Effects of Soil Management on        Soil Organisms   Mary Barbercheck Dept. of Entomology          Penn State University
In 1 teaspoon of agricultural soil there are…  Bacteria     100 million to 1 billion  Fungi        6-9 ft fungal strands...
Elliot & Coleman. 1988. Ecol. Bull. 39: 23-32
Some Goals of Soil Management• Manage system for  productivity and  beneficial processes• Improvement in abiotic  and biot...
Crop Rotations  Know Your Pest                                     Above-Ground Diversity to     Reduce Pest Habitat      ...
Effects of Agricultural Management on Soil Arthropods• Densities are much  lower than in                               Pre...
Implication of Bacterial Dominance in Soil          Typical Ratio B:F >10:1   Bacterial-based                  Fungal-base...
Some Factors Affected by Tillage• Soil Moisture• Soil Temperature• Range of Temperature  and Moisture  Fluctuations• Surfa...
Tillage Effects on Soil Arthropod            Abundance & Diversity in Corn                     Goldsboro, NC           No ...
Ave. No./Core                                                                      Ave. No./Core   5/                     ...
Effects of Tillage and Cover Crops                             on Pest & Beneficial Arthropods in Soil                    ...
Effects of Cover Crop Rye Management         in Reduced Tillage Corn                     Clark et al. 1993. J. Entomol. Sc...
Effects of Cover Crop Rye Management        in Reduced Tillage Corn                Clark et al. 1993. J. Entomol. Sci. 28:...
Effect of Organic & Mineral Fertilizers in Alfalfa          Fratello et al. 1989. Agric. Ecosyst. Envt. 27: 227-239       ...
Effect of Compost Type on Microbial Biomass N                       and Soil Arthropods                     Gunadi et al. ...
Systems Experiment 1999-2002              Microarthropods Cumulative Average              180              160            ...
Systems Experiment 1999-2002                           EPN & EPF Cumulative Average                                    S.c...
BMP for Management of            Soil Organisms•   Systems effects can arise    from very complex direct and    indirect i...
Web Resources• Soil Biodiversity Portal    www.fao.org/ag/AGL/agll/soilbiod/default.htm•   Soil Biology Primer    http://w...
The EndPhoto by M. Greenwood
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  • Hard to compare systems and say what is healthy or not based on abundance of organisms = When do see differences probably mainly due to different amounts of energy available in each system
  • Barbercheck

    1. 1. Effects of Soil Management on Soil Organisms Mary Barbercheck Dept. of Entomology Penn State University
    2. 2. In 1 teaspoon of agricultural soil there are…  Bacteria 100 million to 1 billion  Fungi 6-9 ft fungal strands put end to end  Protozoa Several thousand flagellates & amoeba One to several hundred ciliates  Nematodes 10 to 20 bacterial feeders and a few fungal feeders  Arthropods Up to 100  Earthworms 5 or more
    3. 3. Elliot & Coleman. 1988. Ecol. Bull. 39: 23-32
    4. 4. Some Goals of Soil Management• Manage system for productivity and beneficial processes• Improvement in abiotic and biotic properties of soil• Improvement of plant health• Conservation of beneficial organisms• Suppression of pests
    5. 5. Crop Rotations Know Your Pest Above-Ground Diversity to Reduce Pest Habitat Favor Beneficials Provide Beneficial Habitat Minimal Pesticide Use Pest and Disease Suppression Healthy Soil Add Organic Matter Crop Rotations Minimize Tillage to Below-Ground Diversity Conserve OM Minimal Use of Synthetic
    6. 6. Effects of Agricultural Management on Soil Arthropods• Densities are much lower than in Predators unmanaged (@ 10% of consumers) systems, regardless of level and types of Consumers inputs (@ 10% of producers)• Favors bacteria over fungi Producers• Soil arthropods tend to consume fungi Energy Pyramid (After Moldenke, 2002)
    7. 7. Implication of Bacterial Dominance in Soil Typical Ratio B:F >10:1 Bacterial-based Fungal-basedPredatory Arthropods (0.0001x) Predatory Arthropods (0.01x) Predators of BFN (0.001x) BF Nemas (0.01x) FF Invertebrates (0.1x) Protozoa (0.1x) Fungi (x) Bacteria (x) (After Moldenke, 2002)
    8. 8. Some Factors Affected by Tillage• Soil Moisture• Soil Temperature• Range of Temperature and Moisture Fluctuations• Surface Residue• Soil Fauna Abundance and Diversity• Plant Diversity• Favors Bacteria > Fungi
    9. 9. Tillage Effects on Soil Arthropod Abundance & Diversity in Corn Goldsboro, NC No Till Conv. • Richness: No. of taxa Till • Simpson’s: probability that 2No. 2781 1369 species selected at random will be the same; 0 to 1; diversity decreases as index increasesRichness 107 88 • Shannon’s: uncertainty in predicting identity of organismSimpson .135 .058 chosen at random; equals zero when only 1 species presentShannon 2.93 3.38 • Evenness: 1=all taxa in similar numbers, as approach 0,Evenness .396 .566 divergence from evenness, some taxa more dominant
    10. 10. Ave. No./Core Ave. No./Core 5/ 5/ 14 14 5/ / 19 5/ / 19 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 21 97 21 97 5/ /19 5/ /19 28 97 28 97 / / 6/ 199 6/ 199 4/ 7 4/ 7 6/ 19 6/ 19 11 97 11 97 6/ / 19 6/ / 19 18 97 18 97 6/ /19 6/ /19 25 97 25 97 / / 7/ 199 7/ 199 2/ 7 2/ 7 1 1 7/ 99 7/ 99 9/ 7 9/ 7 7/ 19 7/ 19 16 97 16 97 7/ / 19 7/ / 19 23 97 23 97 Conventional Conventional 7/ /19 7/ /19 30 97 30 97 /1 /1 8/ 99 8/ 99 6/ 7 6/ 7 8/ 19 8/ 19 13 97 13 97 No-till No-till S. carpocapsae 8/ / 19 8/ / 19 H. bacteriophora 20 97 20 97 8/ / 19 8/ / 19 27 97 27 97 /1 /1 9/ 99 9/ 99 3/ 7 3/ 7 19 19 97 97 Ave. No./Core 5/ 14 5/ /19 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 21 97 5/ /19 28 97 /1 6/ 99 4/ 7 6/ 19 11 97 6/ / 19 18 97 Nematodes in Maize 6/ / 19 25 97 / 7/ 199 2/ 7 1 7/ 99 9/ 7 No-till 7/ 19 S. riobrave 16 97 7/ /19 23 97 7/ / 19 30 97 /1 8/ 99 6/ 7 8/ 19 13 97 Conventional Effects of Tillage on Entomopathogenic 8/ /19 20 97Millar & Barbercheck, 2002 8/ / 19 27 97 /1 9/ 99 3/ 7 19 97
    11. 11. Effects of Tillage and Cover Crops on Pest & Beneficial Arthropods in Soil Peachy et al. 2002. Applied Soil Ecology 21: 59-70 100 300 3 250 2.5 80 CC Dry Matter MT/ha 200 2Symphyllans/m2 Predators/m2 60 150 1.5 40 100 1 20 50 0.5 0 0 0 Mustard Barley Rye Fallow Oats Mustard Fallow Barley Oats Rye Macropredators Pred. Mites CC Dry Matter Conv. Till Direct Seed Till
    12. 12. Effects of Cover Crop Rye Management in Reduced Tillage Corn Clark et al. 1993. J. Entomol. Sci. 28: 404-416 Predators a 30 ab 25Mean No./Plot 20 bc 15 10 c 5 0 R Pa Fa R ol em llo ra l qu ov w /D e at is k
    13. 13. Effects of Cover Crop Rye Management in Reduced Tillage Corn Clark et al. 1993. J. Entomol. Sci. 28: 404-416 Roll Paraquat Remove Fallow/Disk 6 a a a 5 Mean Number a 4 aa 3 ab bb 2 b b 1 b 0 C St Li Ly C ar oc ny ap co ab ci ph hy si ne id da iid lin ae lli e ae id da ae e
    14. 14. Effect of Organic & Mineral Fertilizers in Alfalfa Fratello et al. 1989. Agric. Ecosyst. Envt. 27: 227-239 Collembola Mites Other 120 100 #/m2 (x 1000) 80 60 40 20 0 St M ud Po in W e Sh Ve in M C ry l Sl ol St on in ge ax or . ud ra ul era ee tc era Sl m M tr w t h g M p l
    15. 15. Effect of Compost Type on Microbial Biomass N and Soil Arthropods Gunadi et al. 2002. Eur. J. Soil Biol. 38:161-165 Mites Collembola Other Vermicomposts 10000 Trophic 2500 2 6 4 7 Log Mean Number Groups 2000 1000 1500mg/kg 100 1000 500 10 0 1 Fo Pa C C ow om Pa C Fo C od pe om ow po r M W od p an st er as po e M ur W te e an st as u t Microbial Biomass N re
    16. 16. Systems Experiment 1999-2002 Microarthropods Cumulative Average 180 160 140 120Ave. #/Core 100 Other 80 Coll. 60 Mites 40 20 0 Pasture BMP Trees BMP Old Organic CT NT Field Barbercheck, unpubl.
    17. 17. Systems Experiment 1999-2002 EPN & EPF Cumulative Average S.c. H.b. S.g. Fungi 10 8 Ave. #/Core 6 4 2 0 Organic BMP CT Pasture BMP NT Trees Old FieldBarbercheck, unpubl.
    18. 18. BMP for Management of Soil Organisms• Systems effects can arise from very complex direct and indirect interactions• Minimize compaction• Provide continuous energy (e.g., cover crops)• Reduce tillage to favor fungal-based food webs• Provide refuges for mobile predators Cosmochthonius (Oribatida)• Rotate crops to reduce pest D. Walter organisms• Reduce use of biocides
    19. 19. Web Resources• Soil Biodiversity Portal www.fao.org/ag/AGL/agll/soilbiod/default.htm• Soil Biology Primer http://www.swcs.org• USDA Soil Quality Institute http://soils.usda.gov/sqi/• Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas http://www.attra.org/• Earthworms: The agriculturist’s friend http://www.eap.mcgill.ca/publications/eap6.htm
    20. 20. The EndPhoto by M. Greenwood
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