Race & Ethnicity Theoretical Overview

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  • 1. Race & Ethnicity
  • 2.  
  • 3. Structural Inequalities
    • What percentage of population?
    • Approx 10%
    • Educational disadvantage –African Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Pakistani
    • Unemployment rates 2 or 3 times that of white group – even when well qualified
    • More likely to live in social housing, and in poor over-crowded conditions.
  • 4. Race & Ethnicity
    • ‘ Race’: 'socially defined but on the basis of physical criteria.‘
    • Ethnicity: 'socially defined but on the basis of cultural criteria' Van den Berghe, 1967: 9 in Goldberg, 1992, 553
    • ‘ For social boundaries to be actively maintained, they need to be continually validated, and this requires regular interaction with members of out groups’ ( Frederick Barth, 1969, Ethnic Groups and Social Boundaries )
  • 5. Race – ‘shifting signifier’
    • Race – said to be a social invention
    • does not have a fixed referent
    • At different times has been associated with species divide, religious belief, class, nation, citizenship, culture, ethnicity
    • Consider notions of ‘breeding’ and eugenicist views
  • 6.  
  • 7. Instrumental or Primordial?
    • Ethnicity as a resource to be used in times of competition.
    • Ethnicity and race as deep-seated and relatively fixed
  • 8. Marxism & Race
    • Marx recognised that racism – the divide and rule of colonialism prevented a united working class opposing the bourgeoisie
    • Race is not a primary category of analysis
    • But serves as a convenient tool of capitalism which will wither away when economic reality is recognised,
    • or a mask which serves to obscure true relations of power in a society, which are, in fact, class-based.
  • 9. Neo-Weberian
    • Rational Choice theory –
    • ‘ race relations’ approach - the work of John Rex and Michael Banton
    • Complex matrix of factors – class, status, economic and cultural factors, patterns of consumption, stereotypes, forms of representation etc…
  • 10. Neo-Marxists
    • 1. Relative Autonomy Model (Hall, 1980)
    • class and ‘race’ should be examined together.
    • 2. Autonomy Model (Gabriel and Ben-Tovim, 1979)
    • racism cannot be reduced to class conflict
    • 3. Migrant Labour Model (Miles & Phizacklea
    • “ Race is an idea which should be explicitly and consistently confined to the dustbin of analytically useless terms.”(Miles, 1984:42 in Solomos p8).
  • 11. Pierre Bourdieu
    • concept of 'habitus', grounded in material conditions and experience
    • struggle for ‘symbolic dominance’
    • the habitus is a reflexive, generative structure
    • a useful tool to look at cases of inter-ethnic differences, alienation, and conflict
    • which are in a state of constant adjustment and negotiation.
  • 12. Black Feminism
    • Historically profound connection between gender, sexuality and race
    • Sojourner Truth: “...aint I a woman?” highlights the ‘double burden’ : sexism and racism
    • Feminism recognised processes which are equally applicable to racialised groups:
    • Erasure, Denial, Invisibility, Tokenism
    • critique of White feminism
  • 13. Postmodernism & Race
    • End of ‘grand narratives’ of history
    • Advent of Identity politics
    • Depoliticised, factionalised
    • Focus on representation rather than ideology
    • Relativism and ‘differences’ rather than universalism and ‘equal’ rights
  • 14. Genocide and Postmodernism
  • 15.  
  • 16. Race & Media slave figure Clown figures Rising Middle class non-threatening blaxploitation genre
  • 17. Race & Television
  • 18. Four Key Themes in Racial Representation
    • exotic
    • dangerous
    • humorous
    • pitied
    • (Alvarado et al. 1987: 153)
  • 19.  
  • 20.  
  • 21.  
  • 22. The Circuit of Culture
    • Production
    • Consumption
    • Identity
    • Regulation
    • Representation
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25. Dominant white discourses: Romantic, Anthropological, Literary and Racist An imagined indigenous idyll The reality is often life in harsh and squalid urban camps – as below in Darwin
  • 26. Moral Panics
    • described as a condition, episode, person or group of persons which emerge to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests (Cohen, 1972, p.9).
    • 1970s the image of the black mugger
    • 1980s – image of rioter
    • 1990s – gangsta, gun crimes etc
    • 2000s – Media focus shifts to Muslims
  • 27.  
  • 28. Politics and Race
  • 29. Multiculturalism
    • What does it mean?
    • Ideal state – integration around a dominant culture – or complex negotiation between many cultures?
    • Trevor Philips of CRE recent reversal over multiculturalism
    • ‘ Sleepwalking towards segregation.’
    • Relativism V Universalism arguments
    • Identity Politics V struggle against inequality
  • 30. + + = MULTICULTURALISM Steel Bands Samosas Saris
  • 31. Identity politics
    • Criticised by left-leaning analysts as capitulation to cultural criticism
    • in place of analysis of the material roots of oppression
    • factionalizing and depoliticizing
    • dominance of symbolic over material
  • 32. Too Diverse? Multicultural Debate
    • Kenan Malik responds:
    • “ the real problem is not a surfeit of strangers in our midst but the abandonment over the past two decades of ideologically based politics for a politics of identity...
    • The result has been the fragmentation of society as different groups assert their particular identities - and the creation of a well of resentment within white working class communities who feel left out.”
  • 33. Bibliography
    • Bronowski, J (1973) The Ascent of Man, BBC books
    • Goldberg D. T. and Solomos J.(eds) 2002, A Companion to racial and ethnic studies, Oxford, Blackwell
    • Goldberg D.T. (1993) Racist Culture, Blackwell
    • Goldberg D.T. (Ed) 1994, Multiculturalism, a Critical Reader, Blackwell.
    • Goodhart, David ‘Too diverse’ February 2004 Available online at: http://www.geocities.com/jjrinst/DavidGoodhart-Immigration-Prospect.htm
    • Hall, S (2000) The Multicultural Question, Political Economy Research Centre, Lecture, transcript available on - http://www.shef.ac.uk/uni/academic/N-Q/perc/lectures/Hall.html)
    • Hall, S. et al. (1978), Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State and Law and Order, Macmillan, London.
    • Jenkins R (1997) Rethinking Ethnicity : arguments and explorations, Sage
    • Loomba A (1998) Colonialism/Postcolonialism, Routledge
    • Malik, K (1996) The Meaning of Race, Macmillan
    • Malik, K (2002) Race, pluralism and the meaning of difference, ( paper in New Formations, no33 (Spring 1998) Available online at : http://www.kenanmalik.com/papers/new_formations.html
    • Malik, K (2002) Against Multiculturalism first appeared in the New Humanist (Summer 2002). http://www.kenanmalik.com/essays/against_mc.html
    • Malik, K (2004) Too Diverse: A Response to David Goodhart
    •   Muecke, S. (1982) ‘Available Discourses’ in Botsman, P. d (1982) Theoretical Strategies, Sydney, Local Consumption Press.
    • PARIAH website (People Against Racism In Australian Homelands) managed by Mick Lambe (Better a Pariah than a Liar) http://www.country-liberal-party.com/pages/incarc_p5.htm
    • Spencer, S (2006) Race and Ethnicity: Culture, Identity and Representation, Routledge
  • 34.  
  • 35.  
  • 36.