Some history Founded July 4, 1973: Treaty of Chaguaramas Intended to be a follow-up to the Caribbean Free Trade Association: CARIFTA. Original name: Caribbean Community and Common Market
Membership Four original signatories: − Barbados − Guyana − Jamaica − Trinidad and Tobago
Membership: 1974 expansion Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Lucia Montserrat Dominica Grenada Belize Antigua and Barbuda Saint Kitts and Nevis Brings total membership to twelve
Membership: since 1974 Barbados − 1983 − Not as a member of the customs union Suriname − 1995 − Added Dutch as a language (in addition to English, English Creole) Haiti − 2002 − Added French and French Creole as a language
Others Observers: Venezuela, Sint Maarten (NL), Puerto Rico (US), Mexico, Dominican Republic, Curaçao (NL), Colombia, and Aruba (NL). − Participate in at least one committee Associates: Cayman Islands, Bermuda, Turks and Caicos, British Virgin Islands, and Anguilla. − All British territories − No established role as yet
Organizational structure Secretariat − Secretary-General: Foreign/CARICOM relations − Deputy Secretary-General: Human/Social Dev − Counsel: Trade/Economic Integration Chairmanship: − Head of CARICOM, rotation by heads of state/govt Heads of government: Each head of government has responsibilities for development/integration in different areas.
Organizational structure Community Councils − Council for Finance and Planning − Council for Foreign and Community Relations − Council for Human and Social Development − Council for Trade and Economic Development Institutions (20 total, small sample): − CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) Critical − Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency − Caribbean Examinations Council − Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ)
Decisionmaking Heads of Government Conference − Takes decisions on major issues − Unanimous approval needed − Meets annually Lower decisions can be taken at various levels and implemented without the need for unanimous voting
Approach to evaluation Analysis of a few different areas of Caribbean integration − Single Market − CARICOM passport − Infrastructural integration Analysis of differences between countries and the effects this has on integration − Divergent interests − Differing development levels − Varying size
Single market Key elements: − Free movement of goods/services − Right of establishment − Common external tariff/free circulation − Movement of capital − Common trade policy − Free movement of labor Currency union? 15 countries, many differing currencies, 16 million people. Can this function with so many small currencies? What about if Aruba and other NL Antilles countries join, considering the changing status of these countries within Dutch law?
CARICOM passport Symbol of regionalism Promote hassle-free travel within CARICOM 12 countries issued, all in CSME issuing Whats the point, and what are the greater implications?
Infrastructure Two significant areas − Health − ICT ICT integration − A critical aspect of economic integration − When technology is aligned cooperation is easier Health − PANCAP: Pan-Caribbean Partnership against HIV & AIDS − Attempting to integrate certain aspects of healthcare approaches
Interests, development, size All related Interests different in various areas − Especially there are differences in what states want with regard to the extent of the single market, and also currency union ideas Development affects the way interactions occur. − Haiti is the biggest country but has the lowest GDP per capita. − Dominican Republic is comparable in size but much more secure economically; countries reluctant to allow DR in.
Interests, development, size Size − Related to development in terms of effect: big, well developed country (DR) faces barriers; small, wealthy country (eg: Bahamas) does not. − Affects interest in single market and the benefits/approach desired. − Can affect flexibility of economies with regard to integration.
Continuing research Crossing the three aspects of countries with the three areas of integration Develop a better understanding of the way size, development level, and general country interests affect approaches to regional integration Draw conclusions about the success of CARICOM in developing