INFO 6800 - Archives•    Announcements•    Archival appraisal•    Seminar presentations•    Appraisal exercises (Killam 26...
Archival Appraisal                                                                 ResourceDiscards at the Dalhousie Unive...
Archival Appraisal          What is the                            Identify records          purpose of                   ...
Appraisal TheoryFebruary 11, 2013       INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six   4
Schellenberg’s Primary Values                                                      Derived from Primary Value             ...
Schellenberg’s Secondary Values                                                            Primary     Secondary          ...
Appraisal Methods                                                        Resource                                         ...
Appraisal Methods    Macro-                                                Archival                          Black Box   A...
Macro-Appraisal    What should                                    Societal values archivists consider                     ...
Societal Values                                                       Archives and                                        ...
Societal ValuesFebruary 11, 2013      INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six   11
Societal ValuesFebruary 11, 2013      INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six   12
Societal Values                                                       Ethnographic                                        ...
Macro-Appraisal                    “While no one can objectively know      Cook                    or state with complete ...
Functional AnalysisA technique that sets priorities forappraising and processing materialsbased on the relative importance...
Cook’s Appraisal Questions• What are the mandated functions and  activities?• How important are these functions and  activ...
Cook’s Appraisal Questions• What aspects or features need to be  documented if a function or activity has  importance?• Wh...
Cook’s Appraisal Questions• Where in government is the Office of  Primary Interest for a particular function or  activity?...
Appraisal Methods    Macro-                                                Archival                          Black Box   A...
Documentation StrategyFebruary 11, 2013          INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six   20
Documentation Strategy    Helen             “Challenged by the abundance   Samuels                      of materials, the ...
Documentation Strategy    What are the                                       Choosing and  components of a                ...
Documentation StrategyHow can archivists                                            Definechoose and define               ...
Documentation Strategy        How should                                    Consider what         archivists              ...
Participatory ArchivingShilton and           “The “power to represent” hasSrinivasan                      been wielded by ...
Participatory ArchivingShilton and           “…memory institutions haveSrinivasan                      ignored experiences...
Participatory Archiving                                                           Ethnographic                            ...
Documentation Strategy   Samuels            “Archival collections may have                      roots in one institution, ...
Appraisal Methods    Macro-                                                Archival                          Black Box   A...
Archival Sampling• The process of selecting items from a  collection to stand for the collection  as a whole• Sampling tec...
Appraisal Methods    Macro-                                                Archival                          Black Box   A...
Minnesota Method  •    A strategy for appraising materials that       combines aspects of collection       analysis, docum...
Minnesota Method - Sectors                                                     Manufacturing                              ...
Minnesota Method - Categories                                                     Industry LeaderAgriculture Sector       ...
Minnesota Method – Documentation Levels                    Do Not Collect                          Level D                ...
Minnesota Method                                  Assign     Select     Assign Assign                              Documen...
Minnesota Method        What are the                              Extremely time-       problems with                     ...
Appraisal Methods    Macro-                                                Archival                          Black Box   A...
More Product, Less Process• Concept originally outlined for  archival processing• MPLP maintains that traditional  process...
More Product, Less Process    How does                                   Appraisal helpsprocessing relate to              ...
More Product, Less Process    Requires                                           Collections are   Acceptance             ...
More Product, Less Process        What are the                                  No framework       problems with          ...
Appraisal Methods    Macro-                                                Archival                          Black Box   A...
Appraisal as a Black BoxFebruary 11, 2013          INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six   44
Appraisal as a Black Box Boles and  Young                      “Archivists mix together                      a variety of ...
Appraisal as a Black Box                                                         Circumstances of    Value of             ...
Appraisal as a Black Box• The components and elements are not  of equal value• The relative weight is based on  institutio...
Appraisal as a Black Box                                                    Does not always   What are the                ...
Archival Appraisal Today• Many archivists still have insufficient  training and guidance• Electronic records challenge cor...
Sources (in order of appearance)Adams, Scott (1995). Dilbert comic. http://dilbert.com/strips/comic/1994-11-    16/.Writin...
Sources (in order of appearance)Drone image. http://mashable.com/2012/12/11/student-tweets-drone-     strikes/.Idle no Mor...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

INFO 6800 (Winter 2013) Week Six: Archival Appraisal

710 views
617 views

Published on

Slides for week six of INFO 6800 Archives (Winter 2013).

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
710
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
8
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • QUESTION: WHAT IS ARCHIVAL APPRAISAL?Determining whether records have permanent (archival) valueDetermining whether materials have sufficient value to be accessionedDetermining the length of time records should be retainedIntroduction to Appraisal There are a few different ways to define archival appraisalSo, archival appraisal is the process of determining whether records and other materials have permanent (archival) valueAppraisal – n. ~ 1. The process of identifying materials offered to an archives that have sufficient value to be accessionedAppraisal – n. ~ 2. The process of determining the length of time records should be retained, based on legal requirements and on their current and potential usefulnessThere is also monetary appraisal– n. ~ The process of determining a fair market value for materialsValuation – n. ~ The process of determining a cash amount that materials would likely sell for and that is acceptable to both the seller and the buyerWe’ll talk more about monetary appraisal next week
  • To identify records that will be accessionedTo identify records that build a comprehensive but compact picture of the creatorTo reduce backlogTo set priorities…QUESTION: WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF ARCHIVAL APPRAISAL?To identify records that build a comprehensive but compact picture of the creatorTo identify records that will be accessioned, arranged, and/or describedTo reduce backlogAppraisal is the most critical task of the archivistAppraisal is guided by collection policies, mission statementsAppraisal can take place prior to donation, prior to physical transfer, at or after accessioning, or during archival processingAppraisal is the most critical task of the archivistThe decision ispermanentIt makes an impact on individual, organizational, and societal memoryIt affects all other archival functionsSo it’s very important that appraisal be guided by collection policies and mission statementsAcquisition priorities are established by appraisal guidelinesThis sounds better on paper, but in reality, it’s a bit of a chicken or the egg scenarioArchives only acquire records with archival valueTo appraise records, archives need to have means of acquiring them and a way to access the records
  • Archival appraisal is carried out for a purposeThere is a process to appraisalThe product of archival appraisal is tangible, it is the archive, with all its inclusiveness and omissions. Appraisaltheory explores how archivists assign "value" to records Appraisalmethodologies are how such definitions of “value” may be identified and implementedTheory informs methodologyTheory + Methodology = PracticeSo, in the manual on macro-appraisal that was assigned for this week, Cook talks about the distinction between appraisal theory and appraisal methodologyAppraisal theory explores the sources or influences upon which archivists base their decisions to assign "value" or "significance" or "importance" to records. If a record has "value," one is obliged to ask: to whom, using what criteria, and why? Appraisal methodologies are a means whereby such theoretical or philosophical definitions of "value" may be identified and implemented in working reality.Theory informs methodologyTheory + Methodology = Practice
  • Archival Appraisal ValuesPrimary value – n. ~ The value of records derived from the original use that caused them to be createdPrimary values include administrative, fiscal, legal, and operational valueAdministrative value – n. ~ The usefulness or significance of records to support ancillary operations and the routine management of an organizationAlso involves records related to the mandate, role, or mission of an organizationOperational value is pretty much the same thingFiscal value – n. ~ The usefulness or significance of records containing financial information that is necessary to conduct current or future business or that serves as evidence of financial transactions Legal value – n. ~ The usefulness or significance of records to document and protect the rights and interests of an individual or organization, to provide for defense in litigation, to demonstrate compliance with laws and regulations, or to meet otherlegal needs
  • “The act of selection for permanent retention based on the evaluation of of secondary value [is] ultimately responsible for transforming records into archives”Two kinds of secondary value: evidential and informationalArchival Appraisal ValuesSecondary value – n. ~ The usefulness or significance of records based on purposes other than that for which they were originally createdSchellenberg said secondary values were primary concern of archivistsTwo kinds of secondary value: evidential and informationalEvidential value – n. ~ 1 The quality of records that provides information about the origins, functions, and activities of their creator~ 2 The importance or usefulness of something to prove or disprove a factReveals evidence of the structure, functions, and relationships of creatorInformational value – n. ~ The usefulness or significance of materials based on their content, independent of any intrinsic or evidential valueFocus on information about “persons, corporate bodies, things, problems, or conditions”Informational value is based on three criteriaUniqueness – The information in the record cannot be found anywhere else and must also be unique in form (i.e., not duplicated elsewhere).Form – An archivist must, according to Schellenberg, consider the form of the information (the degree to which the information is concentrated) as well as the form of the records itself (whether or not they can easily be read by others, e.g., punchcards and tape recordings would involve the use of expensive machinery to decipher).Importance – When appraising records, one must judge records first based on the needs of the government itself, then on the needs of historians/social scientists, as well as local historians and genealogists; he encourages archivists to be wary of records with sentimental value.
  • Booms called for archivists to set up an intellectual framework before even beginning appraisal:Chronicle of key dates and eventsFunctional analysisInvestigate registriesBegin appraisal
  • Booms called for archivists to set up an intellectual framework before even beginning appraisal:Chronicle of key dates and eventsFunctional analysisInvestigate registriesBegin appraisal
  • Assumes that societal values should provide the basis for appraisal decision-makingPlaces priority on:Why the records were created (function/activities)Where they were created (structure)How they were created
  • Duranti (1994, p. 337-338): “Jenkinson's position was shared by the dominant school of archival thought for at least another twenty years. In fact, what was called the “nonevaluational” nature of archival work was deeply rooted in the characteristics of the archival material and was impossible to overturn using purely empirical arguments. After all, as Ernst Posner pointed out, the two fundamental methodological principles of archival science stress the primacy of origin, structure, and function over content, use, or importance, and those principles were widely accepted in the entire Western hemisphere and beyond.In the United States, the centrality of the moral defense of archives was explicitly upheld by Margaret Cross Norton. She wrote that archivists are bound “to protect the integrity of . . . records,” and even if “historical” archives may appear to have no value for current affairs, this "does not release the custodian from his legal and moral responsibilities.”
  • Duranti (1994, p. 337-338): “Jenkinson's position was shared by the dominant school of archival thought for at least another twenty years. In fact, what was called the “nonevaluational” nature of archival work was deeply rooted in the characteristics of the archival material and was impossible to overturn using purely empirical arguments. After all, as Ernst Posner pointed out, the two fundamental methodological principles of archival science stress the primacy of origin, structure, and function over content, use, or importance, and those principles were widely accepted in the entire Western hemisphere and beyond.In the United States, the centrality of the moral defense of archives was explicitly upheld by Margaret Cross Norton. She wrote that archivists are bound “to protect the integrity of . . . records,” and even if “historical” archives may appear to have no value for current affairs, this "does not release the custodian from his legal and moral responsibilities.”
  • Duranti (1994, p. 337-338): “Jenkinson's position was shared by the dominant school of archival thought for at least another twenty years. In fact, what was called the “nonevaluational” nature of archival work was deeply rooted in the characteristics of the archival material and was impossible to overturn using purely empirical arguments. After all, as Ernst Posner pointed out, the two fundamental methodological principles of archival science stress the primacy of origin, structure, and function over content, use, or importance, and those principles were widely accepted in the entire Western hemisphere and beyond.In the United States, the centrality of the moral defense of archives was explicitly upheld by Margaret Cross Norton. She wrote that archivists are bound “to protect the integrity of . . . records,” and even if “historical” archives may appear to have no value for current affairs, this "does not release the custodian from his legal and moral responsibilities.”
  • Duranti (1994, p. 337-338): “Jenkinson's position was shared by the dominant school of archival thought for at least another twenty years. In fact, what was called the “nonevaluational” nature of archival work was deeply rooted in the characteristics of the archival material and was impossible to overturn using purely empirical arguments. After all, as Ernst Posner pointed out, the two fundamental methodological principles of archival science stress the primacy of origin, structure, and function over content, use, or importance, and those principles were widely accepted in the entire Western hemisphere and beyond.In the United States, the centrality of the moral defense of archives was explicitly upheld by Margaret Cross Norton. She wrote that archivists are bound “to protect the integrity of . . . records,” and even if “historical” archives may appear to have no value for current affairs, this "does not release the custodian from his legal and moral responsibilities.”
  • Duranti (1994, p. 337-338): “Jenkinson's position was shared by the dominant school of archival thought for at least another twenty years. In fact, what was called the “nonevaluational” nature of archival work was deeply rooted in the characteristics of the archival material and was impossible to overturn using purely empirical arguments. After all, as Ernst Posner pointed out, the two fundamental methodological principles of archival science stress the primacy of origin, structure, and function over content, use, or importance, and those principles were widely accepted in the entire Western hemisphere and beyond.In the United States, the centrality of the moral defense of archives was explicitly upheld by Margaret Cross Norton. She wrote that archivists are bound “to protect the integrity of . . . records,” and even if “historical” archives may appear to have no value for current affairs, this "does not release the custodian from his legal and moral responsibilities.”
  • A technique that sets priorities for appraising and processing materials based on the relative importance of the functions performed in an organizationArchivist uses knowledge gained by functional analysis to make appraisal decisionsRequires examination of:Intersections between structure, functions, and individualsCitizen-client involvementOrganizational cultureRecords-keeping systems
  • A technique that sets priorities for appraising and processing materials based on the relative importance of the functions performed in an organizationArchivist uses knowledge gained by functional analysis to make appraisal decisionsRequires examination of:Intersections between structure, functions, and individualsCitizen-client involvementOrganizational cultureRecords-keeping systems
  • A technique that sets priorities for appraising and processing materials based on the relative importance of the functions performed in an organizationArchivist uses knowledge gained by functional analysis to make appraisal decisionsRequires examination of:Intersections between structure, functions, and individualsCitizen-client involvementOrganizational cultureRecords-keeping systems
  • A technique that sets priorities for appraising and processing materials based on the relative importance of the functions performed in an organizationArchivist uses knowledge gained by functional analysis to make appraisal decisionsRequires examination of:Intersections between structure, functions, and individualsCitizen-client involvementOrganizational cultureRecords-keeping systems
  • Booms called for archivists to set up an intellectual framework before even beginning appraisal:Chronicle of key dates and eventsFunctional analysisInvestigate registriesBegin appraisal
  • Helen Samuels (using the moon landing or “shot”) illustrates that information and institutions are inherently integrated and interconnected. What kind of problems does this pose for archivists appraising records? How does Samuels suggest archivists overcome these challenges?Samuels (1986), p. 112: “For example, how many archival repositories does it take to document thecomplexities of the moon shot?7 President Kennedy committed the nation to the task, and the National Aeronauticsand Space Administration (NASA) had the responsibility to oversee and coordinate the work. Where was the workdone? Martin Marietta built the craft. MIT's Instrumentation Laboratory built the inertial guidance system.Astronomers, mathematicians, engineers, and physicists at numerous academic and industrial sites solvedspecific problems for the flight. Where is "the collection" documenting the moon shot? It exists as a unit only in the mind; physically it does not exist in one place. To gather the records together in one place—at the Kennedy Library, the National Archives, or NASA—would be artificial. As a totality the records document the efforts of the United States to place a man on the moon, but the individual parts of "the collection" document activities in the history of each participating institution—Martin Marietta, MIT, NASA, and others.”
  • Booms called for archivists to set up an intellectual framework before even beginning appraisal:Chronicle of key dates and eventsFunctional analysisInvestigate registriesBegin appraisal
  • Booms called for archivists to set up an intellectual framework before even beginning appraisal:Chronicle of key dates and eventsFunctional analysisInvestigate registriesBegin appraisal
  • Booms called for archivists to set up an intellectual framework before even beginning appraisal:Chronicle of key dates and eventsFunctional analysisInvestigate registriesBegin appraisal
  • Duranti (1994, p. 337-338): “Jenkinson's position was shared by the dominant school of archival thought for at least another twenty years. In fact, what was called the “nonevaluational” nature of archival work was deeply rooted in the characteristics of the archival material and was impossible to overturn using purely empirical arguments. After all, as Ernst Posner pointed out, the two fundamental methodological principles of archival science stress the primacy of origin, structure, and function over content, use, or importance, and those principles were widely accepted in the entire Western hemisphere and beyond.In the United States, the centrality of the moral defense of archives was explicitly upheld by Margaret Cross Norton. She wrote that archivists are bound “to protect the integrity of . . . records,” and even if “historical” archives may appear to have no value for current affairs, this "does not release the custodian from his legal and moral responsibilities.”
  • Duranti (1994, p. 337-338): “Jenkinson's position was shared by the dominant school of archival thought for at least another twenty years. In fact, what was called the “nonevaluational” nature of archival work was deeply rooted in the characteristics of the archival material and was impossible to overturn using purely empirical arguments. After all, as Ernst Posner pointed out, the two fundamental methodological principles of archival science stress the primacy of origin, structure, and function over content, use, or importance, and those principles were widely accepted in the entire Western hemisphere and beyond.In the United States, the centrality of the moral defense of archives was explicitly upheld by Margaret Cross Norton. She wrote that archivists are bound “to protect the integrity of . . . records,” and even if “historical” archives may appear to have no value for current affairs, this "does not release the custodian from his legal and moral responsibilities.”
  • Booms called for archivists to set up an intellectual framework before even beginning appraisal:Chronicle of key dates and eventsFunctional analysisInvestigate registriesBegin appraisal
  • Basic approachDefine archives’ mission and goalsAnalyze extant holdingsSurvey documentary universeDefine criteria to organize and prioritize records creators into broad groups (“priority sectors”)Establish a range of documentation levels Define criteria (if necessary) for further refining the prioritization of creatorsLink priority group levels with documentation levelsUse intellectual framework to guide acquisition and reappraisal decisionsRevise framework over time to account for changes and results of evaluation
  • Extremely time-consumingHeavily focused on categorizationDifficult to assess impact until system is in place for many yearsDoes not address item-level issues that invariably come up
  • Booms called for archivists to set up an intellectual framework before even beginning appraisal:Chronicle of key dates and eventsFunctional analysisInvestigate registriesBegin appraisal
  • Concept originally outlined for archival processingMPLP maintains that traditional processing is not efficient use of staff resourcesCollections should receive minimal processing to help eliminate backlogDerived from fundamental statements about the archival enterpriseUse is the end of the archival effortBacklogs hinder use and threaten repositoriesArchivists should consider mission, audience, and resources“Good enough” is normally fine
  • How does it relate to appraisal?Appraisal plays substantial role in creating backlogsMany archives do not do appraisal before acquisitionsMany archives do appraisal during processing (often at the file or item level)
  • Requires acceptance – collections are too large for file-level appraisalRequires planning – archives should not spend time on undesired recordsShifts location – appraisal happens at the home/office of originMakes compromises – archivists must balance resources
  • No framework existsWhat does it mean?How can its effectiveness be measured?
  • Booms called for archivists to set up an intellectual framework before even beginning appraisal:Chronicle of key dates and eventsFunctional analysisInvestigate registriesBegin appraisal
  • Three broad categories: Value of informationCost of retentionImplications of recommendationsEach category (“module”) is broken down into “components,” “subcomponents,” and “elements” Value of InformationCircumstances of creationAnalysis of contentPractical limitationsDuplication of informationTopical analysisUse of recordsCost of retentionStorageProcessingConservationReference (Access)Implication of recommendationsPolitical considerationsAuthority/InfluenceDisagreementsProcedural precedentsValue of InformationCost of Retention
  • Testing found that system did not always accurately reflect archivists’ judgmentsSystem was inherently flawedThere is no set of policies that can be applied in all situationsUniversal appraisal is not possible
  • These citations are provided for informational and reference purposes only. Please do not use these citations as examples for formatting your own citations. Refer to style guides.
  • These citations are provided for informational and reference purposes only. Please do not use these citations as examples for formatting your own citations. Refer to style guides.
  • INFO 6800 (Winter 2013) Week Six: Archival Appraisal

    1. 1. INFO 6800 - Archives• Announcements• Archival appraisal• Seminar presentations• Appraisal exercises (Killam 2616)http://dilbert.com/strips/comic/1994-11-16/February 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 1
    2. 2. Archival Appraisal ResourceDiscards at the Dalhousie University Archives AllocationFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 2
    3. 3. Archival Appraisal What is the Identify records purpose of to be accessioned appraisal? Reduce backlogMeet mandate Comprehensive but compactFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 3
    4. 4. Appraisal TheoryFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 4
    5. 5. Schellenberg’s Primary Values Derived from Primary Value original use for creator What are theAdministrative value Fiscal value primary values? Legal value Operational value February 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 5
    6. 6. Schellenberg’s Secondary Values Primary Secondary concern for Value archivists What are the Evidential Informationalsecondary Form values?What is informational value? Uniqueness Importance February 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 6
    7. 7. Appraisal Methods Resource AllocationFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 7
    8. 8. Appraisal Methods Macro- Archival Black Box Appraisal Sampling Minnesota Documentation More Product Method Strategy Less ProcessFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 8
    9. 9. Macro-Appraisal What should Societal values archivists consider (provides basis) when makingappraisal decisions? How records are created Organizational structure Functions and ActivitiesFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 9
    10. 10. Societal Values Archives and the InternetFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 10
    11. 11. Societal ValuesFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 11
    12. 12. Societal ValuesFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 12
    13. 13. Societal Values Ethnographic ArchivesFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 13
    14. 14. Macro-Appraisal “While no one can objectively know Cook or state with complete assurance what the elements of societal value(s) are or have been within any given generation, archivists can develop appraisal strategies and methodologies that are most likely to provide a comprehensive documentary memory of what has transpired in society over time.”February 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 14
    15. 15. Functional AnalysisA technique that sets priorities forappraising and processing materialsbased on the relative importance of thefunctions performed in an organization Archivist uses knowledge gained by functional analysis to make appraisal decisionsFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 15
    16. 16. Cook’s Appraisal Questions• What are the mandated functions and activities?• How important are these functions and activities?• How important are these functions and activities within the broader context of Canadian society?February 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 16
    17. 17. Cook’s Appraisal Questions• What aspects or features need to be documented if a function or activity has importance?• What constitutes sufficient documentation from an archival perspective?February 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 17
    18. 18. Cook’s Appraisal Questions• Where in government is the Office of Primary Interest for a particular function or activity?• Is the Office of Primary Interest the location of the best archival record which documents the function or activity?February 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 18
    19. 19. Appraisal Methods Macro- Archival Black Box Appraisal Sampling Minnesota Documentation More Product Method Strategy Less ProcessFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 19
    20. 20. Documentation StrategyFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 20
    21. 21. Documentation Strategy Helen “Challenged by the abundance Samuels of materials, the scarcity of the resources to care for them, and the decentralized nature of contemporary society and its records, archivists must develop new intellectual frameworks to guide them.” Resource AllocationFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 21
    22. 22. Documentation Strategy What are the Choosing and components of a defining topics documentation strategy? Structure and conduct inquiry Selecting theadvisors and site Select and place documentationFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 22
    23. 23. Documentation StrategyHow can archivists Definechoose and define chronological documentation boundaries strategies? Think of posterity Topical andgeographic scope Understanding today’s valuesFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 23
    24. 24. Documentation Strategy How should Consider what archivists documentation approach the doesn’t exist chosen topic? Detailed investigationDesign analytical process Collaborate with other archivistsFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 24
    25. 25. Participatory ArchivingShilton and “The “power to represent” hasSrinivasan been wielded by information institutions throughout history, and the manifestations of this power have helped to build societal definitions of culture.” Ethnographic ArchivesFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 25
    26. 26. Participatory ArchivingShilton and “…memory institutions haveSrinivasan ignored experiences outside of the history of the powerful, creating collecting gaps… archives have appropriated the histories of marginalized communities, creating archives about rather than of the Ethnographic communities…” ArchivesFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 26
    27. 27. Participatory Archiving Ethnographic ArchivesFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 27
    28. 28. Documentation Strategy Samuels “Archival collections may have roots in one institution, but their limbs reach out and touch others. A common soil and water source enriches and binds collections together. Archivists should offer the future not individual trees, but a forest.” Resource AllocationFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 28
    29. 29. Appraisal Methods Macro- Archival Black Box Appraisal Sampling Minnesota Documentation More Product Method Strategy Less ProcessFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 29
    30. 30. Archival Sampling• The process of selecting items from a collection to stand for the collection as a whole• Sampling techniques • Probability or statistical sampling • Purposive or judgmental samplingFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 30
    31. 31. Appraisal Methods Macro- Archival Black Box Appraisal Sampling Minnesota Documentation More Product Method Strategy Less ProcessFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 31
    32. 32. Minnesota Method • A strategy for appraising materials that combines aspects of collection analysis, documentation strategy, macro- appraisal, and functional analysis • Developed at Minnesota Historical Society by Mark Greene and Todd Daniels-HowellsFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 32
    33. 33. Minnesota Method - Sectors Manufacturing Agriculture Economy Healthcare TransportationFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 33
    34. 34. Minnesota Method - Categories Industry LeaderAgriculture Sector Top 5 Top 25February 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 34
    35. 35. Minnesota Method – Documentation Levels Do Not Collect Level D Level C Level B Level AFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 35
    36. 36. Minnesota Method Assign Select Assign Assign Documentation Records Sector Category LevelFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 36
    37. 37. Minnesota Method What are the Extremely time- problems with consuming Minnesota Method? Difficult to assess Focused on categorization Does not address item-level issuesFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 37
    38. 38. Appraisal Methods Macro- Archival Black Box Appraisal Sampling Minnesota Documentation More Product Method Strategy Less ProcessFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 38
    39. 39. More Product, Less Process• Concept originally outlined for archival processing• MPLP maintains that traditional processing is not efficient use of staff resources• Collections should receive minimal processing to help eliminate backlogFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 39
    40. 40. More Product, Less Process How does Appraisal helpsprocessing relate to create or appraisal? eliminate backlogMany archivistsappraise during Many archivists do processing not appraise before acquisitionFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 40
    41. 41. More Product, Less Process Requires Collections are Acceptance too large Requires Don’t waste Planning time on junk Appraisal atShifts Locations home/office Makes BalanceCompromises resources February 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 41
    42. 42. More Product, Less Process What are the No framework problems with exists MPLP? Not clearly Difficult to defined measure effectivenessFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 42
    43. 43. Appraisal Methods Macro- Archival Black Box Appraisal Sampling Minnesota Documentation More Product Method Strategy Less ProcessFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 43
    44. 44. Appraisal as a Black BoxFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 44
    45. 45. Appraisal as a Black Box Boles and Young “Archivists mix together a variety of values and record characteristics and pull from the box a determination of the records’ value”February 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 45
    46. 46. Appraisal as a Black Box Circumstances of Value of creation and Information analysis of content Cost of Storage and Information core functions Implications of Politics andRecommendation precedent February 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 46
    47. 47. Appraisal as a Black Box• The components and elements are not of equal value• The relative weight is based on institutional policies• Modules, components, and elements are dynamic and interactiveFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 47
    48. 48. Appraisal as a Black Box Does not always What are the reflect archivists’problems with the judgmentsBlack Box method? Universal policies are bad Inherently flawed! Universal appraisal is not possibleFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 48
    49. 49. Archival Appraisal Today• Many archivists still have insufficient training and guidance• Electronic records challenge core appraisal principles • Difficult to determine values • Different methods of creation and use• Appraisal can still be a mystery!February 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 49
    50. 50. Sources (in order of appearance)Adams, Scott (1995). Dilbert comic. http://dilbert.com/strips/comic/1994-11- 16/.Writings of Sir Hilary Jenkinson cover image. http://thesocietyofqualifiedarchivists.blogspot.ca/2005_02_08_archive.h tml.Modern Archives cover image. http://www.archivalmediaconsulting.com/blog/rise-and-consequences- of-the-digital-information-age.Karson, Ted Roger (2009). Moon image. http://www.flickr.com/photos/tedsla/3422530873/sizes/o/.Occupy Wall Street image. http://news.nationalpost.com/2011/12/31/25- best-occupy-photos-of-2011-2/.Assange/Zuckerburg image. http://occupymedfordoregon.org/photo/occupy- the-world/#axzz2IHpaFI5w.February 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 50
    51. 51. Sources (in order of appearance)Drone image. http://mashable.com/2012/12/11/student-tweets-drone- strikes/.Idle no More image. http://www.torontosun.com/2013/01/05/idle-no-more- protest-blocks-canada-us-border-traffic.Black box image. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_box.Photographs of Dalhousie University Archives and the Killam Library were taken by Dalhousie Libraries staffFebruary 11, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Six 51

    ×