INTEGRATED PESTMANAGEMENT IN APPLE CROP By Anju Basera I.D. 31719
APPLE A temperate fruit. Accounts for 10 per cent of total fruit production of country. India is the 9th largest producer. Washington states 1st in world. India produces about 1.3 million tonnes annually. 58% : Jammu and Kashmir 29% : Himachal Pradesh 12% : Uttarakhand 1% : Arunachal Pradesh 10 to 30 per cent loss due to pest. 120 insect pest are reported.
CODLING MOTH Cydia pomonella Linneaus Lepidoptera : Tortricidae Most notorious of all the apple pests. In addition to apple, the fruits of pear, quince, walnut may be damaged. Adult forewings are dark grayish with waxy lines with a copper colored eye like circle toward margin. Egg laying singly on fruits, leaves and twigs. Full grown larva pinkish or creamy white with brown head. Larvae appears to be cannibalistic. Pupation takes place in bark of tree.
DAMAGE Larva causes the heaviest damage. Neonate larva enters the fruit through calyx and feeds on pulp. Infested fruits lose their shape and fall prematurely. 30 to 70 per cent apple fruits are rendered unmarketable.
IPM Thorough clean up of orchard. Scrapping lose bark from old trees. Collection and destruction of fallen fruits. Mating disruption dispenser. Moth pheromone trap can be used.
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL Birds; Parus major and Passer domesticus prey upon overwintering larvae. Spray of Carpovirusine (GV of moth) at fortnightly interval. First release of Trichogramma embryophagum within the first appearance of moth. Subsequent release at weekly interval. CHEMICAL CONTROL Spraying (before caterpillar enter into fruit), 700 ml endosulfan 35 EC, 2.0 kg carbaryl 50 WP in 500 lt of water/ha. In case of abundance tree should be banded with chemically treated bands.
SAN JOSE SCALEQuadraspidiotus perniciosus Comstock Hemiptera : Diaspididae Pest of 700 different species of fruits, shrubs and ornamental plants. Pest is active from March to December. Passes winter in nymphal stage in tree bark. Insect body covered with brown or black scales. Yellow lemon insect is visible when covering is lifted. Each female gives birth to 200-400 nymphs. Five to six generations in a year.
DAMAGE Nymph and female scales attack all above ground parts. Feeding site turns into a characteristic purplish red colour. Initially growth of plant is checked but as scale increases in number plant may die. Fruits will have distinct “measles” spots on the surface.
IPM Collection and destruction of infected pruned material. Adult emergence monitoring with special sex pheromone traps.BIOLOGICAL CONTROL Parasite, Encarsia perniciasi with Aphytis diaspidis may give upto 86.5 per cent parasitism. Coccinellid predators. Chilocorus bijugus Mulsant Chilocorus rubidus Hope Pharoscymnus flexibilies MulsantCHEMICAL CONTROL Spray trees with Thiamethoxam : 0.05% Tree basin Imidacloprid : 0.007% Chlorpyriphos : 0.05%
WOOLLY APPLE APHID Eriosoma lanigerum Hausman Hemiptera : Aphididae Native of Eastern United States. First noticed in 1909 in Shimla on nursery stocks imported from Egland. Most active during March to October. Adult and nymph redish brown in colour. Covered with waxy filaments. Reproduces parthenogenetically. Each female produces 116 young ones in her life. 13 generations a year. There is partial migration from aerial parts to the roots of infested plant in December Reverse migration from root to aerial parts takes place in April and May.
WOOLLY APPLE APHID NYMPHS WOOLLY APPLE APHID ADULTS WOOLLY APPLE APHID AERIAL COLONY
DAMAGE Nymphs and adults suck cell sap from bark of twigs and from underground parts. Underground feeding produces large knots on roots. Heavily infected plant have a short fibrous INFESTED ROOTS root system and yellowish foliage which can be easily uprooted. IPM Aphids usually spread through infested stocks, avoid planting infested stocks. Use of resistant stocks Golden Delicius, Northern Spy and Morton Stocks 778, 779, 789 and 793.
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL Parasitoid, Aphelinus mali Predators Coccinella septempunctata Chrysoperla carnea Menochilus sexmaculus Syrphus confactor CHEMICAL CONTROL Treat nursery plant with chlorpyriphos or fenitrothion 0.05%. For root forms: Methyl oxydemeton 25 EC in 500 lt of water/ha during winter. Spray tree with thiamethoxam 0.05%. Root fumigation: Paradichlorobenzene granules in 15 cm deep trench dug around infested tree.
EUROPEAN RED MITE Panonychus ulmi Koch Acarina : Tetranychidae This mite occurs on many deciduous fruits but is most injurious to apple. Adult male dull green to fulvous. Female bright to brownish red with curved spines on their back. Eggs are laid on the twigs and smaller branches of tree. Egg hatch into a six legged larval stage just before bloom. Larva passes through eight legged protonymph and deutonymph before becoming adult.
DAMAGE European red mite feeds on leaves. Severe mite injury produces browning and loss of colour in the leaves i.e. bronzing. IPMBIOLOGICAL CONTROL Chrysoperla carnea Predatory mite, Ambelacious fallocis, Stethorus punctum important predator in Northwest.
CHEMICAL CONTROL For killing egg, a dormant or delayed dormant application of a 3%. Superior or regular type oil emulsion. Acaricidal fungicides such as binapacryl dinocap. Propineb, can control mite population. New acaricides: tebufenpyrad, fenazaquin, fenpyroximate.
TENT CATERPILLAR Malacosoma indica Walker Lepidoptera : Lasiocampidae Important pest of apple, in North Western India being more serious in Shimla hills. Pest is active from March-May, passes 9 moth of year in egg stage. Caterpillar is progeny of a light reddish brown moth with two whitish stripes running across each of the forewings. Male are short lived and female may survive for 2 to 5 days. Female lays egg in broad bands consisting of 200 to 400 eggs. Caterpillar soon after emergence gather near a fork and spins a big tent like web. Web is used for resting during night or when weather is bad. Pupation takes place in stem, between leaves and among dry debrish in ground.
ADULT AND EGGS OF TENT CATERPILLARLARVAE OF TENT CATERPILLAR
DAMAGE Caterpillars during the night rest at their nest and at day they feed on leaves. In severe infestation, the entire plant may be defoliated and subsequently the caterpillar may feed on bark of twigs. When severe infestation 40-50 per cent plants in orchard may be defoliated producing a poor harvest.
IPM Pruning and burning of twigs containing egg mass (Dec-Jan). Mopping up the tent with pole and some rags dipped in kerosene tied on its end. Parasitoid Tachnid fly Virus also cause diseases to caterpillar. Spray 0.05% nimbecidine or B.t. based Halt 0.02% (Singh and Pandey, 2004)
INDIAN GYPSY MOTH Lymantria obfuscata Walker Lepidoptera : Lymantridae Pest of apricot, apple, walnut also forest trees. Female moth dark grey with atrophied wings. Males are comparatively active flier. Female lays a mass of round, shining and light grayish brown egg under the loose bark (June-July). Caterpillar 40-50 mm long and clothed in tuft of hairs. Larval period 66-100 days. Pupation takes place in ground among fallen leaves.
LIFE CYCLE OF INDIAN ZYPSY MOTH
DAMAGE Caterpillars are gregarious but voracious feeder. They eat voraciously on leaves at night time. Under heavy infestation entire leaf eaten sparing only hard vein. Defoliation of host completely results in failure of fruit formation. IPM Egg mass covered with yellowish hair so easily visible they should be hunted and destroyed (between August-March). A band of burlap around the tree trunk affords shelter for larvae in day time these band examined frequently and larvae destroyed.
BIOCONTROL Egg parasitoid, Anastatuis kashmiriensis Mathur. Larval parasitoid, Cottesia melanoscela Ratzeburg, Glyptapantelos indiensis Marsh, G. flevicoxis Marsh Pupal parasitoid, Brachymera intermedia, B. lasus. CHEMICAL CONTROL Spray 700 ml endosulfan 35 EC or 2.0 kg carbaryl 50 WP in 500 litres of water/ha.
APPLE STEM BORER Apriona cinerea Cheverlot Coleoptera : Cerambycidae Destructive stem borer of apple, peach, fig and other fruits. Adult beetles 35-50 mm long and grey in colour having long antennae. Female lays egg inside cavity on a shoot. Grub emerge in 7-8 days and start feeding by boring inside the stem. Grub longevity 2 years. Grub remains quiescent during winter and resume feeding in March. Pupation takes place inside a tunnel made in the woody tissue.
DAMAGE Caused by grub and adult, grub more destructive. Grub makes a tunnel and reaches close to trunk of tree. Vitality and productivity of plant is greatly impaired. Adult feed on bark and have an unusual habit of cutting more than they consume.
IPM Prune and burn all attacked shoot and branches during winter. Insert a cotton wick soaked in petrol or carbon disulphide or chloroform and sealing them with mud. Place Paradichlorbenzene 0.5 gm inside the holes and plug them.
APPLE ROOT BORER Dorysthenes hugelii Redtenbacher Coleoptera : Cerambycidae Very damaging root borer in Kumaon region of Himalayas. Adult beetle red chest nut in colour with head and thorax darker than elytra. Adults become active at night. Female lays egg in clusture about 8 mm deep in soil. Grub creamy white with black head and mandibles. Larval period lasts for 3 years. Male die soon after mating and female live for 10-12 days only.
DAMAGE Caused by grub, young larva feeds on organic matter in the soil for sometime until finally it bores into the root. Young tree die immediately whereas the older ones become weaken and fall down eventually owing to the action of strong winds.
IPM Adult beetles can be light trapped and killed by dipping in water containing kerosene. Removal of undecomposed wood and manual destruction of borer. Avoid sandy soil for planting. Collect and destruct grubs during preparation of tree basin. Once the infestation has occurred, treat tree basin with phorate granules @ 100 g a.i. per tree.
APPLE MAGGOT Rhagoletis pomonella Diptera : Tephritidae A very injurious apple pest in North Eastern states and Canada. Adults (flies) are black with white bands between segments on abdomen. Wings are marked with oblique black bands. Maggots are carrot shaped, white and legless. Eggs are laid just under the skin of fruit. Maggot makes a tunnel through the apple when fully grown leaves the fruit and enter the soil for pupation. Adult emergence in mid June.
DAMAGE Caused by maggot. Maggots are called ‘railroad’ because they leave brown winding trail just under fruit skin. Burrowing of maggot sometime reduce apple to a brown rotten mass. Premature fall of infested fruits.
IPM Collection and destruction of all fallen infested fruits. Adult monitoring with “Sticky red sphere” and “Yellow sticky panel”. Spray before egg laying. Parathion (Parathion 50 EC) and Phosmet (Imidan 50 WP).
BLOSSOM THRIPS Thrips flavus Schrank Thysanoptera : Thripidae Blossom thrips are winged sucking rasping insects ranging from 5-14 mm in length. Their slender bodies are shiny pale or black with silver stripes. Life cycle completed in 11-43 days. Produce many generations in a year heaviest damage occur in spring. In colder region, life cycle is longer with fewer generations.
DAMAGE Nymph and adult feed by rasping the petal, vital flower parts and leaves. Affected leaves and blossom may fall prematurely. Heavily infected blossom may become distorted and may open only in one side. Unchecked growth of thrips may cause poor fruit set and thus severe crop loss.
IPM Clean cultivation and digging of beds in winter can expose them to natural enemies. Predators: Lady bird beetle, aphid lion. Spray of fenitrothion 0.05% at green tip stage. To check population a cluster of flower dipped in water and then thrips can be counted easily. If still > 10 thrips/blossom, 2nd spray of endosulfan 0.05% at pink bud stage.
CONCLUSION Most of IPM practices in Apple Crop should be done during dormant stage of tree (October to March) Less pest emergence during flowering and fruiting. Less damage to crop. To promote IPM implementation, special emphasis is necessary to generate increased awareness and transfer of recommended IPM practices.