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Race & Ethnicity Theoretical Overview

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Race & Ethnicity
    • 2.  
    • 3. Structural Inequalities
      • What percentage of population?
      • Approx 10%
      • Educational disadvantage –African Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Pakistani
      • Unemployment rates 2 or 3 times that of white group – even when well qualified
      • More likely to live in social housing, and in poor over-crowded conditions.
    • 4. Race & Ethnicity
      • ‘ Race’: 'socially defined but on the basis of physical criteria.‘
      • Ethnicity: 'socially defined but on the basis of cultural criteria' Van den Berghe, 1967: 9 in Goldberg, 1992, 553
      • ‘ For social boundaries to be actively maintained, they need to be continually validated, and this requires regular interaction with members of out groups’ ( Frederick Barth, 1969, Ethnic Groups and Social Boundaries )
    • 5. Race – ‘shifting signifier’
      • Race – said to be a social invention
      • does not have a fixed referent
      • At different times has been associated with species divide, religious belief, class, nation, citizenship, culture, ethnicity
      • Consider notions of ‘breeding’ and eugenicist views
    • 6.  
    • 7. Instrumental or Primordial?
      • Ethnicity as a resource to be used in times of competition.
      • Ethnicity and race as deep-seated and relatively fixed
    • 8. Marxism & Race
      • Marx recognised that racism – the divide and rule of colonialism prevented a united working class opposing the bourgeoisie
      • Race is not a primary category of analysis
      • But serves as a convenient tool of capitalism which will wither away when economic reality is recognised,
      • or a mask which serves to obscure true relations of power in a society, which are, in fact, class-based.
    • 9. Neo-Weberian
      • Rational Choice theory –
      • ‘ race relations’ approach - the work of John Rex and Michael Banton
      • Complex matrix of factors – class, status, economic and cultural factors, patterns of consumption, stereotypes, forms of representation etc…
    • 10. Neo-Marxists
      • 1. Relative Autonomy Model (Hall, 1980)
      • class and ‘race’ should be examined together.
      • 2. Autonomy Model (Gabriel and Ben-Tovim, 1979)
      • racism cannot be reduced to class conflict
      • 3. Migrant Labour Model (Miles & Phizacklea
      • “ Race is an idea which should be explicitly and consistently confined to the dustbin of analytically useless terms.”(Miles, 1984:42 in Solomos p8).
    • 11. Pierre Bourdieu
      • concept of 'habitus', grounded in material conditions and experience
      • struggle for ‘symbolic dominance’
      • the habitus is a reflexive, generative structure
      • a useful tool to look at cases of inter-ethnic differences, alienation, and conflict
      • which are in a state of constant adjustment and negotiation.
    • 12. Black Feminism
      • Historically profound connection between gender, sexuality and race
      • Sojourner Truth: “...aint I a woman?” highlights the ‘double burden’ : sexism and racism
      • Feminism recognised processes which are equally applicable to racialised groups:
      • Erasure, Denial, Invisibility, Tokenism
      • critique of White feminism
    • 13. Postmodernism & Race
      • End of ‘grand narratives’ of history
      • Advent of Identity politics
      • Depoliticised, factionalised
      • Focus on representation rather than ideology
      • Relativism and ‘differences’ rather than universalism and ‘equal’ rights
    • 14. Genocide and Postmodernism
    • 15.  
    • 16. Race & Media slave figure Clown figures Rising Middle class non-threatening blaxploitation genre
    • 17. Race & Television
    • 18. Four Key Themes in Racial Representation
      • exotic
      • dangerous
      • humorous
      • pitied
      • (Alvarado et al. 1987: 153)
    • 19.  
    • 20.  
    • 21.  
    • 22. The Circuit of Culture
      • Production
      • Consumption
      • Identity
      • Regulation
      • Representation
    • 23.  
    • 24.  
    • 25. Dominant white discourses: Romantic, Anthropological, Literary and Racist An imagined indigenous idyll The reality is often life in harsh and squalid urban camps – as below in Darwin
    • 26. Moral Panics
      • described as a condition, episode, person or group of persons which emerge to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests (Cohen, 1972, p.9).
      • 1970s the image of the black mugger
      • 1980s – image of rioter
      • 1990s – gangsta, gun crimes etc
      • 2000s – Media focus shifts to Muslims
    • 27.  
    • 28. Politics and Race
    • 29. Multiculturalism
      • What does it mean?
      • Ideal state – integration around a dominant culture – or complex negotiation between many cultures?
      • Trevor Philips of CRE recent reversal over multiculturalism
      • ‘ Sleepwalking towards segregation.’
      • Relativism V Universalism arguments
      • Identity Politics V struggle against inequality
    • 30. + + = MULTICULTURALISM Steel Bands Samosas Saris
    • 31. Identity politics
      • Criticised by left-leaning analysts as capitulation to cultural criticism
      • in place of analysis of the material roots of oppression
      • factionalizing and depoliticizing
      • dominance of symbolic over material
    • 32. Too Diverse? Multicultural Debate
      • Kenan Malik responds:
      • “ the real problem is not a surfeit of strangers in our midst but the abandonment over the past two decades of ideologically based politics for a politics of identity...
      • The result has been the fragmentation of society as different groups assert their particular identities - and the creation of a well of resentment within white working class communities who feel left out.”
    • 33. Bibliography
      • Bronowski, J (1973) The Ascent of Man, BBC books
      • Goldberg D. T. and Solomos J.(eds) 2002, A Companion to racial and ethnic studies, Oxford, Blackwell
      • Goldberg D.T. (1993) Racist Culture, Blackwell
      • Goldberg D.T. (Ed) 1994, Multiculturalism, a Critical Reader, Blackwell.
      • Goodhart, David ‘Too diverse’ February 2004 Available online at: http://www.geocities.com/jjrinst/DavidGoodhart-Immigration-Prospect.htm
      • Hall, S (2000) The Multicultural Question, Political Economy Research Centre, Lecture, transcript available on - http://www.shef.ac.uk/uni/academic/N-Q/perc/lectures/Hall.html)
      • Hall, S. et al. (1978), Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State and Law and Order, Macmillan, London.
      • Jenkins R (1997) Rethinking Ethnicity : arguments and explorations, Sage
      • Loomba A (1998) Colonialism/Postcolonialism, Routledge
      • Malik, K (1996) The Meaning of Race, Macmillan
      • Malik, K (2002) Race, pluralism and the meaning of difference, ( paper in New Formations, no33 (Spring 1998) Available online at : http://www.kenanmalik.com/papers/new_formations.html
      • Malik, K (2002) Against Multiculturalism first appeared in the New Humanist (Summer 2002). http://www.kenanmalik.com/essays/against_mc.html
      • Malik, K (2004) Too Diverse: A Response to David Goodhart
      •   Muecke, S. (1982) ‘Available Discourses’ in Botsman, P. d (1982) Theoretical Strategies, Sydney, Local Consumption Press.
      • PARIAH website (People Against Racism In Australian Homelands) managed by Mick Lambe (Better a Pariah than a Liar) http://www.country-liberal-party.com/pages/incarc_p5.htm
      • Spencer, S (2006) Race and Ethnicity: Culture, Identity and Representation, Routledge
    • 34.  
    • 35.  
    • 36.  

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