TFDN 2010 Copyright and copywrong


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  • The DMCA was enacted in October 1998 primarily to bring U.S. copyright law into conformity with provisions of two World Intellectual Property Organization treaties to which the U.S. is a signatory. --- prohibits devices designed to circumvent digital anti-copying protections.
  • Kinko's' practice of unauthorized photocopying of multiple-page excerpts from copyrighted works (including chapters of books and articles from periodicals) to create anthologies (coursepacks) for sale to students for a profit violated the publishers' copyrights. The copyrighted works infringed by Kinko's included hardback and paperback editions of in-print and out-of-print trade and professional works as well as text- books. The copied materials ranged in length from 14 to 110 pages and from 5% to 24% of the works.
  • Amount is measured both quantitatively and qualitatively. No exact measures of allowable quantity exist in the law.Guidelines exist – from Congress.
  • This factor means fundamentally that if you make a use for which a purchase of an original theoretically should have occurred—regardless of your personal willingness or ability to pay for such purchase—then this factor may weigh against fair use. "Effect" is closely linked to "purpose." If your purpose is research or scholarship, market effect may be difficult to prove. If your purpose is commercial, then adverse market effect is often presumed. Occasional quotations or photocopies may have no adverse market effects, but reproductions of software and videotapes can make direct inroads on the potential markets for those works.
  • Oxford University Press, Cambridge University Press and SAGE Publications and supported by the Association of American Publishers (AAP), charges that GSU officials were violating the law by systematically enabling professors to provide students with digital copies of copyrighted course readings published by the plaintiffs and numerous other publishers without those publishers’ authorization. The lawsuit seeks injunctive relief to bring an end to such practices, but does not seek monetary damages.
  • TFDN 2010 Copyright and copywrong

    1. 1. TFDN 2010<br />Copyright and Copywrong<br />Christine Salmon, PhD<br />Office of Educational Enhancement<br />The University of Texas at Dallas<br />
    2. 2. Objectives<br />Define copyright<br />Identify copyright infringement<br />Evaluate materials for Fair Use<br />
    3. 3. Copyright!<br />arghhhh!!! <br />Source:<br />
    4. 4. Copyright – What do you know?<br />Is it infringement?<br /> One of your students creates a video play for your class. In the play, a character sings Happy Birthday (7). <br />
    5. 5. Copyright – What do you know?<br />Is it infringement?<br /> Your department has purchased a DVD for use in the classroom. You make a copy to ensure that if the DVD is lost or broken, you have a backup. <br />
    6. 6. Copyright – the Law<br />Copyright Act of 1790<br />Copyright Act of 1909 (before 1909)<br />Copyright Act of 1909 (amended 1973)<br />Copyright Act of 1976<br /><br />
    7. 7. Copyright – the Law<br />U.S. Code (17 USC, section 106 - 1976)<br />Digital Millennium Copyright Act (1998)<br />Technology, Education, and Copyright Harmonization (TEACH) Act (2002)<br />Comparison of above -<br />Federal Educational Rights & Privacy Act (FERPA) <br />
    8. 8. Copyright?<br />
    9. 9. Copyright?<br />
    10. 10. Copyright – What is it?<br />Intellectual property protection for “…original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression, now known or later developed, from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device.”<br />Copyright Law of the United States (Ch 1, p8)<br /><br />
    11. 11. Copyright holders – exclusive rights to:<br />Reproduction<br />Adaptation<br />Publication<br />Performance<br />Display <br />Copyright – What is it?<br />
    12. 12. Copyright – When does it start?<br />Does not require publication<br />Does not require ©<br />Does not require registration<br />As soon as work is fixed <br />Creative Commons<br />
    13. 13. Copyright – What is protected?<br />Literary works<br />Pictorial, graphic and sculptural works<br />Motion pictures<br />Audiovisual works<br />Sound recordings<br />
    14. 14. Copyright – What is not protected?<br />Facts<br />Ideas not in fixed form<br />Works produced by federal government employees<br />
    15. 15. Copyright – What is it?<br />Non-dramatic literary or musical work<br /> (excludes audiovisual works)<br />Work uses dialogue and action to tell a connected story<br />Work is “related” - not performed.<br />Non-dramatic <br /><ul><li> novel
    16. 16. essay
    17. 17. poetry / poem
    18. 18. short story
    19. 19. symphony</li></ul>Dramatic <br /><ul><li> stage play
    20. 20. theatre piece
    21. 21. music video
    22. 22. opera
    23. 23. musical</li></li></ul><li>Copyright – How long is it?<br />Life of author<br />plus 70 years<br />Created on /after January 1, 1978<br />Made for hire, anonymous<br />Public domain – no copyright<br />95 years from date of publication or 120 years from date of creation, whichever is shorter<br />
    24. 24. Copyright – What do you know?<br />Is it infringement?<br />Your students are struggling with a written assignment. You find an old paper from a student last year and photocopy it to show students a good example. You make sure to remove the student’s name and any grading marks.(10)<br />
    25. 25. Copyright - Lawsuits<br />“Kinko’s case” Basic Books, Inc. v. Kinko's Graphics Corporation, 758 F. Supp. 1522 (SDNY 1991)<br />Kinko’s had copied materials representing 5 – 24% of works<br />Did not prohibit coursepacks<br />Did prohibit unlawful reproduction and sale of coursepacks – without copyright permissions<br />
    26. 26. Copyright – Lawsuits almost<br />AAP (American Association of Publishers) – Cornell, Hofstra, Syracuse, Marquette Universities<br />Concern with manner of providing copyrighted materials in digital format (e-reserves, faculty webpages, CMS) <br />Resolved with jointly-drafted guidelines<br />Cornell’s Guidelines<br />
    27. 27. Fair Use – Four Factors<br />Purpose<br />Nature<br />Amount<br />Effect<br />Why are you using this work?<br />What is the nature of the work?<br />How much are you using?<br />What is the effect on the market?<br />
    28. 28. Fair Use - Purpose<br />Seek Permission<br />Commercial<br />Education<br />Non-profit<br />Personal<br />Criticism<br />Commentary<br />News reporting<br />Parody / satire<br />CopyrightInfringement<br />Fair Use<br />
    29. 29.
    30. 30. Fair Use - Nature<br />Seek Permission<br />Creative<br />Unpublished<br />Consumable<br />Factual<br />Published<br />Mix of fact <br />and imaginative<br />CopyrightInfringement<br />Fair Use<br />
    31. 31. Fair Use - Amount<br />Seek Permission<br />Significant<br />Entire work<br />Small amount<br />Non-essential<br />CopyrightInfringement<br />Fair Use<br />
    32. 32. Fair Use - Effect<br />Seek Permission<br />Harms the sale<br />Are reasonably priced<br />No effect on market<br />CopyrightInfringement<br />Fair Use<br />
    33. 33. Copyright - Lawsuits<br />“Georgia State University case” – several publishers (2008)<br />GSU “pervasive, flagrant and ongoing” distribution of copyrighted materials in digital form<br />Electronic reserves, Blackboard/WebCT, online syllabi, servers<br />Seeking injunction to stop, but no money<br />
    34. 34. Copyright – Fair Use<br />Mediated instructional activities:<br />Integral part of class<br />Under supervision/control of instructor<br />In a manner analagous to performance/display in live, F2F classroom (digital)*<br />
    35. 35. TEACH Act – Additional Reqs<br />Authentication<br />Enrollment<br />Time <br />Amounts<br />Download controls<br />Guide to the TEACH Act (University System of Georgia) <br />
    36. 36. Copyright – What do you know?<br />Is it infringement?<br />You’re teaching Sociology and you have a chapter from an old textbook that you want your students to read. You photocopy it and hand it out in class. You decide to use it every semester. (1)<br />
    37. 37. Classroom Copying - Guidelines<br />Multiple copies allowed (no more than per student) provided that copying:<br />Meets test of brevity and spontaneity<br />Meets test of cumulative effect<br />Contains copyright notice<br />Limits on amount copiable<br />Time requirements<br />Limits on instances of copying<br />
    38. 38. Copyright – Printed Materials<br />Reproducing printed materials for use inclass:<br />A book chapter <br />An article from periodical or newspaper<br />A short story, short essay, short poem<br />A graph, diagram, chart, cartoon, drawing, picture from a book, newspaper, periodical<br />Mediated instructional activities:<br /><ul><li> Integral part of class
    39. 39. Under supervision/control of instructor
    40. 40. In a manner analagous to performance/ display in live, F2F classroom</li></ul>Next 14 slides drawn from: Stanford University Copyright and Fair Use Overview<br />
    41. 41. BUT<br />Copyright notice must be attached (each item)<br />Copying must NOT replace textbook, workbook<br />Must not charge more than actual cost of copying<br />Must not exceed one copy per student<br />Cannot copy texts, workbooks, standardized tests, etc created for educational use (consumables)<br />1<br />
    42. 42. AND (Brevity test)<br />Restrictions:<br />Complete poem IF < 250 words<br />Excerpt of no more than 250 (if longer poem)<br />Complete article, essay, story IF < 2500 words<br />Excerpt from prose of no more than 1000 words or 10% of entire work, whichever is less<br />One (1) graph, diagram, chart, cartoon, drawing, picture per book, newspaper, periodical<br />
    43. 43. AND (Spontaneity test)<br />Idea for copying derives from teacher, not administration<br />Idea and copying must occur close in time – so close that no time for permission request and granting<br />
    44. 44. AND (Cumulative Effect test)<br />Per class term restrictions – all of above, plus<br />Per author<br />One story, short poem, article, essay<br />Two excepts<br />Per collective work, periodical volume<br />No more than three stories, short poems, articles, essays (or combination)<br />Only nine (9) instances per course<br />
    45. 45. Copyright – Music<br />Reproducing musicfor use inclass:<br />Excerpts of sheet music, printed works IF<br />Do NOT make a “performable unit” (entire song, section, movement, aria)<br />Do NOT exceed 10% of entire work<br />Do NOT exceed one copy per student<br />Purchased copies can be edited IF fundamental character of work NOT distorted or lyrics altered<br />Image from<br />
    46. 46. AND<br />Recording of a performance<br />Single (1) recording for purposes of evaluation or rehearsal<br />Institution or teacher can retain a (1) copy<br />Sound recording owned by institution or teacher (tape, CD, cassette) <br />Single copy IF for aural exercises, exams<br />Institution or teacher can retain a (1) copy<br />Must include copyright notice<br />♫♫<br />
    47. 47. BUT<br />Instructor CANNOT copy:<br />Sheet music, recordings to make compilation<br />Sheet music, recordings for performances<br />From “consumables” (texts, workbooks, etc.)<br />
    48. 48. Copyright – What do you know?<br />Is it infringement?<br /> You record a program from PBS’s Nova in October and show it to your class the next March. (3)<br />
    49. 49. Copyright - Television<br />Recording network shows:<br />Keep copy for 45 days BUT use for instruction only first 10 days<br />Played once by individual teacher for instruction<br />After 10 days, use only for teacher evaluation (should we use it in curriculum? Yes – MUST obtain permission)<br />After 45 days, recording MUST be erased<br />
    50. 50. AND<br />Recorded only at request of instructor<br />Used only by instructor<br />No standing requests; no anticipated requests<br />Copies only for individual instructor<br />NO compilation<br />Must include copyright notice<br />
    51. 51. Copyright – Digital Images <br />Can digitize an analog image IF digital image not available at fair price<br />Can display for lectures, scholarly presentations<br />Institution can compile digitized images on secure network for students enrolled in class for review or directed study.<br />Must include statement prohibiting: downloading, copying, retention, printing, sharing, modification<br />
    52. 52. Copyright – Digital <br />CANNOT reproduce or publish images in publications (incl. scholarly publications)<br />
    53. 53. Copyright – Multimedia<br />Students, instructors preparing MM works:<br />MM = combination of music, text, graphics, illustrations, photographs, images, video<br />For F2F instruction, directed self-study, remote instruction<br />Only systematic learning activities at no-profit educational institutions<br />Can use MM presentation up to 2 yrs after 1st use<br />♪<br />
    54. 54. Copyright – Multimedia<br />Portion restrictions (cumulativeeffecttest):<br />10% or 1000 words (whichever is less)<br />No more than 3 poems by single author<br />No more than 5 poems by different poets in an anthology<br />Up to 10% or 3 minutes of motion media<br />One (1) photo/illustration by single artist<br />No more than 10% or 15 images (whichever is less) from collective work<br />
    55. 55. Copyright – Multimedia<br />Portion restrictions:<br />10% or 2,500 cell entries from database or data table<br />Other restrictions:<br />Only 2 copies of MM project, one of which can be on reserve<br />Additional 1 copy for preservation (used only to replace stolen, lost, damaged original)<br />
    56. 56. Copyright Resources<br />TEACH Act Toolkit(North Carolina State University)<br />UT System Crash Course in Copyright<br />UT System Intellectual Property Policy<br />AAP (Association of American Publishers) Copyright - Rights and Permissions<br />Reproduction of Copyrighted Works by Educators and Librarians<br />