Unemployment rates 2 or 3 times that of white group – even when well qualified
More likely to live in social housing, and in poor over-crowded conditions.
Race & Ethnicity
‘ Race’: 'socially defined but on the basis of physical criteria.‘
Ethnicity: 'socially defined but on the basis of cultural criteria' Van den Berghe, 1967: 9 in Goldberg, 1992, 553
‘ For social boundaries to be actively maintained, they need to be continually validated, and this requires regular interaction with members of out groups’ ( Frederick Barth, 1969, Ethnic Groups and Social Boundaries )
Race – ‘shifting signifier’
Race – said to be a social invention
does not have a fixed referent
At different times has been associated with species divide, religious belief, class, nation, citizenship, culture, ethnicity
Consider notions of ‘breeding’ and eugenicist views
Instrumental or Primordial?
Ethnicity as a resource to be used in times of competition.
Ethnicity and race as deep-seated and relatively fixed
Marxism & Race
Marx recognised that racism – the divide and rule of colonialism prevented a united working class opposing the bourgeoisie
Race is not a primary category of analysis
But serves as a convenient tool of capitalism which will wither away when economic reality is recognised,
or a mask which serves to obscure true relations of power in a society, which are, in fact, class-based.
Rational Choice theory –
‘ race relations’ approach - the work of John Rex and Michael Banton
Complex matrix of factors – class, status, economic and cultural factors, patterns of consumption, stereotypes, forms of representation etc…
1. Relative Autonomy Model (Hall, 1980)
class and ‘race’ should be examined together.
2. Autonomy Model (Gabriel and Ben-Tovim, 1979)
racism cannot be reduced to class conflict
3. Migrant Labour Model (Miles & Phizacklea
“ Race is an idea which should be explicitly and consistently confined to the dustbin of analytically useless terms.”(Miles, 1984:42 in Solomos p8).
concept of 'habitus', grounded in material conditions and experience
struggle for ‘symbolic dominance’
the habitus is a reflexive, generative structure
a useful tool to look at cases of inter-ethnic differences, alienation, and conflict
which are in a state of constant adjustment and negotiation.
Historically profound connection between gender, sexuality and race
Sojourner Truth: “...aint I a woman?” highlights the ‘double burden’ : sexism and racism
Feminism recognised processes which are equally applicable to racialised groups:
Erasure, Denial, Invisibility, Tokenism
critique of White feminism
Postmodernism & Race
End of ‘grand narratives’ of history
Advent of Identity politics
Focus on representation rather than ideology
Relativism and ‘differences’ rather than universalism and ‘equal’ rights
Genocide and Postmodernism
Race & Media slave figure Clown figures Rising Middle class non-threatening blaxploitation genre
Race & Television
Four Key Themes in Racial Representation
(Alvarado et al. 1987: 153)
The Circuit of Culture
Dominant white discourses: Romantic, Anthropological, Literary and Racist An imagined indigenous idyll The reality is often life in harsh and squalid urban camps – as below in Darwin
described as a condition, episode, person or group of persons which emerge to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests (Cohen, 1972, p.9).
1970s the image of the black mugger
1980s – image of rioter
1990s – gangsta, gun crimes etc
2000s – Media focus shifts to Muslims
Politics and Race
What does it mean?
Ideal state – integration around a dominant culture – or complex negotiation between many cultures?
Trevor Philips of CRE recent reversal over multiculturalism
‘ Sleepwalking towards segregation.’
Relativism V Universalism arguments
Identity Politics V struggle against inequality
+ + = MULTICULTURALISM Steel Bands Samosas Saris
Criticised by left-leaning analysts as capitulation to cultural criticism
in place of analysis of the material roots of oppression
factionalizing and depoliticizing
dominance of symbolic over material
Too Diverse? Multicultural Debate
Kenan Malik responds:
“ the real problem is not a surfeit of strangers in our midst but the abandonment over the past two decades of ideologically based politics for a politics of identity...
The result has been the fragmentation of society as different groups assert their particular identities - and the creation of a well of resentment within white working class communities who feel left out.”
Bronowski, J (1973) The Ascent of Man, BBC books
Goldberg D. T. and Solomos J.(eds) 2002, A Companion to racial and ethnic studies, Oxford, Blackwell
Goldberg D.T. (1993) Racist Culture, Blackwell
Goldberg D.T. (Ed) 1994, Multiculturalism, a Critical Reader, Blackwell.
Goodhart, David ‘Too diverse’ February 2004 Available online at: http://www.geocities.com/jjrinst/DavidGoodhart-Immigration-Prospect.htm
Hall, S (2000) The Multicultural Question, Political Economy Research Centre, Lecture, transcript available on - http://www.shef.ac.uk/uni/academic/N-Q/perc/lectures/Hall.html)
Hall, S. et al. (1978), Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State and Law and Order, Macmillan, London.
Jenkins R (1997) Rethinking Ethnicity : arguments and explorations, Sage
Loomba A (1998) Colonialism/Postcolonialism, Routledge
Malik, K (1996) The Meaning of Race, Macmillan
Malik, K (2002) Race, pluralism and the meaning of difference, ( paper in New Formations, no33 (Spring 1998) Available online at : http://www.kenanmalik.com/papers/new_formations.html
Malik, K (2002) Against Multiculturalism first appeared in the New Humanist (Summer 2002). http://www.kenanmalik.com/essays/against_mc.html
Malik, K (2004) Too Diverse: A Response to David Goodhart
Muecke, S. (1982) ‘Available Discourses’ in Botsman, P. d (1982) Theoretical Strategies, Sydney, Local Consumption Press.
PARIAH website (People Against Racism In Australian Homelands) managed by Mick Lambe (Better a Pariah than a Liar) http://www.country-liberal-party.com/pages/incarc_p5.htm
Spencer, S (2006) Race and Ethnicity: Culture, Identity and Representation, Routledge