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  • 1. Part 1 Literature Review MIT 6109 Information Literacy Dixon Fong, 08006810
  • 2.
    • “ Educators are recognizing the need for learners to engage with the information environment as part of their formal learning processes .”(Bruce, 2002)
    • “ Information overload occurs when the amount of input to a system exceeds its processing capacity ” (Speier et al., 1999)
  • 3.
    • “ People trained in the application of information resources to their work can be called information literates. They have learned techniques and skills for utilizing the wide range of information tools as well as primary sources in molding information solutions to their problems .”
    • (Zurkowski,1974)
    Information literacy
  • 4.
    • In 1979, the Information Industry Association (IIA) defined information literate person as a person who knows the techniques ad skills for problem solving.
    • In 1989, the standard of information literacy was developed for school sector by the American Library Association (ALA) Presidential Committee on Information Literacy.
    • “ Information literacy literates the ability to recognize when information is needed and to locate, evaluate and use effectively the needed information.”
    Information literacy
  • 5.
    • No universal perception towards the term information literacy
    • It includes more than a skill to transform information to knowledge
    • It includes behavioral and social-cultural perception
    Information literacy
  • 6.
    • “ Awareness of a need for information is necessary to students .”(Behrens, 1994)
    • “ Information literacy standards endorse the focus of education shifting from finite to infinite, from teacher-centered to student-centered.” (Marcoux, 1999)
    • “ Information-literate people should be lifelong learning and acquire appropriate information within or beyond library .”(Radar,2002)
    Information literacy
  • 7.
    • “ Information found on the Internet is not totally reliable” (Humes,1999)
    • “ Students tended to choose less reliable information from commercial websites rather than educational websites.” (Peske and Haycock ,2006)
    • “ Students need to be taught critical evaluation skills that they can apply to each web site they use for research” (Heil,2005)
    Information overloading
  • 8.
    • “ the process of becoming information literate should be started at primary school and be a part of formal training during the whole education process.” (Virkus,2003)
    Information overloading The overflow of information doesn’t mean that students acquire more knowledge, but instead, they need more knowledge (evaluation skill) to justify the accuracy of the information
  • 9.
        • The framework in Hong Kong
        • Hong Kong Education and Manpower Bureau (EMB)
        • The framework in United States
        • The American Association of School Libraries (AASL) and the Association of Educational Communications and Technology (AECT)
        • The framework in Australia
        • The Australian and New Zealand Institute for Information Literacy (ANZIIL)
        • The framework in Scotland
        • Glasgow Caledonian University (GCU)
    Information literacy framework
  • 10.
    • The information literacy framework was established in 2004 under the Information literacy working group.
    • The framework is identified by four dimensions:
      • Cognitive
      • meta-cognitive
      • affective
      • socio-cultural dimension
    • (Education and Manpower Bureau, 2004)
    Framework in Hong Kong
  • 11.
    • In 1998, AASL & AECT collaborates the standards for the education framework and the framework set out nine standards grouped into three categories:
      • Information literacy
      • Independent learning
      • Social responsibility
    • (AASL & AECT, 1998)
    • “ The standards are flexible to adapt to local situations to support students for years to come.” (Mardis, 2008)
    Framework in United States
  • 12.
    • In 2007, AASL defined a new standard called “AASL standards for 21 st century” in order to recognize the demand of acquiring high quality information in the global society.
    • The standards are delineated in four strands:
      • Skills
      • Dispositions in action
      • Responsibilities
      • Self-Assessment strategies
    Framework in United States
  • 13.
    • The core standards of the framework are that the information literate learners to:
      • Recognize the need for information and determine the nature and extent of the information needed
      • Find needed information effectively and efficiently
      • Critically evaluate information and the information seeking process
      • Manage information collected or generated
      • Apply prior and new information to construct new concepts or create new understandings
      • Use information with understanding and acknowledges cultural, ethical, economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information.
    • (ANZIL, 2004)
    Framework in Australia
  • 14.
    • The draft framework was piloted in 2007/2008 academic year while exemplars
    • Learners should focus on the development of the literacy skills and that they should extend the skill in order to:
      • communicate , collaborate and build relationships
      • reflect on and explain my literacy and thinking skills , using feedback to help me improve and sensitively provide useful feedback for others
      • engage with and create a wide range of texts
      • develop my understanding of what is special, vibrant and valuable about my own and other cultures and their languages in different media, taking advantage of the opportunities offered by ICT
      • explore the richness and diversity of language, how it can affect me, and the wide range of ways in which I and others can be creative
      • extend and enrich my vocabulary through listening, talking, watching and reading.
      • (GCU, 2004)
    Framework in Scotland
  • 15. Comparison of framework (1) (EMB) (AASL & AECT) (ANZIIL) (GCU) Target students Mainly Primary and High school students Mainly high school students Mainly for high school and tertiary education students All levels including primary school, high school and tertiary education students Year of establishment 2004 2007 2004 2007 First Edition? Yes No No Yes Number of standards 11 standards categorized into 4 dimensions: Cognitive, meta-cognitive, affective and socio-cultural dimension 4 standards with respect to 4 major strands: Skills, dispositions in action, responsibilities and self-assessment strategies 6 core standards and 20 sub-level standards 13 standards in 3 groups: Listening and talking, writing and reading
  • 16. Comparison of framework (2) (EMB) (AASL & AECT) (ANZIIL) (GCU) Objectives / General learning outcome of the framework
    • Students are able to:
    • Comprehend, locate, analyze, critically evaluate ad synthesize information
    • Apply their knowledge to inform decisions and problem solving
    • Contribute to persona growth, enjoyment and life long learning
    • Empower with greater autonomy and social responsibility over the use of information
    • Students are able to:
    • Inquire, think critically and gain knowledge.
    • Draw conclusions, make informed decision, apply knowledge to new situations, and create new knowledge
    • Share knowledge ethically
    • Pursue personal and aesthetic growth
    • Students are able to
    • Recognize the need for information
    • Find needed information effectively and efficiently
    • Critically evaluations information and the information seeking process
    • Manages information collected or generated
    • Applies prior and new information to construct new concepts or create new understandings
    • Uses information with understanding and acknowledges cultural, ethical, economic, legal and social issues surrounding the use of information
    • Students are able to:
    • Recognize the need for information
    • Identify the availability of information
    • Search appropriate resources effectively and identify relevant information
    • Evaluate information for its authenticity, accuracy, currency, value and bias
    • Analyze and work with the information
    • Understand why information should be used in a responsible and ethical manner
    • Communicate or share the information appropriately
    • Store and manage the information acquired effectively
  • 17.
    • EMB requires students to develop the evaluation criteria found in terms of accuracy, relevance and comprehensiveness.
    • ANZIIL also focus on the relevance and usefulness of information
    • GCU determines the reliability and bias of information (higher level of judgment)
    • AASL&AECT addresses not only the accuracy or validity of information collected, but the quality of information collected.
    Comparison of Performance Indicator
  • 18.
    • AASL&AECT standards are comprehensive and suits for situation nowadays
    • The importance of information evaluation skill is mentioned in the reliability and quality aspect rather than comprehensiveness and appropriateness. (e.g. Wikipedia)
    • However, posing questions in AASL&AECT (1.1.7) and making inferences from key statements requires high order language skill
    Comparison of Performance Indicator
  • 19.
    • Able to evaluate information found in selected sources on basis of accuracy, authority, objectivity, currency and coverage
    • Identify techniques to assess the evaluation skill and question the validity of information
    • Shows engagement in conflicting information and identify misconceptions found in formation
    Integrated Performance Indicator
  • 20. Part 2 Individual Report II MIT 6109 Information Literacy
  • 21.
    • “ The validity of content is becoming questionable and it is dangerous if we are solely dependent on the information written by other users on the net.” (Cheng & Vassileva, 2006)
    • A case study towards a series project based courses under the computer curriculum of secondary 2.
  • 22.
    • 5 lessons (50 minutes per lesson) are planned as a project based learning that students are required to complete a task with information locating, evaluating, processing and analyzing.
    • The importance of curriculum to the development of IL:
      • Curriculum provides the opportunity to learn specific skill
      • It requires engagement in learning activities
      • It provides opportunities for reflection and documentation of learning
      • (Bruce, 2002)
  • 23.
    • “ Technology cannot solely motivate student learning interest since such a learning experience does not speak to their primary need ” (Dede, 1998).
    • Bruce (1999) concluded the phenomenon of the learning experiences in IL and developed the blueprint of the IL model - “Seven Faces of Information Literacy “
    • The following three famous information literacy models will be compared
      • Information Search Process (Kuhlthau, 1989)
      • The Big6 Skills (Eisenberg & Berkowitz, 1990)
      • PLUS Model (Herring, 1996)
    Information literacy model
  • 24.
    • Initiation
      • Learners have a topic and they will brainstorm the topic to think further on top of it.
    • Selection
      • Learners decide where to retrieve the information needed.
    • Exploration
      • Learners gather all information and turn them into their own knowledge.
    • Formulation
      • Learners evaluate the information that has been gathered and form them to be a focus.
    • Collection
      • Learners further search for information to support the focus.
    • Presentation
      • Learners summarize and report the information found.
    Information Search Process
  • 25.
    • Task definition
      • It defines the problem and identifies the information needed.
    • Information Seeking Strategies
      • It determines all possible sources and selects the best sources.
    • Location and Access
      • It locates the sources and finds the relevant information.
    • Use of Information
      • It engages the information and extracts relevant information.
    • Synthesis
      • It organizes from multiple sources and presents the information .
    • Evaluation
      • It judges the effectiveness and efficiency of the process.
    The Big 6 Skill
  • 26.
    • Purpose
      • cognitive skills in identification and brainstorming
    • Location
      • information locating skill and selection skill
    • Use
      • reading and evaluating skills to scan information and select appropriate information by note taking
    • Self-evaluation
      • self reflection skill in making improvement to the process
    PLUS Model
  • 27. Comparison of IL models (1) Models Information Search Process The Big6 Skill PLUS Model Topic definition Initiation Task Definition Purpose Information location skill Selection Exploration Information Seeking strategies Location & access Location Information evaluation skill Formulation Learners evaluate the information that has been gathered and form them to be a focus. Collection Use of Information It engages the information and extracts relevant information. Use reading and evaluating skills to scan information and select appropriate information by note taking Information processing skill Synthesis Self-evaluation Assessment skill Presentation Evaluation
  • 28. Comparison of IL models (2) Models Information Search Process The Big6 Skill PLUS Model Target user All levels of learners All levels of learners School / young learners Task complexity Complicated Complicated / Simple Simple Mode of process Sequential Sequential / Iterative Iterative Instructional steps Less Detailed Detailed Highlighted (pivot) stage Formulation Not mentioned Use High order thinking skills Needed Needed Not necessary
  • 29.
    • For higher order thinking task, IFS will result in a better result since students constructs their own knowledge themselves. However, young learners may feel problematic in handling.
    • Compared to Big Six, PLUS is structurally simple for elementary students.
    • PLUS model focus on students’ thinking skill in information reading experience and the re-thinking skill in the evaluating experience.
    Comparison of IL models (3)
  • 30.
    • Consists of 5 lessons
    • Integrated in the secondary 2 computer curriculum
    • computer teachers act as the facilitator in guiding students’ discussions and providing resources
    • Students are grouped in 4 or 5 and they will be given worksheets to complete different tasks
    • Topic – “Tourism”
    Background of the curriculum
  • 31.
    • Purpose
        • Identifying the topic and existing knowledge of the topic
          • Teacher will firstly demonstrate a basic skill of topic narrow down by subdividing tourism into different dimensions such as food & beverage, accommodation, transportation,…etc.
          • Teacher will ask students’ own experience in different dimensions.
        • Brainstorming / concept mapping
          • Each group will be given 5-10 minutes to complete the concept mapping.
          • Each group will be given 10-15 minutes to fill in a 5W+H table
        • Forming realistic research questions
          • Each group will be given 15 minutes to complete a feasible study table
    IL model application: 1 st stage
  • 32.
        • Select suitable information using location skill
          • Students should be given around 10 – 15 minutes to discuss and select their keywords appropriately.
          • For example, they should breakdown their topic into more specific, authentic and useful keywords such as “5 star hotel”, “Disneyland”, “XX Nation Museum”, …etc.
        • The use of search engine
          • Students are given 20 minutes to develop their searching strategies on their topic.
          • Students need to quote all information related to tourism and organize them into a word processing file.
          • They will use GoogleDoc to collaborate all source information.
    IL model application: 2 nd stage
  • 33.
        • Skim / scan relevant information and taking notes
          • they need to jot down information related to tourism
          • Either softcopy or hardcopy
        • Evaluate the quality information and reject irrelevant information
          • Complete the checklist for each information source
          • Reject for those scoring low (2 or below)
        • Writing bibliography
          • Students need to present at least one bibliography in their working Google Doc file
    IL model application: 3 rd stage
  • 34.
        • Reflect what has been learnt
          • Students need to figure out the difficulties and problems found during the research process by complete the worksheet.
        • Carry out a personal information skills audit
          • Students are asked to see if they can achieve the skill acquired in Purpose, Location and Use dimension.
    IL model application: 4 th stage
  • 35. Lesson Plan (Lesson 1) Topic Teaching activities IL performance indicator 1 Introduction to skimming and scanning technique
    • Teacher introduces the objective of the technique and demonstrates the technique
    2 Note taking strategies in review information
    • Each individual (non-group leader) in the group take notes for the information quoted
    • evaluate information
    3 Use evaluation checklist
    • Each individual (non-group leader) in the group evaluate the information based on the checklist
    • Each group leader managed to evaluate all information based on the checklist
    • evaluate information
    4 Reject irrelevant information
    • Each group discuss to filter out irrelevant information (for those who have agreed to score two or below)
    • conflicting information and identify misconceptions
  • 36. Lesson Plan (Lesson 2) Topic Teaching activities IL performance indicator 5 Use evaluation form
    • Teacher introduce the evaluation requirement
    • Each group discuss and evaluate together using the formal evaluation form
    • identify evaluation techniques
    • evaluate information
    6 Discuss the validity of information
    • Students prioritize the information and discuss if any information are not valid (invalid != not irrelevant)
    • conflicting information and identify misconceptions
    7 Write bibliography
    • Students need to dig to validate the information source found
    • Students need to write bibliography for each information source found
    • evaluate information