorians hired to write guidesEmergence of archiving manualsDuring the Enlightenment, archivists began to create finding aids that arranged materials by subjectDesire to facilitate historical studiesEmbodies the rationalistic and classificatory mindset of the timeDescription became strictly linked to arrangementScope of finding aid was not the fonds, it was either:Documents assembled together byform(e.g., diplomas) or bysubjectTheentire holdings of the archivesFonds had been “dismembered”Physical and intellectual arrangement were corruptedFor example, pages had been removed from registers and volumes for listing in subject guidesAdministrative and documentary context had been lostARCHIVISTS WERE FACED WITH A PROBLEMMaterials had been cited in published works according to its subject classificationEven if original order could be reconstructed, it could not be reconstructed for all materialsThe idea of physically rearranging the materials was largely abandonedDescription became a means of showing original orderPHYSICAL ARRANGEMENT BECAME DISTINCT FROM INTELLECTUAL ARRANGEMENTIntellectual arrangement and description became unified tasksBut description preceded intellectual arrangement because the materials needed to be described according to their physical order (or disorder) and then rearranged on paperIn the early- to mid-eighteenth century, efforts to consolidate archives were beginning
  • Duranti (1993, p. 48-49): “Inventories compiled between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries in the city-states of the Italian peninsula had the primary purpose of providing evidence of the existence of the documents, in connection with which they were publicly read in the general council of the city; their secondary purpose was to take stock of the material preserved for the benefit of successor custodians. The documents were usually listed item by item and according to their physical arrangement, cabinet by cabinet.”Duranti (1993, p. 49): “This concept of description continued through the time of the absolute monarchies, when archives were secret and inaccessible, and the compilation of indexes and crossreferencing tools was usually associated with it." The reason for this intense descriptive activity was that the archives of the great monarchies might be considered the first archives of concentration, in the sense that they preserved material created since theearly Middle Ages by all preceding as well as current sovereign powers and their offices. The need for physical and administrative control was keenly felt, not only for the purpose of effective retrieval, an operation which was conducted mainly on the basis of location lists and the physical arrangement of the records themselves, but also for guaranteeing that the archival repository sewed its function of "perpetual memory." Perpetual memory is a juridical concept according to which the documents preserved in an archives are authentic and permanent evidence of past actions. This idea governed every archival endeavour until the eighteenth century, and was the main reason for the preservation as well as for the description of archival material.”
  • In general, decentralization of archives is the characteristic trait of archives administration before the French Revolution.The French Revolution brought about three significant changes to archives administration (Posner 1940, p. 161)The framework of a nation-wide public archives administration was established The Archives Nationales, originally founded in 1789 developed under the decree of June 24, 1794 (7 Messidor II)Became central archives establishment of the stateSectional and local depositories were organized as Archives DepartmentalesThe state acknowledged its responsibility to care for the documentary heritage of the past. The principle that archives should be accessible to the public – “Every citizen is entitled to ask in every depository...for the production of documents it contains.” (Article 37 of the Messidor decree)French developments gradually spread across EuropeStill problems with classification and description of archival materials
  • Duranti (1993, p. 50)In the 19th century, the concept of respect des fonds was articulatedPhysical rearrangement of materials previously organized according to universal classification (rationalism of the enlightenment) was abandonedDescription became a means of showing the original order. Physical arrangement became distinct from intellectual arrangement. “…the two activities of intellectual arrangement and description converged into a unified undertaking in which the former was de facto preceded by the latter. In fact, in order to reconstruct the original archival groupings, the documents comprising the various miscellanies had to be first described according to their physical order, or disorder, and then, as far as possible, rearranged on paper.”Duranti (1993, p. 51): Adherence to respect des fonds did not bring about a return to processing that involved storing the documents in the same order in which they had been accumulated (i.e., original order) by their creatorBecause of open and large fondsThe general public began to use archival material“To maintain the original physical arrangement of an open fonds implies the ability to forecast how large that fonds will be by the time the creating office is defunct and to conserve enough empty space to store all its records. Besides, given the continuous partial transfer of material from the creating office to the archives, the whole fonds never exists in the custody of the creator, and thus there is no original physical order for the entire fonds. This implies that the principles of respect des fonds and original order can be observed only intellectually, that is, by means of description. Thus, description neither precedes physical or intellectual arrangement any more, nor does it treat the documents separately from their contextual relationships, but begins to act as a "representation,“ rather than a surrogate, of the material in its intellectual order; description becomes one with arrangement. That is why, more and more frequently, the levels of arrangement proposed by archival theorists of this century seem rather to be levels of description. That is also why description has progressively lost the purposes of accounting for the holdings of the archival institution, facilitating physical retrieval of documents and providing access to information. These purposes are now fulfilled by the compilation of accession registers, location lists, indexes and all sorts of retrieval aids. The primary purpose of writing about the records has gradually become in Europe (and is beginning to become in North America) that of illuminating provenancial and contextual relationships.”
  • There are three manuals you’ll often hear referenced in the literatureThe principle of respect des fonds or provenance, which holds that groups of records correspond to former or existing “administrative units” and should be preserved as such, was proclaimed in Belgium and France in the mid 19th centuryand reaffirmed in the 1898 Manual for the Arrangement and Description of Archives, or Dutch Manual.Samuel Muller, Johan A. Feith, and Robert Fruin’sDutch Manual isthe basis for most archival theoryin North America and beyond (though it is primarily focused on arrangement and description and does not deal with appraisal as we know it)Spells out rules for archivistsEspecially provenance and the notion of original order (that records within a single fonds be maintained using the organization system used by the records creator)Archivists consolidated around the rules spelled out in the Dutch ManualThe Dutch manual dealt extensively with arrangement and description, but the concepts were really affirmed as going hand in hand by Jenkinson with his “MORAL DEFENSE OF ARCHIVES”Archivists have moral duty to preserve the integrity of records SueMcKemmish: “to ensure that records were preserved in the context of their creation and would thereby retain their qualities as evidence of the functions and activities of the organisations or persons that created them.”Argued that this can be accomplished by arrangement and description practices that respect provenance and original orderIn 1922, Sir Hilary Jenkinson published his Manual of Archive AdministrationThe book confirmed and reinforced many of the concepts from the Dutch ManualJenkinson argued that archivists had no role in appraisal. That was to be done by the records creators. Archivists could only provide standards and guidance.Jenkinson regarded archives as “impartial evidence” and archivists as “guardians of that evidence.”Again, in early 20th century, it became impossible to maintain original physical orderMassive volumeConstant accruals (open fonds vs. closed fonds)Cook has argued that there can be no original physical order because the whole fonds never exists in the custody of the creator (who transfers regularly)Description became a “representation” of the materials in their intellectual orderLevels of arrangement became levels of descriptionDescription slowly lost the purpose of accounting for holdingsAccession registers took overArchivists from a variety of traditions began in the mid-20th century to develop national descriptive standards that reflected local practices For some “archival description” denoted a process, for others a productIt was still undefined…In 1956, T.R. Schellenberg published Modern ArchivesHe is regarded as the “Father of Appraisal Theory in the United States”He believed that a record’s “character” rather than its “quality” should be the basis for evidentiary appraisal decisions (opposed Jenkinson) Schellenberg described the different kinds of value a record might have (classified as primary and secondary values)He was also one of the first people to join management techniques to archivingArchivists continued to develop a body of writing on the theoretical foundations of archiving and the practical aspects of archivingSchellenberg’s theory of appraisal was criticized, and others were advanced
  • PostmodernismContemporary archival theory has been heavily influenced by postmodernism. Electronic records are challenging archival theory and practice.Where do we go from here?
  • Archives in CanadaNational ArchivesTotal archives conceptAssociation of Canadian ArchivistsCanadian Council on ArchivesProvincial councils (Council of Nova Scotia Archives)
  • Archival Processing – The arrangement, description, and housing of archival materials for storage and use by patronsAlso a photography term for processing photographs that are designed to produce very stable, long-lasting imagesWhy Process?Arrangement and description serve a variety of similar purposes They help archivists maintain intellectual and physical control over their holdingsThey help archivists and users find materials in a fonds To ensure that records are seen in the context in which they were createdTo enable records to serve as evidence of the actions that brought them into being
  • Principle of provenance holds that a fonds must be kept together and not intermingled with other fondsPrinciple of original order holds that records must be kept in the original order that they were created and/or maintainedFonds – The entire body of records of an organization, family, or individual that have been created and accumulated as the result of an organic process reflecting the functions of the creatorThe whole of the DOCUMENTS, regardless of form or medium, automatically and organically created and/or accumulated and used by a particular individual, family, or CORPORATE BODY in the course of that creator's activities or functionsEmphasis on “creatorship”Create the recordsReceive the recordsShare and manipulate information that is in or could become recordsEarly archival theorists adopted the principle of respect des fonds because itAsserted the primary nature of archives as evidenceAsserted the archivist’s primary obligation to protect integrity of evidenceThe concept has been accepted, but...It is “easier to state than define and easier to define than to put into practice”Tension between provenance and original order can make it difficult to identify and describe fondsThe archival fonds is the foundation of archival description standardsBecause it is seen as central to preserving the integrity of recordsIt is impossible to identify a fonds without a clear understanding of the creatorThe fonds cannot be artificial or synthesized after records are createdThis is a “collection” of recordsThe fonds is meant to encompass organizational and personal recordsBut most efforts to define the fonds have focused on organizational recordsMichel Duchein’s five criteria Legal identityClearly defined mandateClearly defined position in administrative hierarchyDegree of autonomy and power of decisionOrganizational chartOther approaches to identifying fondsFocus on record-keepingIs it independent?Is there a board or a committee?Is there a system of documenting decisions? Focus on series, not fondsAnything above series is historical contextTwo approaches to defining an organizational fondsMaximalistThe fonds is defined at the highest level of the organizationMinimalistThe fonds is reduced to the smallest functional cellProblems with maximalist approachLeaves administrative levels unaccounted forLarge organizations would have sub-fonds, sub-sub-fonds, etc.Is it an unacceptable degree of complexity or unfortunate reality?Problems with minimalist approachIgnores or obscures administrative and organizational realitiesThe whole can be lost by too narrow a focus on its componentsStill need to define the organizational hierarchy
  • IN PRACTICE, DEFINING A FONDS CAN BE MUCH MORE DIFFICULTAre the records of a business a fonds? What about the divisions?Are the records of a government agency a fonds? What about the local offices?Does a family create one fonds or several personal fonds?Other challengesOrganizational changesJurisdictional changesRecords spread across several institutionsMixing personal with businessThe writer on a non-profit boardThe family business
  • IN PRACTICE, DEFINING A FONDS CAN BE MUCH MORE DIFFICULTAre the records of a business a fonds? What about the divisions?Are the records of a government agency a fonds? What about the local offices?Does a family create one fonds or several personal fonds?Other challengesOrganizational changesJurisdictional changesRecords spread across several institutionsMixing personal with businessThe writer on a non-profit boardThe family business
  • IN PRACTICE, DEFINING A FONDS CAN BE MUCH MORE DIFFICULTAre the records of a business a fonds? What about the divisions?Are the records of a government agency a fonds? What about the local offices?Does a family create one fonds or several personal fonds?Other challengesOrganizational changesJurisdictional changesRecords spread across several institutionsMixing personal with businessThe writer on a non-profit boardThe family business
  • Concept of fonds has been criticizedA fonds can be difficult to identifyPeter Scott has argued that the concept implies the fonds “is a stable entity”Duchein says these critics focus on its application and not the principle itselfConcept of provenance is being persistently challenged in the literatureProvenance of placeProvenance of ethnicityParticipatory archiving
  • Arrangement–The process of organizing materials with respect to their provenance and original order, to protect their context and to achieve physical or intellectual control over the materials– 2. The organization and sequence of items within a collectionArrangement has external (provenance) and internal (original order) dimensionsArrangement is based on system of hierarchical levelsFondsSeriesSub-SeriesFile
  • Series – Files or records within a fonds arranged systematically or maintained as a unit because they relate to a particular function or subject, result from the same activity, have a particular form, or because of some other relationship arising out of their creation, receipt, and/or useSub-Series –A body of documents within a series readily distinguished from the whole by filing arrangement, type, form, or contentFile – A group of documents related by use or topic, typically housed in a folder or group of folders
  • Eastwood’s rules for arrangementSeparate physical control from intellectual control Identify each component of an accession with the aggregation…to which it belongsEnsure that definitions of agencies and offices are applied consistentlyEastwood’s rules for arrangementIdentify succession of superior agencies over timeIdentify predecessors or successorsIdentify creating office’s relationships and responsibilitiesIdentify series within a creating office or a succession of creating officesIdentifying seriesItems may be grouped within a filing systemItems may be grouped on the basis of similar functionItems may be grouped on the basis of similar contentItems may be grouped by formatOriginal order is evidence that individual documents cannot giveOrder can be imposed if The original order is “chaotic”The original order has been lostThere have been many accrualsIf you impose an order on the records, make note in the finding aidArrangement into series is key step.FunctionSubject/TopicResult from same activity (writings, teaching, etc, may also be specificpositions/occupations for - Secretary of State )Have a particular form/genreStrategiesSurvey entire collection first, break down into categories. Do an arrangement list and processing plan. Share with your supervisor (or Curator?)Avoid over-thinking and re-thinking:Give yourself a time-frame, make informed decision (to the best of your ability), then stick to them.
  • Archival Description – The process of analyzing, organizing, and recording details about the formal elements of a record or collection of records to facilitate the work's identification, management, and understanding– 2. The product of such a processFinding Aid – n. ~ 1. A tool that facilitates discovery of information within a collection of records– 2. A description of records that gives the repository physical and intellectual control over the materials and that assists users to gain access to and understand the materialsIf appraisal is seen as the most critical function of the archivist, arrangement and description are the most practical functionsThey are essential to maintaining control over your holdingsThey are essential for users to access your holdingsDescription was first defined by SAA in 1974 as “the process of establishing intellectual control over holdings through the preparation of finding aids” In 1985, the Canadian Working Group said “it is a major function in the processing of archival material, and the products of this function are finding aids…which give administrators control over their holdings and enable users…to find information about particular topics.”In 1989, the SAA Working Group said it “is the process of capturing, collating, analyzing, and organizing any information that serves to identify, manage, locate, and interpret [archival] holdings…and explain the context and records systems from which those holdings were selected.”There are many definitions and many potential desirable outcomes, but basically archival description is describing archival materials so they can be managed and used. I like this SAA definition, but there are others…Defining essential describable unit has been historical challengeDo we focus on the fonds? Individual documents? Between the 1980s and present day, various national and international description standards were introduced, adopted, and revisedThese standards were meant to codify the practice that had emergedCanada and the U.S. tried to establish a common descriptive standard, but couldn’t agree to certain rulesSo we now have the Rules for Archival Description (RAD) in Canada and Describing Archives: A Content Standard (DACS)in the U.S.There is also the International Standard for Archival Description, or ISAD(G).We’ll look more at these in a second…There is consensus that descriptive standards must conform to central theories of archival profession, rather than vice versaFONDS IS MOST ESSENTIAL UNIT OF RECORDS to which descriptive standards will be applied, at least in Canada
  • Hierarchical Description – A technique of writing a finding aid by describing the collection from general to specific, starting with the whole (fonds), then proceeding to the components (sous-fonds, series, subseries, files, and items)Today, archivists create what’s known as multi-level descriptions. A multi-level description is afinding aid or other access tool that consists of separate, interrelated descriptions of the whole and its parts, reflecting the hierarchy of the materials being described.What if there is no original order?Represent Admin. Structure/Hierarchy of the organization. Ideally, represent different functions of the organization.Personal PapersBiographicalCorrespondence (or other types of communication)Financial/Medical InformationWritings (or other "Creations")Roles, Occupations, ActivitiesResearch Files/Subject Files/Field Notes/Topical Files/MiscellaneousFormat - Photographs/AV/Size(Chronological Arrangement May Also Work)
  • In practice, description can be quite difficultDecisions about intellectual arrangement can be very difficult with modern archival materialsProviding an adequate degree of information is very time consuming and costlyStandards require attention, training, etc.
  • Archivists from a variety of traditions began in the mid-20th century to develop national descriptive standards that reflected local practices Descriptive Standard – A collection of rules, practices, and guidelines that codify the kinds and structure of information used to represent materials in a finding aid, catalog, or bibliographyThere are really two kinds of standards, content standards and structural standards – we’ll look at content standards firstISAD(G)RADDACS (replaced APPM)EADEACDublin CoreISAD(G) Description should proceed from the general to the specificProvide information relevant to the level of descriptionLink each description to its next higher unit of descriptionDo not repeat informationDACSAdopted by SAA as official standard in 2004Replaced APPMU.S. implementation of ISAD(G) and ISAAR (CPF)Very similar to RADRules for Archival Description (RAD)First four chapters published in 1990Additional chapters have been addedBased in part on AACR2Reflective of total archives conceptAttempts to merge RAD withAPPM failedInitiative revealed significant difference between Canadian and U.S. practiceLed to creation of DACS and revision of RAD
  • To provide access to archival materialTo promote understanding of archival materialTo establish grounds for presuming the authenticity of archival material
  • To provide access to archival materialTo promote understanding of archival materialTo establish grounds for presuming the authenticity of archival material
  • Here is a RAD finding aid from www.archeoin.ca (powered by ICA AtoM)
  • These citations are provided for informational and reference purposes only. Please do not use these citations as examples for formatting your own citations. Refer to style guides.
  • These citations are provided for informational and reference purposes only. Please do not use these citations as examples for formatting your own citations. Refer to style guides.
  • These citations are provided for informational and reference purposes only. Please do not use these citations as examples for formatting your own citations. Refer to style guides.
  • These citations are provided for informational and reference purposes only. Please do not use these citations as examples for formatting your own citations. Refer to style guides.
  • INFO 6800 (Winter 2013) Week Two: Brief History, Arrangement and Description

    1. 1. INFO 6800 - Archives• Announcements• Brief history• Introduction to arrangement and descriptionhttp://dilbert.com/strips/comic/2000-03-27/January 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 1
    2. 2. History and Development of Archives Roman Tabulariumwww.historyofinformation.comJanuary 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 2
    3. 3. History and Development of Archives Hunain ibn Ishaq manuscriptDomesday Book Tax RollJanuary 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 3
    4. 4. History and Development of Archives In the Salon of Madame Geoffrin in 1755 (1812)Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci (1485-90)January 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 4
    5. 5. History and Development of Archives12th - 18th century Physical Arrangement Description Enlightenment Intellectual Description Physical Arrangement ArrangementJanuary 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 5
    6. 6. History and Development of Archives French RevolutionStorming of the Bastille and arrest of the Governor M. de Launay, July 14, 1789January 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 6
    7. 7. History and Development of Archives19th - 20th century Dismembered fonds Open fonds respect des fonds = intellectual concept Intellectual Arrangement Physical Arrangement + DescriptionJanuary 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 7
    8. 8. History and Development of ArchivesJanuary 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 8
    9. 9. History and Development of Archives Redefining ProvenanceJanuary 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 9
    10. 10. History and Development of ArchivesLibrary and Archives Canada, Canadian Directory ServicesJanuary 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 10
    11. 11. Arrangement Description Preservation ResourceArchives decision-making diagram AllocationLibrary of Congress January 14, 2013 11
    12. 12. Respect des fonds Fonds Fonds Fonds Fonds Collection Fonds Fonds Fonds Council of Nova Scotia Archives, 2005January 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 12
    13. 13. Respect des fonds EthnographicHelen Creighton with the Gallagher family, Chebucto Head, ca. 1950 ArchivesJanuary 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 13
    14. 14. Respect des fondsPhotographs from the Oland and Son and Affiliated Companies fonds (MS-4-135)January 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 14
    15. 15. Respect des fondsPhotographs from the Oland and Son and Affiliated Companies fonds (MS-4-135) Collection of audio recordings created at four different recording studiosJanuary 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 15
    16. 16. Respect des fonds RedefiningThe First Panchen Lama, Lobzang Chökyi Gyaltsen (detail) ProvenanceJanuary 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 16
    17. 17. ArrangementArranging a fonds at the Dalhousie University ArchivesJanuary 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 17
    18. 18. Arrangement Files or records within a fonds Series arranged systematically or maintained as a unit because they relate to a particular function or subject, result from the same activity, have a particular form, or because of some other relationship arising out of their creation, receipt, and/or useJanuary 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 18
    19. 19. ArrangementPhysically organizing business correspondence at Dalhousie University ArchivesJanuary 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 19
    20. 20. Archival DescriptionJanuary 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 20
    21. 21. Archival DescriptionISAD(G), International Council on Archives (2000)January 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 21
    22. 22. Archival DescriptionOld folder labels at the Dalhousie University ArchivesJanuary 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 22
    23. 23. Archival Description Archives and the InternetJanuary 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 23
    24. 24. Rules for Archival Description Facilitate Authenticity access Purposes of materialsof archivaldescription Promote understandingJanuary 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 24
    25. 25. Rules for Archival Description Attention to Integrated use descriptionPrinciples Respect des All forms and fonds mediums Reflects Describe arrangement creatorJanuary 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 25
    26. 26. Rules for Archival Description AACR2 RADTitle and statement of Title and statement ofresponsibility responsibilityMaterial (or type of Class of materialpublication) specific specific detailsdetailsPublication, etc. Date(s) of creationPhysical description Physical descriptionN/A Archival descriptionNote January 14, 2013 Note INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 26
    27. 27. Rules for Archival Description Archives andCanadian Army Historical Section fonds finding aid on www.archeoin.cathe InternetJanuary 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 27
    28. 28. Sources (in order of appearance)Adams, Scott (2000). Dilbert comic. http://dilbert.com/strips/comic/2000-03- 27/.Council of Nova Scotia Archives. Fonds diagram. http://www.councilofnsarchives.ca/ArchWay.Helen Creighton with the Gallagher family, Chebucto Head (ca. 1950). http://www.helencreighton.org/photos/HCphotos/files/page6-1005- full.html.The First Panchen Lama, Lobzang Chökyi Gyaltsen (detail); Tsang Province, Tibet; 18th century; Rubin Museum of Art; F1996.21.2 (HAR 477). http://www.rmanyc.org/nav/exhibitions/view/1562.Jeremy Norman and Co. (2012). The Roman Tabularium. In Jeremy Norman’s From Cave Paintings to the Internet: Chronological and Thematic Studies on the History of Information and Media. http://www.historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?id=2624.January 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 28
    29. 29. Sources (in order of appearance)National Archives (n.d.). An extract from Domesday Book, Westminster. (Catalogue ref: E31/2/1). In Focus on Domesday: Take a Closer Look. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/focuson/domesday/take-a- closer-look/.National Archives (n.d.). A tax roll with a nasty tale to tell (E 401/1565). In A Medieval Mystery. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/lessons/lesson12.htm.The eye according to Hunain ibn Ishaq (circa 1200). Manuscript at the Cairo National Library. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cheshm_manuscript.jpg.Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci (1485-1490). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Da_Vinci_Vitruve_Luc_Viatour.jpg.In the Salon of Madame Geoffrin in 1755, 1812. Château de Malmaison, Rueil- Malmaison, France. http://humanexperience.stanford.edu/arcade.Anonymous (unknown). Storming of the Bastille and arrest of the Governor M. de Launay, July 14, 1789. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Anonymous_- _Prise_de_la_Bastille.jpg.January 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 29
    30. 30. Sources (in order of appearance)Library and Archives Canada(1983). Canadian stamp of Josiah Henson. In The Anti-Slavery Movement in Canada. http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/anti-slavery/033004-3000-e.html .Canadian Directory Services (2012). Map of Canada. http://www.titlesearchers.ca/registries/.Library of Congress (2010). Archival decision making process diagram. http://www.loc.gov/rr/mss/prep.html.National Defense Directorate of History and Heritage. Canadian Army Historical Section fonds. http://www.archeion.ca/canadian-army- historical-section-fonds-2;rad.International Council on Archives (2000). Model of the levels of arrangement of a fonds. In International Standard for Archival Description (General), p. 36. http://www.ica.org/10207/standards/isadg-general-international- standard-archival-description-second-edition.html.January 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 30
    31. 31. Sources (in order of appearance)National Defense Directorate of History and Heritage. Canadian Army Historical Section fonds. http://www.archeion.ca/canadian-army- historical-section-fonds-2;rad.Photographs of Dalhousie University Archives and the Killam Library were taken by Dalhousie Libraries staffPhotographs from the Oland and Son and Affiliated Sons fonds (MS-4-135) can be found on the Dalhousie University Archives facebook pageJanuary 14, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Two 31
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

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