INFO 6800 - Archives• Announcements• Archival appraisal• Seminar presentationshttp://dilbert.com/strips/comic/1995-02-23/F...
Archival Appraisal                    What is                    archival                   appraisal?Discards at the Dalh...
Archival Appraisal          What is the                            Identify records          purpose of                   ...
Appraisal PracticeFebruary 4, 2013       INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five   4
Appraisal Practice                                                                 ResourceProcessing a fonds at the Dalho...
Appraisal Practice 1. Provenance and content   What should an 2. Values            archivist 3. Authenticity and reliabili...
Appraisal TheoryFebruary 4, 2013      INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five   7
Appraisal Theory     Historical      Context                                               ?                              ...
Appraisal Theory                   Creators                                             Respect                     and   ...
Appraisal TheoryFebruary 4, 2013      INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five   10
Jenkinson What is the moral                                    Protect   defense of                                       ...
Jenkinson Duranti “The primary duty of the (1994) archivist was to the evidentiary         nature of archival material, an...
Schellenberg          How does                                                        Selection is        Schellenberg    ...
SchellenbergSchellenberg       “Can we, faced with these                   modern accumulations, leave any                ...
Schellenberg’s Primary Values                                                      Derived from Primary Value             ...
Schellenberg’s Secondary Values                                                            Primary     Secondary          ...
Intrinsic ValueLeo Cullum, April 21, 2008 (New Yorker Magazine)February 4, 2013               INFO 6800 Archives – Week Fi...
Luciana Duranti    What are the                                Interrelationship  characteristics of                      ...
Luciana Duranti     Duranti       “…the role of the concept of     (1994)                   accountability in archival the...
Richard Cox                                                How do we                                                unders...
Richard Cox Cox (2004)                   “Appraisal seems to have drifted                   into a world of confused, conf...
Maynard J. Brichford   Brichford        “An archivist cannot rely on                    principles, laws, and             ...
Maynard J. Brichford                                                         Redefining                                   ...
Hans Booms     Booms         “Archivists must bring with them                   the concepts they need in order           ...
Hans BoomsFebruary 4, 2013    INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five   25
Hans Booms              Chronicle of key dates and events                     Functional analysis                    Inves...
Tom Nesmith    Nesmith        “A kind of archival “appraisal” is     (2011)                   thereby going on in society ...
Tom Nesmith   ArchivalAccountability                   “…documenting appraisal as a                                       ...
Tom Nesmith                                               Research and    What should an                            decisi...
Appraisal Methods                                                        Resource                                         ...
Appraisal Methods    Macro-                                                Archival                         Black Box   Ap...
Sources (in order of appearance)Adams, Scott (1995). Dilbert comic. http://dilbert.com/strips/comic/1995-02-     23/.Writi...
Sources (in order of appearance)Brainstuck.com (2008). Corporate hierarchy diagram.http://www.brainstuck.com/2009/03/21/co...
Sources (in order of appearance)Booms, Hans. “Uberlieferungsbildung: Keeping archives as a social and    political activit...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

INFO 6800 (Winter 2013) Week Five: Archival Appraisal

945 views
859 views

Published on

Slides for week 5 of INFO 6800 Archives (Winter 2013).

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
945
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
28
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • QUESTION: WHAT IS ARCHIVAL APPRAISAL?Determining whether records have permanent (archival) valueDetermining whether materials have sufficient value to be accessionedDetermining the length of time records should be retainedIntroduction to Appraisal There are a few different ways to define archival appraisalSo, archival appraisal is the process of determining whether records and other materials have permanent (archival) valueAppraisal – n. ~ 1. The process of identifying materials offered to an archives that have sufficient value to be accessionedAppraisal – n. ~ 2. The process of determining the length of time records should be retained, based on legal requirements and on their current and potential usefulnessThere is also monetary appraisal– n. ~ The process of determining a fair market value for materialsValuation – n. ~ The process of determining a cash amount that materials would likely sell for and that is acceptable to both the seller and the buyerWe’ll talk more about monetary appraisal next week
  • To identify records that will be accessionedTo identify records that build a comprehensive but compact picture of the creatorTo reduce backlogTo set priorities…QUESTION: WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF ARCHIVAL APPRAISAL?To identify records that build a comprehensive but compact picture of the creatorTo identify records that will be accessioned, arranged, and/or describedTo reduce backlogAppraisal is the most critical task of the archivistAppraisal is guided by collection policies, mission statementsAppraisal can take place prior to donation, prior to physical transfer, at or after accessioning, or during archival processingAppraisal is the most critical task of the archivistThe decision ispermanentIt makes an impact on individual, organizational, and societal memoryIt affects all other archival functionsSo it’s very important that appraisal be guided by collection policies and mission statementsAcquisition priorities are established by appraisal guidelinesThis sounds better on paper, but in reality, it’s a bit of a chicken or the egg scenarioArchives only acquire records with archival valueTo appraise records, archives need to have means of acquiring them and a way to access the records
  • Appraisal can take place in a variety of situations:Prior to donationPrior to physical transferAt or after accessioningDuring archival processingAppraisal may be done at any levelFondsSeriesFileItem
  • Principle of provenance holds that a fonds must be kept together and not intermingled with other fondsPrinciple of original order holds that records must be kept in the original order that they were created and/or maintainedFonds – The entire body of records of an organization, family, or individual that have been created and accumulated as the result of an organic process reflecting the functions of the creatorThe whole of the DOCUMENTS, regardless of form or medium, automatically and organically created and/or accumulated and used by a particular individual, family, or CORPORATE BODY in the course of that creator's activities or functionsEmphasis on “creatorship”Create the recordsReceive the recordsShare and manipulate information that is in or could become recordsEarly archival theorists adopted the principle of respect des fonds because itAsserted the primary nature of archives as evidenceAsserted the archivist’s primary obligation to protect integrity of evidenceThe concept has been accepted, but...It is “easier to state than define and easier to define than to put into practice”Tension between provenance and original order can make it difficult to identify and describe fondsThe archival fonds is the foundation of archival description standardsBecause it is seen as central to preserving the integrity of recordsIt is impossible to identify a fonds without a clear understanding of the creatorThe fonds cannot be artificial or synthesized after records are createdThis is a “collection” of recordsThe fonds is meant to encompass organizational and personal recordsBut most efforts to define the fonds have focused on organizational recordsMichel Duchein’s five criteria Legal identityClearly defined mandateClearly defined position in administrative hierarchyDegree of autonomy and power of decisionOrganizational chartOther approaches to identifying fondsFocus on record-keepingIs it independent?Is there a board or a committee?Is there a system of documenting decisions? Focus on series, not fondsAnything above series is historical contextTwo approaches to defining an organizational fondsMaximalistThe fonds is defined at the highest level of the organizationMinimalistThe fonds is reduced to the smallest functional cellProblems with maximalist approachLeaves administrative levels unaccounted forLarge organizations would have sub-fonds, sub-sub-fonds, etc.Is it an unacceptable degree of complexity or unfortunate reality?Problems with minimalist approachIgnores or obscures administrative and organizational realitiesThe whole can be lost by too narrow a focus on its componentsStill need to define the organizational hierarchy
  • Archival appraisal is carried out for a purposeThere is a process to appraisalThe product of archival appraisal is tangible, it is the archive, with all its inclusiveness and omissions. Appraisaltheory explores how archivists assign "value" to records Appraisalmethodologies are how such definitions of “value” may be identified and implementedTheory informs methodologyTheory + Methodology = PracticeSo, in the manual on macro-appraisal that was assigned for this week, Cook talks about the distinction between appraisal theory and appraisal methodologyAppraisal theory explores the sources or influences upon which archivists base their decisions to assign "value" or "significance" or "importance" to records. If a record has "value," one is obliged to ask: to whom, using what criteria, and why? Appraisal methodologies are a means whereby such theoretical or philosophical definitions of "value" may be identified and implemented in working reality.Theory informs methodologyTheory + Methodology = Practice
  • Principle of provenance holds that a fonds must be kept together and not intermingled with other fondsPrinciple of original order holds that records must be kept in the original order that they were created and/or maintainedFonds – The entire body of records of an organization, family, or individual that have been created and accumulated as the result of an organic process reflecting the functions of the creatorThe whole of the DOCUMENTS, regardless of form or medium, automatically and organically created and/or accumulated and used by a particular individual, family, or CORPORATE BODY in the course of that creator's activities or functionsEmphasis on “creatorship”Create the recordsReceive the recordsShare and manipulate information that is in or could become recordsEarly archival theorists adopted the principle of respect des fonds because itAsserted the primary nature of archives as evidenceAsserted the archivist’s primary obligation to protect integrity of evidenceThe concept has been accepted, but...It is “easier to state than define and easier to define than to put into practice”Tension between provenance and original order can make it difficult to identify and describe fondsThe archival fonds is the foundation of archival description standardsBecause it is seen as central to preserving the integrity of recordsIt is impossible to identify a fonds without a clear understanding of the creatorThe fonds cannot be artificial or synthesized after records are createdThis is a “collection” of recordsThe fonds is meant to encompass organizational and personal recordsBut most efforts to define the fonds have focused on organizational recordsMichel Duchein’s five criteria Legal identityClearly defined mandateClearly defined position in administrative hierarchyDegree of autonomy and power of decisionOrganizational chartOther approaches to identifying fondsFocus on record-keepingIs it independent?Is there a board or a committee?Is there a system of documenting decisions? Focus on series, not fondsAnything above series is historical contextTwo approaches to defining an organizational fondsMaximalistThe fonds is defined at the highest level of the organizationMinimalistThe fonds is reduced to the smallest functional cellProblems with maximalist approachLeaves administrative levels unaccounted forLarge organizations would have sub-fonds, sub-sub-fonds, etc.Is it an unacceptable degree of complexity or unfortunate reality?Problems with minimalist approachIgnores or obscures administrative and organizational realitiesThe whole can be lost by too narrow a focus on its componentsStill need to define the organizational hierarchy
  • Archivists should document entire spectrum of social phenomenaThe level of documentation should be based on the importance society gave to a given phenomenonIs this a call for participatory appraisal?Archival value is not intrinsic to the record, and generally cannot be established thereArchivists must be able to make the judgment: This belongs to documentary heritage, while that does not
  • Dutch ManualProvenance and original orderSir Hilary JenkinsonSubjectivity of appraisal destroys evidential quality of archivesT.R. SchellenbergPrimary and secondary valuesAppraisal TheoristsSo you might have noticed that a good portion of the history and development of archives that we talked about dealt with appraisalThere was the 1898 Manual for the Arrangement and Description of Archives (Dutch Manual)Articulated principles of provenance and original orderSelection was not commonSir Hilary Jenkinson’sManual of Archive Administration in 1956Said archivists should be impartial guardiansSaid the subjectivity of appraising someone else’s records would destroy evidential quality of archivesRecords creator should be responsible for appraisalT.R. Schellenberg’sModern Archives in 1956Outlined primary and secondary value of records, which we’ll get to in a minute
  • QUESTION: WHAT IS THE MORAL DEFENSE OF ARCHIVES?Duranti (1994, p. 337-338): “Jenkinson's position was shared by the dominant school of archival thought for at least another twenty years. In fact, what was called the “nonevaluational” nature of archival work was deeply rooted in the characteristics of the archival material and was impossible to overturn using purely empirical arguments. After all, as Ernst Posner pointed out, the two fundamental methodological principles of archival science stress the primacy of origin, structure, and function over content, use, or importance, and those principles were widely accepted in the entire Western hemisphere and beyond.In the United States, the centrality of the moral defense of archives was explicitly upheld by Margaret Cross Norton. She wrote that archivists are bound “to protect the integrity of . . . records,” and even if “historical” archives may appear to have no value for current affairs, this "does not release the custodian from his legal and moral responsibilities.” The moral defense of archives is the idea that archivists’ primary purpose is to protect the integrity and accountability of records. Jenkinson and other proponents sought to achieve this through arrangement and description; they thought that appraisal harmed the integrity of the records.  Today, appraisal is considered the “primary” function of archivists. Archivists have come to realize their role in the selection of records and shaping of history. Issues like integrity and accountability are seen as subjective aspects of records fraught with theoretical and practical problems.
  • Duranti (1994, p. 337-338): “Jenkinson's position was shared by the dominant school of archival thought for at least another twenty years. In fact, what was called the “nonevaluational” nature of archival work was deeply rooted in the characteristics of the archival material and was impossible to overturn using purely empirical arguments. After all, as Ernst Posner pointed out, the two fundamental methodological principles of archival science stress the primacy of origin, structure, and function over content, use, or importance, and those principles were widely accepted in the entire Western hemisphere and beyond.In the United States, the centrality of the moral defense of archives was explicitly upheld by Margaret Cross Norton. She wrote that archivists are bound “to protect the integrity of . . . records,” and even if “historical” archives may appear to have no value for current affairs, this "does not release the custodian from his legal and moral responsibilities.”
  • QUESTION: HOW DID SCHELLENBERG DEPART FROM JENKINSON’S THEORY OF ARCHIVES?Jenkinson believed appraisal corrupted the integrity of archives. Schellenberg introduced the notion of “secondary use” and, based on pragmatic issues surrounding the management of the massive quantities of records, advocated for recognition of values of records and even presented different definitions for records and archives. Reto (2002, p. 178): “In his definition of archives, Jenkinson stressed their custodial history, their organic structure, and their accumulation through natural processes: A document which may be said to belong to the class of Archives is one which was drawn up or used in the course of an administrative or executive transaction (whether public or private) of which itself formed a part; and subsequently preserved in their own custody for their own information by the person or persons responsible for that transaction and their legitimate successors. Jenkinson argued that the manner in which archives were created, that is, their natural accumulation during the course of regular activities, as opposed to their having been “singled out for preservation,” and their creation and preservation by their creators for their own particular use without consideration as to their future use, endowed archives with the qualities of impartiality and authenticity. These qualities, in turn, gave to archives their particular value as evidence of the past.” Reto (2002, p. 180): “Since Schellenberg saw the process of selection as central to the archivist’s role, he also made it central to his definition of archives: Those records of any public or private institution which are adjudged worthy of permanent preservation for reference and research purposes and which have been deposited or have been selected for deposit in an archival institution.” Duranti (1994, p. 338): “However, the role of the concept of accountability in archival theory, as adopted in the United States, was undermined by Schellenberg’s desire to promote the cultural identity of archival repositories and the role of archivists as appraisers of records. He defined records in a way even more limited than that in which Jenkinson had defined archives, and he redefined archives as a species of records, the main difference being in the fact that archives “must be preserved for reasons other than those for which they were created or accumulated.” Then he presented the concept of evidential value as an exclusive concern of secondary users. By doing so, he prepared the path for the complete divergence of American archival practice from that of the rest of the Western world.”
  • 1956 – Modern ArchivesMassive growth in records Records management profession emerged in 1940s and 1950sArchivists should be concerned about entire “life cycle” of recordArchivists must do appraisalSchellenberg believed a record’s “character” and not its “quality” should be the basis of appraisal decisionsEmphasized research and analysis on the part of the archivistOutlined primary and secondary values of records
  • Archival Appraisal ValuesPrimary value – n. ~ The value of records derived from the original use that caused them to be createdPrimary values include administrative, fiscal, legal, and operational valueAdministrative value – n. ~ The usefulness or significance of records to support ancillary operations and the routine management of an organizationAlso involves records related to the mandate, role, or mission of an organizationOperational value is pretty much the same thingFiscal value – n. ~ The usefulness or significance of records containing financial information that is necessary to conduct current or future business or that serves as evidence of financial transactions Legal value – n. ~ The usefulness or significance of records to document and protect the rights and interests of an individual or organization, to provide for defense in litigation, to demonstrate compliance with laws and regulations, or to meet otherlegal needs
  • “The act of selection for permanent retention based on the evaluation of of secondary value [is] ultimately responsible for transforming records into archives”Two kinds of secondary value: evidential and informationalArchival Appraisal ValuesSecondary value – n. ~ The usefulness or significance of records based on purposes other than that for which they were originally createdSchellenberg said secondary values were primary concern of archivistsTwo kinds of secondary value: evidential and informationalEvidential value – n. ~ 1 The quality of records that provides information about the origins, functions, and activities of their creator~ 2 The importance or usefulness of something to prove or disprove a factReveals evidence of the structure, functions, and relationships of creatorInformational value – n. ~ The usefulness or significance of materials based on their content, independent of any intrinsic or evidential valueFocus on information about “persons, corporate bodies, things, problems, or conditions”Informational value is based on three criteriaUniqueness – The information in the record cannot be found anywhere else and must also be unique in form (i.e., not duplicated elsewhere).Form – An archivist must, according to Schellenberg, consider the form of the information (the degree to which the information is concentrated) as well as the form of the records itself (whether or not they can easily be read by others, e.g., punchcards and tape recordings would involve the use of expensive machinery to decipher).Importance – When appraising records, one must judge records first based on the needs of the government itself, then on the needs of historians/social scientists, as well as local historians and genealogists; he encourages archivists to be wary of records with sentimental value.
  • The usefulness or significance of an item derived from its physical or associational qualities, inherent in its original form and generally independent of its content, that are integral to its material nature and would be lost in reproduction
  • Booms called for archivists to set up an intellectual framework before even beginning appraisal:Chronicle of key dates and eventsFunctional analysisInvestigate registriesBegin appraisal
  • Booms called for archivists to set up an intellectual framework before even beginning appraisal:Chronicle of key dates and eventsFunctional analysisInvestigate registriesBegin appraisal
  • QUESTION: HOW DID SCHELLENBERG DEPART FROM JENKINSON’S THEORY OF ARCHIVES?Jenkinson believed appraisal corrupted the integrity of archives. Schellenberg introduced the notion of “secondary use” and, based on pragmatic issues surrounding the management of the massive quantities of records, advocated for recognition of values of records and even presented different definitions for records and archives. Reto (2002, p. 178): “In his definition of archives, Jenkinson stressed their custodial history, their organic structure, and their accumulation through natural processes: A document which may be said to belong to the class of Archives is one which was drawn up or used in the course of an administrative or executive transaction (whether public or private) of which itself formed a part; and subsequently preserved in their own custody for their own information by the person or persons responsible for that transaction and their legitimate successors. Jenkinson argued that the manner in which archives were created, that is, their natural accumulation during the course of regular activities, as opposed to their having been “singled out for preservation,” and their creation and preservation by their creators for their own particular use without consideration as to their future use, endowed archives with the qualities of impartiality and authenticity. These qualities, in turn, gave to archives their particular value as evidence of the past.” Reto (2002, p. 180): “Since Schellenberg saw the process of selection as central to the archivist’s role, he also made it central to his definition of archives: Those records of any public or private institution which are adjudged worthy of permanent preservation for reference and research purposes and which have been deposited or have been selected for deposit in an archival institution.” Duranti (1994, p. 338): “However, the role of the concept of accountability in archival theory, as adopted in the United States, was undermined by Schellenberg’s desire to promote the cultural identity of archival repositories and the role of archivists as appraisers of records. He defined records in a way even more limited than that in which Jenkinson had defined archives, and he redefined archives as a species of records, the main difference being in the fact that archives “must be preserved for reasons other than those for which they were created or accumulated.” Then he presented the concept of evidential value as an exclusive concern of secondary users. By doing so, he prepared the path for the complete divergence of American archival practice from that of the rest of the Western world.”
  • Booms called for archivists to set up an intellectual framework before even beginning appraisal:Chronicle of key dates and eventsFunctional analysisInvestigate registriesBegin appraisal
  • University archives perspective“An archivist cannot rely on principles, laws, and schedules to determine what should be kept. It is most important that he read widely and well and interview.”The archivist must know the organization and the communityFundamental considerations for appraisalDocument characteristicsAdministrative valuesResearch valuesArchival considerationsHorizontal selection of top levelMinutes, reports, correspondenceVertical selection of a segment of an organizationSampling of records from routine work papers to final reportsDoes this privilege the ivory tower?
  • University archives perspective“An archivist cannot rely on principles, laws, and schedules to determine what should be kept. It is most important that he read widely and well and interview.”The archivist must know the organization and the communityFundamental considerations for appraisalDocument characteristicsAdministrative valuesResearch valuesArchival considerationsHorizontal selection of top levelMinutes, reports, correspondenceVertical selection of a segment of an organizationSampling of records from routine work papers to final reportsDoes this privilege the ivory tower?
  • Archivists should document entire spectrum of social phenomenaThe level of documentation should be based on the importance society gave to a given phenomenonIs this a call for participatory appraisal?Archival value is not intrinsic to the record, and generally cannot be established thereArchivists must be able to make the judgment: This belongs to documentary heritage, while that does not
  • Society must be allowed to define its own core valuesThe activity of the archivist should be viewed in relation to the societal orderArchivists must orient themselves to the values of the time in which the record was createdArchivists should document entire spectrum of social phenomenaThe level of documentation should be based on the importance society gave to a given phenomenonIs this a call for participatory appraisal?
  • Booms called for archivists to set up an intellectual framework before even beginning appraisal:Chronicle of key dates and eventsFunctional analysisInvestigate registriesBegin appraisal
  • These citations are provided for informational and reference purposes only. Please do not use these citations as examples for formatting your own citations. Refer to style guides.
  • These citations are provided for informational and reference purposes only. Please do not use these citations as examples for formatting your own citations. Refer to style guides.
  • These citations are provided for informational and reference purposes only. Please do not use these citations as examples for formatting your own citations. Refer to style guides.
  • INFO 6800 (Winter 2013) Week Five: Archival Appraisal

    1. 1. INFO 6800 - Archives• Announcements• Archival appraisal• Seminar presentationshttp://dilbert.com/strips/comic/1995-02-23/February 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 1
    2. 2. Archival Appraisal What is archival appraisal?Discards at the Dalhousie University Archives Resource AllocationFebruary 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 2
    3. 3. Archival Appraisal What is the Identify records purpose of to be accessioned appraisal? Reduce backlog Meet mandate Comprehensive but compactFebruary 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 3
    4. 4. Appraisal PracticeFebruary 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 4
    5. 5. Appraisal Practice ResourceProcessing a fonds at the Dalhousie University Archives AllocationFebruary 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 5
    6. 6. Appraisal Practice 1. Provenance and content What should an 2. Values archivist 3. Authenticity and reliability 4. Order and completeness consider? 5. Condition and preservation costsFebruary 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 6
    7. 7. Appraisal TheoryFebruary 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 7
    8. 8. Appraisal Theory Historical Context ? – Impartiality – Integrity ? – FunctionsContemporary – Activities Archives – Society Tomorrows Archives?February 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five ? 8
    9. 9. Appraisal Theory Creators Respect and des fonds records Appraisal Society theory Redefining ProvenanceFebruary 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 9
    10. 10. Appraisal TheoryFebruary 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 10
    11. 11. Jenkinson What is the moral Protect defense of evidentiality archives? Protect integrity Custodianship Legal and moral responsibilityFebruary 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 11
    12. 12. Jenkinson Duranti “The primary duty of the (1994) archivist was to the evidentiary nature of archival material, and the activities supporting this duty, which came to be known as the “moral defense of archives,” were seen as central to the professional ethic of archivists.”February 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 12
    13. 13. Schellenberg How does Selection is Schellenberg essential depart from Jenkinson? Use for research Role of archivists Primary and secondary valueFebruary 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 13
    14. 14. SchellenbergSchellenberg “Can we, faced with these modern accumulations, leave any longer to chance the question what Archives are to be preserved? Can we…attempt to regulate them without destroying that precious characteristic of impartiality which results . . . from the very fact that their preservation was settled…?”February 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 14
    15. 15. Schellenberg’s Primary Values Derived from Primary Value original use for creator What are theAdministrative value Fiscal value primary values? Legal value Operational value February 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 15
    16. 16. Schellenberg’s Secondary Values Primary Secondary concern for Value archivists What are the Evidential Informationalsecondary Form values?What is informational value? Uniqueness Importance February 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 16
    17. 17. Intrinsic ValueLeo Cullum, April 21, 2008 (New Yorker Magazine)February 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 17
    18. 18. Luciana Duranti What are the Interrelationship characteristics of and uniqueness archival records? Impartiality Naturalness AuthenticityFebruary 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 18
    19. 19. Luciana Duranti Duranti “…the role of the concept of (1994) accountability in archival theory … was undermined by Schellenberg’s desire to promote the cultural identity of archival repositories and the role of archivists as appraisers of records.”February 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 19
    20. 20. Richard Cox How do we understand records collected in the past?February 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 20
    21. 21. Richard Cox Cox (2004) “Appraisal seems to have drifted into a world of confused, conflicting, or complacent methods, theories, and practices—at least when seen by the typical archival practitioner. Some archivists in the field embrace specific guiding concepts, but others seem to operate with little knowledge of changing perspectives concerning this archival function.”February 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 21
    22. 22. Maynard J. Brichford Brichford “An archivist cannot rely on principles, laws, and schedules to determine what should be kept. It is most important that he [sic] read widely and well and interview.”February 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 22
    23. 23. Maynard J. Brichford Redefining ProvenanceFebruary 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 23
    24. 24. Hans Booms Booms “Archivists must bring with them the concepts they need in order to make the judgment: this belongs to the documentary heritage, while that does not. But where do archivists get these value concepts, and how are such ideas developed?”February 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 24
    25. 25. Hans BoomsFebruary 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 25
    26. 26. Hans Booms Chronicle of key dates and events Functional analysis Investigate registries Begin appraisalFebruary 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 26
    27. 27. Tom Nesmith Nesmith “A kind of archival “appraisal” is (2011) thereby going on in society long before most archivists can intervene in the process. These forces determine which … activities will be documented at all and which ignored, and which will be documented well, adequately, or poorly …”February 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 27
    28. 28. Tom Nesmith ArchivalAccountability “…documenting appraisal as a ? Documentation of Appraisal societal-archival process involves recasting the theory of appraisal, seeking out practices reflecting that, and addressing the ethicalEthnographic issues arising from it.” Archives and Archives the InternetFebruary 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 28
    29. 29. Tom Nesmith Research and What should an decision-making archivist processes document? Approach to description Historical andcurrent methods Nature of contextual infoFebruary 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 29
    30. 30. Appraisal Methods Resource AllocationFebruary 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 30
    31. 31. Appraisal Methods Macro- Archival Black Box Appraisal Sampling Minnesota Documentation More Product Method Strategy Less ProcessFebruary 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 31
    32. 32. Sources (in order of appearance)Adams, Scott (1995). Dilbert comic. http://dilbert.com/strips/comic/1995-02- 23/.Writings of Sir Hilary Jenkinson cover image. http://thesocietyofqualifiedarchivists.blogspot.ca/2005_02_08_archive.h tml.Modern Archives cover image. http://www.archivalmediaconsulting.com/blog/rise-and-consequences- of-the-digital-information-age.Cullum, Leo (2008). Intrinsic value cartoon. http://www.condenaststore.com/- sp/With-the-doubloon-you-ve-got-the-intrinsic-value-of-the-metal-plus- the-n-New-Yorker-Cartoon-Prints_i8546263_.htm.Wysocki, Charles. Remington the Well Read. http://gallery4collectors.com/CharlesWysocki- RemingtontheWellRead.htm.February 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 32
    33. 33. Sources (in order of appearance)Brainstuck.com (2008). Corporate hierarchy diagram.http://www.brainstuck.com/2009/03/21/corporate-hierarchy-2/.Cox, Richard J. “The End of Collecting: Toward a New Purpose for ArchivalAppraisal.” In No Innocent Deposits: Forming Archives by Rethinking Appraisal,p. 22.Letterhead. http://bottledmonsters.blogspot.ca/2010/04/more-letterhead-from-collection.html.Ruth Bader Ginsburg Autograph.http://washburnlaw.edu/library/collections/autographs/showjustice.php?who=ginsburg-ruthbader.Lee Line Steamers. http://leelinesteamers.com/?page_id=93.Wizard of Oz letterhead.http://centeredlibrarian.blogspot.ca/2010/04/delightful-collection-of-letterheads.html.February 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 33
    34. 34. Sources (in order of appearance)Booms, Hans. “Uberlieferungsbildung: Keeping archives as a social and political activity.” Archivaria 33 (1991-1992): 25; 31-32.Photographs of Dalhousie University Archives and the Killam Library were taken by Dalhousie Archives staffFebruary 4, 2013 INFO 6800 Archives – Week Five 34

    ×