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Creating Assessments

Creating Assessments



This file accompanies the "Creating Assessments" session at the Academic Impressions conference titled "A Comprehensive Approach to Designing Online Courses", Dec 3-4, 2007, Austin TX

This file accompanies the "Creating Assessments" session at the Academic Impressions conference titled "A Comprehensive Approach to Designing Online Courses", Dec 3-4, 2007, Austin TX



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    Creating Assessments Creating Assessments Presentation Transcript

    • A Comprehensive Approach to Designing Online Courses Creating Assessments Christina Sax ACADEMIC ■ IMPRESSIONS
      • Appreciate the process, importance, and utility of assessment
      • Understand the differences between assessment, evaluation, testing, grading
      • Explore the various factors that influence the creation of assessments
      • Review the basic principles of creating assessments
      • Explore various aspects of assessment in the online environment
      Session Goals
      • What is assessment?
      • Why is it important?
      Understanding Assessment Activity Sheet 1
      • An ongoing systematic process that:
      • Sets clear expectations of student learning in the form of objectives
      • Provides sufficient opportunities for students to achieve these expectations
      • Gathers evidence of student learning
      • Uses this information to improve teaching and learning
      Assessment (verb) – A Dynamic Process Handout 1
      • An instrument used to:
      • Identify what students have learned
      • Measure the match between the learning objectives and students’ attainment of those objectives
      Assessment (noun) – Strategies & Tools Handout 1
      • Provides feedback to students
        • identify strengths/weaknesses
        • adjust learning practices & strategies
      • Documents individual student achievement & progress
      • Impacts decision making of prospective students
      Importance to Students
      • Provides feedback for improvement of teaching, support systems, curriculum
      • Ensures pre-reqs in course sequencing
      • Documents success of curriculum
      • Supports strategic planning/decision making (funding, resource allocation, etc)
      • Supports reaccreditation
      • Addresses external call for accountability
      Importance to Faculty and Institutions
      • Learning Objective
      • (what students should be able to do)
      • ?? ?? Assessment
      • Learning Outcome
      • (what students can actually do)
      Measuring the Gap
      • Assessment
      • Evaluation
      • Testing
      • Grading
      What’s the Difference? Activity Sheet 2
      • Evaluation = Judgment
        • Interpreting assessment results & using them to make a decision
        • Investigating the quality or worth of an entity to make a decision
      • Evaluation = Assessment
        • Determining the match between objectives and outcomes
      Assessment vs Evaluation
      • Testing is …
      • a systematic measurement of knowledge, skills, abilities
      • a part of the assessment process
      Assessment vs Testing
      • Part of the assessment process
      • Grades influenced by:
        • student learning, attendance, participation, timely submission of work
      • A grade may indicate overall level of understanding, but does not indicate of which specific knowledge, skills, abilities
      Assessment vs Grading
      • Focus on learning objectives
      • Consider best practices
      • Define the purpose
      • Select assessment strategies
      • Consider the end results
      • Link to knowledge/cognition taxonomies
      • Select & design assessment tool
      • Select & design grading criteria/tools
      Steps to Creating Assessments
    • Step 1 – Learning Objectives
      • Align assessments, objectives, questions
      • Seek useful information
      • Conduct on an ongoing basis
      • Use a variety of methods
      • Communicate purpose, expectations, grading criteria, feedback loops
      Step 2 - Best Practices in Assessment
      • Determine pre-req knowledge
      • Provide learning opportunity
      • Provide feedback to students
      • Student self-assessment
      • Document progress
      • Document outcomes
      • Feedback to faculty
      • Mid-course correction
      Step 3 - Define the Purpose
      • Formative vs summative
      • Direct vs indirect evidence
      • Learning processes vs outcomes
      • Objective vs subjective
      • Quantitative vs qualitative
      • Performance vs traditional
      • Local vs commercial/published
      • Embedded vs add-on
      Step 4 - Assessment Strategies
      • Formative
        • Occurs while student learning is taking place
        • Purpose is to improve teaching & learning
        • Students receive feedback beyond a grade on strengths & weaknesses
      • Summative
        • Occurs at the end of a course (or program)
        • Purpose to document student learning
        • Students may or may not receive feedback other than a grade
      Formative & Summative Assessment
      • Objective
        • Usually one correct answer
        • Can be lower order and higher order processing
        • Quickly provide information on broad range or targeted content areas
        • No professional judgment needed to score
        • Do not require lots of time to grade
        • Results easily summarized by a single number
      • Subjective
        • May be multiple possible answers
        • Assess many important skills at once
        • Assess skills d irectly
        • Are more active & promote deep, lasting learning
        • Students can provide lots of information on broad range of objectives at once
        • Requires professional judgment to score
        • Allows for scoring nuances
        • Require lots of time to score
        • Summary of results requires narrative
      Objective & Subjective – Pros & Cons
      • Standards-based
        • Are students meeting your standards?
      • Benchmarking
        • How do student compare to peers?
      • Best Practice
        • How do students compare to best of their peers?
      • Value-Added
        • Are students improving?
      • Longitudinal
        • Is program improving?
      • Capability
        • Are students doing as well as they can?
      Step 5 - Consider the End Results
      • Consider level of knowledge and processing
        • Lower order vs higher order
      • Align objectives (verbs) and assessment
      • (Developing Objectives session – Handout 3)
      Step 6 - Link to Knowledge & Cognition Taxonomies
      • Objective: Create a sterile environment.
      • Are these assessments aligned? Why/why not?
        • Write a definition of the phrase “sterile environment”.
        • Arrange these ten steps in the proper order to ensure a sterile environment is achieved.
        • Create an instruction manual titled “Sterile Environment Procedures”.
        • Write an essay describing the importance of sterile conditions in surgical settings.
        • Write an essay describing how you would create a sterile environment under suboptimal conditions.
      Align Objectives, Verbs, Assessments
      • The toolbox includes WAY MORE
      • than exam questions !!!!
      Step 7 - Assessment Tools Handout 2
      • Examples
        • List of criteria & points
        • Rubrics
      • Uses
        • States clear expectations; guide for students
        • Guide to faculty for fair and accurate scoring
        • Vehicle for feedback to students
      Step 8 - Grading Criteria & Tools
      • Use to plan, design, and create assessments
      • Based in link to specific learning objectives
      • State clear and thorough directions and expectations for students
      • State grading standards, criteria, rubrics
      Assessment Mapping Grid Handout 3
      • Work in teams
      • Use Activity Sheet 4
      • Review the NURS246 course description & learning objective
      • Use the Assessment Mapping Grid to plan, select, and design an online assessment
      • Group reports (designate your spokesperson)
      Activity – Create an Online Assessment
      • Describe the contents of your Assessment Mapping Grid.
      • What challenges did you encounter?
      • How can you overcome these challenges?
      Activity – Group Reports
      • Well suited to the online environment
      • Not well suited to the online environment
      Characteristics of Online Assessments … Activity Sheet 3B
      • Efficient management, collection, transfer of assessment information
      • Possibility of reduced grading time
      • Increased opportunities for students:
        • Self-assessment, ongoing & rapid feedback, knowledge of overall status through online gradebook
      • Course management system tools better facilitate some assessment practices
      Online Assessment – Benefits of Technology
      • Database to track, monitor, document
      • Easy access to development & deployment of multiple assessment tools with automatic & instant feedback
      • Multiple communication tools to
        • Document & track progress, formally & informally
        • Provide/receive continuous feedback from faculty & student peers
      • Content tools to develop projects & problem solving tasks, independently & in teams
      Course Management System Tools
      • Discussions are important form of ongoing informal & formal assessment
      • Greater opportunity for full involvement online vs f2f (# students, depth of discussion)
      • Easy to track, document, grade student discussion online vs f2f
      • Easy to model/provide examples of “quality” responses and dialogue
      • Easy to conduct multiple conversations at once
      Discussion Boards
      • Common online text
      • Reconstructive writing prompt sends reader back to text
      • Constructive writing prompt promotes thinking beyond
      • Inquiry prompt
      • Directions to interact with fellow students
      • Expectations for students’ work
      • Directions for mechanical steps to accomplish tasks
      • Personal/human feel
      Discussion Board Model (Hofmeister & Thomas, 2005)
      • Course management system provides tools to structure & facilitate group work online vs f2f
      • Allows faculty to monitor progress of group work, and individual contributions to group
      • Allows for three forms of feedback – faculty, self, peer
      Group/Team Work
      • Automated grading of objective question types
      • allows for:
        • Ongoing formal assessment
        • Ongoing informal self-assessment
        • “ Best attempt” assessment
        • Varied assessment (question types)
        • Rapid feedback
        • Adaptation to individual student situations, starting and progress levels
        • Reduced grading time
      Quizzing/Testing Tools - Objective
      • Technology allows for:
        • Reduced grading time & faster feedback
          • Cut & paste common comments, rather than handwritten for each student
        • Multiple forms of feedback
          • Extensive typed text
          • Hand mark-ups
          • Audio clips
      Quizzing/Testing Tools - Subjective
      • What do you want students learn?
      • What do you want to know about the learning?
      • Why do you want to know this?
      • How do you determine this?
      • How will you use this information?
      • Assessment requires time,
      • reflection, and planning.
      Assessment Wrap-Up