Energia Carlos Oct10 2009
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Energia Carlos Oct10 2009

on

  • 1,224 views

Esta es un inicio de presentaciones sobre tendencias en energia para el año 2006. Solo son diapositivas y texto sin editar, y sin poner la fuente de donde se tomaron. ...

Esta es un inicio de presentaciones sobre tendencias en energia para el año 2006. Solo son diapositivas y texto sin editar, y sin poner la fuente de donde se tomaron.
Tambien representa una primera prueba para obtener un video a partir de una presentación, como practica del curso tecnologías Web 2.0
Atentamente:
Carlos Sarmiento
UNAB ICP

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,224
Views on SlideShare
1,219
Embed Views
5

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
17
Comments
0

1 Embed 5

http://www.slideshare.net 5

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Energia Carlos Oct10 2009 Energia Carlos Oct10 2009 Presentation Transcript

  • PREPARADO POR: ING. CARLOS A. SARMIENTO S. Documento inicial SOLO ES BORRADOR INICIAL PIEDECUESTA: ENERO DE 2006 ENTORNO TECNOLOGICO MUNDIAL DOWNSTREAM
    • La demanda de Energía podría incrementarse en un 60% al 2030, comparada al 2000
    • El 80% en el crecimiento en la demanda de energía estará en los países de non-OECD
    • La eficiencia en el uso de la energía tiende a acelerarse
    • Petróleo, gas y carbón permanecerán predominante
    • La tecnología es crítica para encontrar los retos en el suministro de energía y satisfacer la demanda de ésta
    Tendencias en energía al 2030 The outlook for energy. A view to 2030. 2006 edition. ExxonMobil OECD= ORGANIZACIÓN ECONÓMICA PARA LA COOPERACIÓN Y EL DESARROLLO Sus miembros (30) son: Alemania; Australia; Austria; Bélgica; Canadá; España; Estados Unidos; Dinamarca; Finlandia; Francia; Grecia; Hungría; Irlanda; Italia; Islandia; Japón; Luxemburgo; México; Nueva Zelanda; Noruega; Países Bajos; Polonia; Portugal; Reino Unido; República Checa; República de Corea; República Eslovaca; Suecia; Suiza; y Turquía
  • PROGRESOS EN ENERGÍA. USA En Agosto de 2005, el presidente Bush, firmo la ley conocida como “ National Energy Policy Act of 2005 ”, para promover la eficiencia y conservación de la energía y promover fuentes alternativas y renovables de energía, reducir la dependencia de fuentes foráneas de energía, incrementar la producción doméstica, modernizar el sistema de distribución eléctrica y asegurar la expansión de la energía nuclear. Las energías a promover son: Bioenergía. Carbón. Energía eléctrica, Combustibles fósiles (petróleo, carbón, gas natural). Energía geotérmica, Hidrógeno. Hidroenergía. Gas natural, Energía nuclear. Petróleo, energías renovables, energía solar, energía de viento
    • En Febrero de 2006, el Presidente Bush, creó el programa “ ADVANCED ENERGY INITIATIVE”, el cual incrementa en un 22% los fondos para investigación en tecnologías para energías limpias administrados por el Departamento de Energía.
    • Para reducir la dependencia de fuentes de energía foráneas, el Presidente Bush propone:
    • Cambiar la manera de usar los combustibles para los vehículos. Usando tecnologías que reduzcan el uso del petróleo, mejorando la eficiencia, usando combustibles alternos, desarrollo de celdas de combustibles que usen hidrógeno a partir de materias primas domésticas.
    • Cambiar la manera de usar la energía para las casas y negocios. Disminuyendo los altos costos de gas natural y de electricidad, generando mas electricidad a partir de carbón limpio, energía nuclear avanzada, y fuentes renovables de energía como energía solar y energía de viento
    http://www.whitehouse.gov/stateoftheunion/2006/energy/index.html Programa: Iniciativa de Energía Avanzada. USA
  • 1. Cambiar la manera de usar los combustibles para los vehículos. USA http://www.whitehouse.gov/stateoftheunion/2006/energy/index.html
  • 2. Cambiar la forma de usar la energía de las residencias y negocios. USA http://www.whitehouse.gov/stateoftheunion/2006/energy/index.html
  • Acelerando el Desarrollo tecnologías del futuro 1. Baterías avanzadas Mejorar las tecnologías actuales para el uso de baterías en los vehículos hibrido-eléctrico para que duren mas tiempo rodando el vehículo http://www.whitehouse.gov/stateoftheunion/2006/energy/index.html
  • Acelerando el Desarrollo tecnologías del futuro. USA 2. Etanol a partir de celulosa Desarrollar tecnologías avanzadas para producción de etanol, a partir de biomasa celulósica, de residuos de la agricultura y forestales, materiales de desechos municipales, árboles y grasas http://www.whitehouse.gov/stateoftheunion/2006/energy/index.html
  • Acelerando el Desarrollo tecnologías del futuro. USA 3. Vehículos de hidrógeno En el año 2003, el presidente Bush autorizó US$ 1.2 billones, para incrementar tecnologías para usar hidrógeno como combustibles. En el 2007 el presidente Bush autorizó US$46 millones para continuar investigaciones en tecnologías de hidrógeno para vehículos, como las celdas de combustibles a partir de hidrógeno http://www.whitehouse.gov/stateoftheunion/2006/energy/index.html
  • Cambiando la forma de energía de residencias y negocios. USA http://www.whitehouse.gov/stateoftheunion/2006/energy/index.html
  • Acelerando el Desarrollo tecnologías del futuro. USA 1. Tecnologías de carbón limpio Se asignaron US$281 millones para investigación en tecnologías limpias para plantas de generación libres de emisiones contaminantes, que capture y almacene el CO2, todo esto a bajo costo http://www.whitehouse.gov/stateoftheunion/2006/energy/index.html
  • Acelerando el Desarrollo tecnologías del futuro. USA 2. Energía Nuclear Desarrollar reactores avanzados seguros, de costos aceptables, tecnologías para tratar los subproductos nucleares y tecnologías para reciclar combustible nuclear gastado. http://www.whitehouse.gov/stateoftheunion/2006/energy/index.html
  • Acelerando el Desarrollo tecnologías del futuro. USA 3. Energía solar y energía del viento Desarrollar tecnologías para capturar la energía del sol, como Concentradores de Potencia solar, equipos fotovoltáicos. Mejorar la eficiencia y bajar los costos de las turbinas de viento con nuevas tecnologías, desarrollar tecnologías para usar en bajos ambientes de velocidades del viento. http://www.whitehouse.gov/stateoftheunion/2006/energy/index.html
  • Las ventas de coches híbridos en Estados Unidos llevan camino de superar este año la marca de 250 mil unidades - contra 205 mil en el 2005-, con lo que se mantiene la creciente tendencia de la que se aprovechan las marcas japonesas. De mantenerse las cifras de ventas, a finales del 2006 habrá más de 265,000 nuevos híbridos en las carreteras de Estados Unidos. Hace sólo seis años, en 2000, las ventas de vehículos híbridos fueron de sólo 9,350 unidades, y hace dos años, en 2004, los concesionarios del país vendieron 88,000 unidades Los 07 más eficientes  1. Toyota Prius (híbrido), 60 millas por galón en ciudad, 51 en carretera  2. Honda Civic Híbrido, 49-51  3. Toyota Camry Híbrido, 40-38  4. Ford Escape Híbrido (tracción delantera) 36-31  5. Toyota Yaris (manual), 34-40  6. Toyota Yaris (automático), 34-39  7. Honda Fit (manual), 33-38 Vehículos híbridos. USA
  • Nuevas tecnologías DOE Funds $1.4 Million for Study of Nuclear-Powered Hydrogen Production August 14, 2006 The US Department of Energy (DOE) intends to fund approximately $1.4 million (subject to negotiation) for two projects to partner with industry to study the economic feasibility of producing hydrogen at existing commercial nuclear power plants. Teams selected by DOE for funding will be headed by Electric Transportation Applications and GE Global Research. Both teams include DOE national laboratories and nuclear utility companies as partners. Proof of concept plastic alkaline electrolyzer stack.                                                        
  • Nuevas tecnologías (CNN) -- A Korean company has created a car engine that runs on air. The engine, which powers a pneumatic-hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), works alongside an electric motor to create the power source. The system eliminates the need for fuel, making the PHEV pollution-free. Cheol-Seung Cho, of Energine Corporation, told CNN the system is controlled by a computer inside the car, which instructs the compressed-air engine and electric motor what to do. The compressed air drives the pistons, which turn the vehicle's wheels. The air is compressed using a small motor, powered by a 48-volt battery, which powers both the air compressor and the electric motor. Once compressed, the air is stored in a tank.
  • EMPRESAS PETROLERAS QUE TRABAJAN EN BIOCOMBUSTBLES O EN ENERGÍAS ALTERNATIVAS
  • EXXONMOBIL Renewable Energy All energy sources, including alternatives to oil & gas, play a role in meeting the world's energy demands. Wind and solar are growing at phenomenal rates, but EIA agrees that these sources will only meet about 1% of energy needs by 2030. Ethanol and other biofuels will continue to contribute to growing transportation fuel needs. These alternatives will not eliminate our dependence on global markets. Technology, cost and scale disadvantages remain a challenge to expanding use. ExxonMobil today blends about 1.5 million gallons of ethanol into our gasoline products every day in the United States. ExxonMobil has made significant investments to enable ethanol use. We expect to increase our use of ethanol to meet the new federal Renewable Fuel Standards that require suppliers to blend gasoline with 4 billion gallons of renewable fuel this year (2% of U.S. supply by energy content), increasing to 7.5 billion gallons by 2012. According to the USDA, today more than 100 ethanol plants produce close to 5 billion gallons per year. Over 40 more plants under construction are expected to add another 3 billion gallons per year. Emerging state biofuel mandates, like regional boutique fuel requirements, put pressure on supplies in emergencies, potentially causing spikes in fuel prices. In recent months, the price of ethanol has exceeded the price of gasoline.
  • CHEVRON SAN RAMON, Calif., May 31, 2006 -- Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) said it has formed a biofuels business unit to advance technology and pursue commercial opportunities related to the production and distribution of ethanol and biodiesel in the United States. About Chevron's Commitment to Emerging Energy Technologies Chevron is investing across the energy spectrum to develop energy sources for future generations by expanding the capabilities of today's alternative and renewable energy technologies. Since 2000, Chevron Corporation through its various subsidiaries has invested more than $1 billion in renewable energy projects and in delivering energy efficiency solutions. Focus areas include geothermal, hydrogen, biofuels, advanced batteries, as well as wind and solar technologies. Chevron is the largest renewable energy producer among global oil and gas companies, producing 1,152 megawatts of renewable energy, primarily from geothermal operations in Indonesia and the Philippines http://www.chevron.com/news/press/2006/2006-05-31.asp
  • BP BP. Apuesta por las energías renovables y alternativas Desarrollando estas nuevas energías, renovables y alternativas. Porque faltan aún varias décadas para que tengan un peso significativo en el conjunto del consumo mundial de energía, pero este plazo dependerá en todo caso de los esfuerzos que se hagan en esa dirección. BP lleva más de 20 años invirtiendo en el desarrollo de la energía solar fotovoltaica y es hoy uno de los líderes mundiales en este campo. También participa en el desarrollo del hidrógeno como fuente energética para el transporte. BP está presente en el 75% de todas las iniciativas que se están desarrollando en el mundo en este momento en torno al hidrógeno. Por ejemplo, en el proyecto Transporte Urbano Limpio para Europa (CUTE, según las siglas en inglés), patrocinado por la Unión Europea, BP es el suministrador del hidrógeno en cinco de las diez ciudades participantes. En una de ellas, Barcelona, parte del hidrógeno suministrado se producirá con electricidad generada mediante energía solar. El de Barcelona será el único de los proyectos de CUTE en probar este sistema que puede conseguir el nivel cero de emisiones . http://www.bp.com/genericarticle.do?categoryId=2012257&contentId=2018129
  • SHELL Shell and first generation biofuels Shell has been distributing first generation biofuels for over 30 years. We believe that we are now the world’s largest distributor of transport biofuels. In 2005, we sold around three billion litres, mainly in the USA and Brazil - this was enough to avoid three million tonnes of CO2 emissions over the year. We also work closely with governments and regulators to ensure that biofuel requirements and fuel specifications are based on sound science and ‘well to wheels’ CO2 production reductions. Second generation biofuels Second generation biofuels are made from non-food feedstocks, such as woodchips and straw. They could significantly reduce CO2 emissions, deliver better engine performance and avoid the impact on food crops. When commercialised, the cost of second generation biofuels should be more comparable with standard gasoline and diesel. Used neat, second generation biofuels could reduce ‘well to wheel’ CO2 production by up to 90%. Second generation biofuels are potentially the most cost effective way of providing renewable, low-carbon energy for road transport. When blended they are compatible with existing engines and fuel infrastructure. However, second generation biofuels will not be widely available commercially for around 5-10 years. http://www.shell.com/home/Framework?siteId=aboutshell-en&FC2=&FC3=/aboutshell-en/html/iwgen/what_we_do/refining_selling/biofuels_17112006.html
  • Shell and second generation biofuels Shell was one of the first energy companies to invest in second generation biofuels. In 2002, we became a technical partner of Iogen, a Canadian company. This partnership develops the processing technology that enables ethanol to be made from straw using enzymes – the product is called cellulose ethanol. This biofuel can be used as a blend in conventional cars, and if used neat can cut ‘well to wheel’ CO2 production by 90% compared with conventional gasoline. Iogen commissioned a demonstration plant for the fuel in 2004 and we expect production of the world’s first commercially available cellulose ethanol to begin in 2009. In 2006, Shell, Volkswagen and Iogen conducted a joint study to assess the economic feasibility of producing cellulose ethanol in Germany. The study confirmed that cellulose ethanol offers a better CO2 performance than conventional ethanol and that this performance is cost competitive in the transport sector. Shell is also a technical partner of CHOREN Industries in Germany to create the world’s first commercial Biomass to Liquids (BTL) plant that is due to come on-line in late 2007. This takes a woody feedstock (e.g. wood chips), gasifies it and then uses a process called Shell Middle Distillates Synthesis (SMDS) to convert the gas into a high-quality synthetic fuel that is identical to Gas to Liquids (GTL). Many leading auto manufacturers support BTL Fuel because it can be blended with diesel for use in diesel engines and offers substantially reduced local emissions without compromising performance . SHELL (2) http://www.shell.com/home/Framework?siteId=aboutshell-en&FC2=&FC3=/aboutshell-en/html/iwgen/what_we_do/refining_selling/biofuels_17112006.html
  • Advantages of the Carbo-V® Process Unique in the World Because of its unique multi-phase approach, the Carbo-V® Process has the following advantages: A wide range of feed materials can be used A high-quality gas with a tar content below minimum detection limits and a very low concentration of methane (< 0.5 % at 5 bar) Complete exploitation of the feed material used Numerous fields of application (electricity, heat, cold, methanol, synthetic automotive fuels, waxes etc.) Conversion efficiency for gasification (cold gas efficiency) > 80 % Electrical energy efficiency levels of up to 35 % Low emission levels The ash is converted into a solid bonded slag granulate suitable for building purposes http://www.choren.com/en/biomass_to_energy/advantages_of_carbo-v/ PROCESOS BTL (BIOMASA A LIQUIDOS): PROCESO DE LA COMPAÑÍA “CHOREN”
  • Technology The Carbo-V® Process is a three-stage gasification process involving the following sub-processes: low temperature gasification , high temperature gasification and endothermic entrained bed gasification . During the first stage of the process, the biomass (with a water content of 15 – 20 %) is continually carbonized through partial oxidation (low temperature pyrolysis) with air or oxygen at temperatures between 400 and 500 °C, i.e. it is broken down into a gas containing tar (volatile parts) and solid carbon (char). During the second stage of the process, the gas containing tar is post-oxidized hypostoichiometrically using air and/or oxygen in a combustion chamber operating above the melting point of the fuel’s ash to turn it into a hot asification medium. During the third stage of the process, the char is ground down into pulverized fuel and is blown into the hot gasification medium. The pulverized fuel and the gasification medium react endothermically in the gasification reactor and are converted into a raw synthesis gas. Once this has been treated in the appropriate manner, it can be used as a combustible gas for generating electricity, steam and heat or as a synthesis gas for producing SunDiesel. PROCESO “CARBO-V-PROCESS”
  • A Clean Business Advantages of SunDiesel High-quality synthetic automotive fuels (Gas-to Liquids or GtL, Coal-to-Liquids or CtL) are obtained from a synthesis gas. When this synthesis gas is obtained from biomass, we refer to the fuel as BtL (Biomass-to-Liquid) or SunFuel. The make-up and especially the purity of the synthesis gas is able to meet the highest quality standards. Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is used to convert the synthesis gas into an automotive fuel. During this process, the reactive parts of the synthesis gas (CO and H2) interact with a catalyst to form hydrocarbons. FT synthesis was developed in Germany in the 1920s and it is particularly used in South Africa on a large scale to produce automotive fuels from coal. In order to maximize the output of diesel (SunDiesel), the waxes formed during the FT synthesis process are further processed using hydrocracking techniques, a standard process that is used in the petrochemical sector to recycle waste substances at refineri PROCESO “CARBO-V-PROCESS” http://www.choren.com/en/biomass_to_energy/sundiesel_production/
  • Electricity and Heat from the Fields Obtaining Electricity and Heat The thermal gasification of biomass within combined heat and power stations and gas-engines is a real alternative to conventional wood-burning heat power stations with steam generators, particularly at the lower end of the output scale. Relatively high degrees of electrical efficiency of up to 35% are possible for gasification projects. Heat can be withdrawn for other purposes and the emissions are also significantly lower. As a result, efficient units with a small output are able to process fairly large amounts of local biomass. This further increases the amount of renewable energy that can be made available. Biomass has a great advantage over wind and solar energy: biomass is always available, so energy generation can be planned at a constant rate. Using the Carbo-V® Process that CHOREN has developed and tested over many years, solid biomass or organic waste substances can be thermally refined to generate up to 30 MW of electricity and heat with a clean, profitable and efficient process. PROCESO “CARBO-V-PROCESS” http://www.choren.com/en/biomass_to_energy/sundiesel_production/
  • El proceso H-BIO no solo añade el procesamiento de materia prima renovable al esquema de refino del petróleo, sino también permite la utilización de las instalaciones existentes. El aceite vegetal o animal que se mezcla a fracciones diesel de petróleo pasa por un proceso de hidroconversión en las Unidades de Hidrotratamiento (HDT), que las refinerías utilizan en especial para reducir el contenido de azufre y mejorar la calidad del diesel oil, ajustando las características de ese combustible a las especificaciones de ANP (Agencia Nacional del Petróleo). http://www2.petrobras.com.br/tecnologia/esp/hbio.asp Proceso H-BIO para biodiesel. PETROBRAS
  • Rutas de Producción de Diesel Renovable                                                                          http://www2.petrobras.com.br/tecnologia/esp/hbio.asp Proceso H-BIO para biodiesel. PETROBRAS
  • www.uspto.gov Patente de Petrobras del Proceso H-BIO para biodiesel. PETROBRAS
  • HONEYWELL’S UOP ESTABLISHES RENEWABLE ENERGY AND CHEMICALS UNIT Accelerates commercialization of biofuel production and processing at refineries worldwide DES PLAINES, Ill., Nov. 1, 2006 -- UOP LLC, a Honeywell (NYSE: HON) company, announced today it has established a new business unit dedicated to introducing new technology for processing renewable energy sources in existing or new petroleum refineries worldwide. The new unit, called Renewable Energy and Chemicals, will accelerate UOP’s already existing efforts to develop renewable energy technologies by developing profitable ways refineries can use UOP’s petroleum processing technologies to convert bio-feedstocks, such as vegetable oils, greases and certain waste products, into fuel and chemicals . UOP. BIOFUELS http://www.uop.com/pr/releases/pr.uoprenewable.pdf
  • The study determined that co-processing vegetable oils with petroleum feedstocks can produce gasoline and olefins, the building blocks for producing plastics and other materials. UOP Fluid Catalytic Cracking, or FCC, technology can offer refineries this capability. The study also showed that UOP’s technologies can be used to convert vegetable oils to high-cetane diesel fuel, also known as “green” diesel. This sustainable technology is expected to be commercially available in early 2007. UOP. BIOFUELS http://www.uop.com/pr/releases/pr.uoprenewable.pdf
  • UOP. BIOFUELS http://www.uop.com/pr/releases/pr.uoprenewable.pdf UOP. Rutas de procesamiento para aceites y grasas vegetales
  • TECNOLOGÍAS PARA BIOCOMBUSTIBLES NEXANT
  • Tecnologías para biocombustibles líquidos, actuales y emergentes NEXANT. CHEM SYSTEM
  • Mercado global del bioetanol en la mezcla con gasolina