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The Universe: A Module in Science and Technology for Grade 5 Pupils

The Universe: A Module in Science and Technology for Grade 5 Pupils

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  • 1. The Universe A Module in Science and Technology for Grade 5 Pupils Module Consultant Mrs. Sandra P. Mesina Module Adviser Mr. For-Ian V. Sandoval Authors Cryster C. Sagritalo Jennifer F. Calabita Maricel T. Taghap
  • 2. Mission The University shall serve as the center of excellence in agriculture, fisheries, forestry, science engineering and industrial technologies, teacher education, information technology, and other related fields in arts and sciences. It shall also serve as research and extension service centers in its field of expertise.
  • 3. Vision The Five-Year Development Plan is anchored on a vision which states by the year 2012, the University shall be known as: A premier university in CALABARZON, offering academic programs and related services designed to respond to the needs of the Philippines and the global economy particularly Asian countries.
  • 4. Goals In pursuit of the college vision/mission, the college of education is committed to develop the full potentials of the individuals and equip them with knowledge, skills and attitudes in Teacher Education allied fields to effectively respond to the increasing demands, challenges and opportunities of changing times for global competitiveness.
  • 5. Objectives
    • The College of Education operates the following objectives:
    • Acquire basic and major trainings in BEEd focusing on General Education and Pre-School Education.
    • 2.Produce mentors who are knowledgeable and skilled in teaching Pre-School learners and Elementary grades and with desirable values and attitudes for efficiency and effectiveness.
  • 6. 3.Conduct research and development in teacher education and other related fields. 4.Extend extension services and other related activities for the advancement of community life. Objectives
  • 7. FOREWORD This Teacher’s Visual Presentation Hand-out entitled “THE UNIVERSE A Module in Science and Technology for Grade V Pupils” is part of the requirements in Educational Technology 2 under the revised curriculum for Bachelor in Elementary Education based on CHED Memorandum Order (CMO)-30, Series of 2004. Educational Technology 2 is a three (3)-unit course designed to introduce both traditional and innovative technologies to facilitate and foster meaningful and effective learning where students are expected to demonstrate a sound understanding of the nature, application and production of the various types of educational technologies.
  • 8. The students are provided with guidance and assistance of selected faculty members of the College through the selection, production and utilization of appropriate technology tools in developing technology-based teacher support materials. Through the role and functions of computers especially the Internet, the student researchers and the advisers are able to design and develop various types of alternative delivery systems. These kind of activities offer a remarkable learning experience for the education students as future mentors especially in the preparation of instructional materials.
  • 9. The output of the group’s effort may serve as an educational research of the institution in providing effective and quality education. The lessons and evaluations presented in this module may also function as a supplementary reference for secondary teachers and students.
  • 10. FOR-IAN V. SANDOVAL Computer Instructor / Adviser Educational Technology 2 SANDRA P. MESINA Module Consultant LYDIA R. CHAVEZ Dean College of Education
  • 11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors wish to express their deepest gratitude and profound thanks to those who extended their enormous and immeasurable support for the completion of this module. Above all, they owe all the blessings and greatness to Almighty God, for without his graces and blessings this would not have been possible. Mr. For-Ian V. Sandoval, Instructor and adviser in Educational Technology 2, for his untiring and unselfish guidance and constant encouragement.
  • 12. Mrs. Sandra P. Mesina, their module consultant, for her constructive criticism, comments and suggestions for improvement. Prof. Fortunata Certifico, their adviser for her untiring support and encouragement to finish this module. Prof. Corazon San Agustin, for her kindness and understanding to this module.
  • 13. Their parents for giving financial and moral support. Their brothers and sisters for their understanding and never ending encouragement and assistance. Their BEEd classmates and friends, Kuya BJ and Ate Mara for their never ending support. The Authors
  • 14. PREFACE The Universe: A Module in Science and Technology for Grade 5 Pupils is designed to help the pupils gain a comprehensive knowledge, to enable them to share their ideas and perform activities. This module covers a thorough discussion of different theories of the origin of the universe, the members of the Solar System, beyond the Solar System and the Earth.
  • 15. Several researches by different authors have been presented here. Topics are presented in the simplest way and in the most understandable manner. To assess the knowledge gained by the pupil, various activities have been provided. We hope that the pupils/readers of this module will gain and develop their intense interest so that they will continuously explore what they have learned. The Authors
  • 16. TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page Preface Acknowledgment Table of Contents Chapter I The Origin of the Universe Lesson 1 Big Bang Theory Lesson 2 Big Crunch Theory Lesson 3 Steady State Theory Lesson 4 Nebular or Dust Cloud Theory Foreword Mission/Vision Goals and Objectives of BEEd
  • 17. Chapter II The Solar System Lesson 1 The Sun Lesson 2 Different Parts of the Sun Lesson 3 The Planets Lesson 4 Distances of Planets from the Sun Lesson 5 Revolution of Planets around the Sun Lesson 6 Planetary Orbit Lesson 7 Planetary Moons and Earth Moon Lesson 8 Phases of the Moon Lesson 9 Eclipse and Tides Lesson 10 Asteroids, Meteoroids and Comets
  • 18. Chapter III Beyond the Solar System Lesson 1 The Galaxies Lesson 2 The Stars Lesson 3 The Formation of Stars Lesson 4 The Constellations Lesson 4 Rock Cycle Chapter IV The Earth Lesson 1 Structure of the Earth’s Atmosphere Lesson 2 The Layers of the Earth Lesson 3 The Water Cycle References Curriculum Vitae
  • 19. Chapter 1 The Origin of the Universe
  • 20. When we observe a clear night sky, thousands of stars can be seen. We then realize the vastness of outer space and wonder how the universe came to be. Did it begin at all? How did the universe begin? At the end of this chapter the pupils will be able to ● distinguish the origin of the universe. ● differentiate the origin of the universe. ● react actively on the different theory of the origin of the universe. ● demonstrate or draw the different theories of the origin of the universe.
  • 21. Big Bang Theory Lesson 1
    • At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
    • know what the Big Bang Theory is.
    • share ideas about the theory.
    • draw the Big Bang Theory.
  • 22. According to modern theory the cataclysmic event, called the Big Bang Theory marked the beginning of the universe. According to this theory, the universe started as one very hot and dense concentration of matter. The dense concentration of matter exploded with its fragments moving outward and away from one another at different speeds. Hydrogen and helium nuclei were formed from the very hot concentration of matter.
  • 23. The Big Bang Theory is the dominant scientific theory about the origin of the universe. According to the big bang, the universe was created sometime between 10 billion and 20 billion years ago from a cosmic explosion that hurled matter and in all directions.
    • Fig.1.1 Big Bang Theory. (A) A concentration of matter exploded (B) Fragments moving outward, forming galaxies (C) Fragments continue to move away from each other.
  • 24. In 1927, the Belgian priest Georges Lemaître was the first to propose that the universe began with the explosion of a primeval atom. His proposal came after observing the red shift in distant nebulas by astronomers to a model of the universe based on relativity. Years later, Edwin Hubble found experimental evidence to help justify Lemaître's theory. He found that distant galaxies in every direction are going away from us with speeds proportional to their distance.
  • 25. The big bang was initially suggested because it explains why distant galaxies are traveling away from us at great speeds. The theory also predicts the existence of cosmic background radiation (the glow left over from the explosion itself). The Big Bang Theory received its strongest confirmation when this radiation was discovered in 1964 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, who later won the Nobel Prize for this discovery.
  • 26. Big Crunch Theory Another theory explaining the origin of the universe is the Big Crunch Theory . Lesson 2
    • At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
    • know what the Big Crunch Theory is.
    • share ideas about the theory.
    • draw the Big Crunch Theory.
  • 27. Some astronomers believe that the universe began form the Big Bang explosion of a dense globe of hydrogen. However, because of the force of gravity, the billions of galaxies moved towards one another. The state of extremely high density and temperature into which a closed universe will recollapse in the distant future.
  • 28. If the universe has a mass density exceeding the critical mass density, then gravity will eventually reverse the expansion, causing the universe to recollapse into what is often called the big crunch. One hypothesized future for the universe in which the current expansion stops, reverses, and results in all space and all matter collapsing together; a reversal of the big bang. Fig. 1.2 Big Crunch Theory
  • 29. Steady State Theory Some astronomers believe that the universe is expanding but its expansion is similar to its original state and will not change anymore. This theory is called the Steady State Theory. Lesson 3
    • At the end of this lesson the pupils will be able to
    • know what the Steady State Theory is.
    • share ideas about the theory.
    • draw the Steady State Theory.
  • 30. The steady-state theory is a view that the universe is always expanding but maintaining a constant average density, matter being continuously created to form new stars and galaxies at the same rate that old ones become unobservable as a consequence of their increasing distance and velocity of recession.
    • Fig. 1.3.Steady State Theory. (A) Galaxies spreading (B) New matter being created
    • (C) More new matter being created then spreading.
  • 31. A steady-state universe has no beginning or end in time; and from any point within it the view on the grand scale--i.e., the average density and arrangement of galaxies--is the same. Galaxies of all possible ages are intermingled. The theory was first put forward by Sir James Jeans in about 1920 and again in revised form in 1948 by Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold. It was further developed by Sir Fred Hoyle.
  • 32. Nebular or Dust Cloud Theory
    • At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
    • know what the Nebular or Dust Cloud Theory is.
    • share ideas about the theory.
    • draw the Nebular or Dust Cloud Theory.
    Lesson 4
  • 33. Another theory explaining the origin of the universe is the Nebular or Dust Cloud Theory . According to this theory, planets, stars and other heavenly bodies came from dust of clouds. These materials combined together as they spin in space. They later moved around a central body and cooled off. The big spinning materials formed the heavenly bodies.
  • 34. A great cloud of gas and dust (called a nebula ) begins to collapse because the gravitational forces that would like to collapse it overcome the forces associated with gas pressure that would like to expand it (the initial collapse might be triggered by a variety of perturbations---a supernova blast wave, density waves in spiral galaxies, etc.). Fig.1.4. Nebular or Dust Cloud Theory
  • 35. Group No.: __________ Name: ________________________ Score: ______ % ____ Section: __________ Teacher: __________________ CHAPTER’S ACTIVITY 1 DISTINGUISHING THE ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE
  • 36. MATERIALS: Paper Color Pencil PROCEDURES: 1. The teacher will arrange your class into 4 groups. 2. Discussed the assigned theory of the origin of the universe. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 37. 3. Draw the process of the assigned theory.
  • 38. Name: ________________________ Score: ______ %_ ______ Section: _________ Teacher: _________________ CHAPTER TEST I Multiple Choice. Direction: Encircle the best answer.
  • 39.
    • 1. What theory explains that planets, stars, and other heavenly bodies came from dust of clouds?
      • a. Big Crunch Theory
      • b. Big Bang Theory
      • c. Nebular or Dust Cloud Theory
      • d. Steady State Theory
    • 2. What theory explains that the universe began from the Big Bang explosion of a dense globe of hydrogen?
      • a. Big Bang Theory
      • b. Big Crunch Theory
      • c. Steady State Theory
      • d. Nebular Theory
  • 40.
    • 3. What do you call to a great cloud of gas and dust?
      • a. Nebula
      • b. Supernova
      • c. Galaxy
      • d. None of the above.
    • 4. According to this theory, the universe is expanding but its expansion is similar to its original state.
      • a. Steady State Theory
      • b. Nebular Theory
      • c. Big Bang Theory
      • d. Big Crunch Theory
  • 41.
    • 5. Who is the first to propose that the universe began with the explosion of a primeval atom?
      • a. Edwin Hubble
      • b. James Jeans
      • c. Georges Lemaitre
      • d. Thomas Gold
    • 6. According to this theory, the universe started as one very hot and dense concentration of matter.
      • a. Big Bang Theory
      • b. Steady State Theory
      • c. Big Crunch Theory
      • d. Nebular Theory
  • 42.
    • 7. Who is the first to put forward the theory of Steady State Theory?
      • a. James Jeans
      • b. Georges Lemaitre
      • c. Thomas Gold
      • d. Edwin Hubble
    • 8. According to this theory, the universe is expanding and accelerating.
      • a. Steady State Theory
      • b. Big Bang Theory
      • c. Nebular Theory
      • d. Big Crunch Theory
  • 43.
    • 9. Who discover the radiation in 1964 when the Big Bang Theory received its strongest confirmation?
      • a. Arno Penzias
      • b. Robert Wilson
      • c. Edwin Hubble
      • d. Both a and b.
    • 10. Which is the dominant scientific theory about the origin of the universe?
      • a. Big Bang Theory
      • b. Steady State Theory
      • c. Nebular Theory
      • d. Big Crunch Theory
  • 44. Chapter 2 The Solar System
  • 45. Our planet belongs to a group of heavenly bodies called the solar system. Why this group is called solar system?
    • At the end of this chapter the pupils will be able to
    • identify the members of the solar system.
    • share many ideas about the sun and planets.
    • draw the members of the solar system.
  • 46. Solar means sun. It indicates that the sun is the most important body in that group. The sun is the largest body in the solar system and it is in the center. The word system indicates that the whole solar system behaves as one family with the sun at the center and the other members revolving around the sun regularly in their own paths.
  • 47. The solar system consists of the sun, the planets and their satellites or moons, asteroids, comets and meteors. The orbits of the planets lie in almost the same plane as that of Earth. Planets have different sizes and distances from the sun. Since planets vary in their distances from the sun, their temperatures and amount of sunlight received also vary. The so-called asteroid belt lies between the orbits of the planet Mars and Jupiter. The planets revolve around the sun in their respective paths or orbits. Most planets have satellites or moons.
  • 48. THE SUN If you were asked to think about stars, you would probably think of the stars you see in the sky at night. You see one star in the day. This star is the sun. Lesson 1
    • At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
    • define what the sun is.
    • develop their awareness about the sun belonging to the solar system.
    • draw the sun as the major source of energy on Earth.
  • 49. The sun is the nearest star to our planet Earth. The sun, center of our solar system is a free star. It is considered as an average star, classified as a G2 dwarf and falling in the middle of the main sequence of the Hertzsprung Russel . Fig. 2.1 The Sun
  • 50. The sun is a huge ball of burning gas. The chemical composition of the sun shows that 94% of the atoms and nuclei in the outer portion are made of hydrogen, 5.9% helium and 1% mixture of all other elements. It has a diameter of 1,393,000 km or 1.4 x 10 6 km compared to earth’s 12,756 km. It is big enough to hold as many as 1,300,000 earth’s. It has a mass of 1.99 x 1,030 kg. Its temperature ranges from 15,000,0000 ° K at the center and 5,000 ° K-6,000 ° K on its surface.
  • 51. Sun rotates about its axis every 24.65 earth-days as its equator and every 35 earth-days near its poles. This is because the sun is not a solid body like earth. Its differential rotation extends down into the interior of the sun, but rotates as a solid body. It appears as yellowish disk, darker at the edge than the center. The darkening of the edge gives a hint that it has a gaseous material, solid inner portion.
  • 52. Sunspots are conspicuous marking on the sun’s surface. The surface grows and diminishes that last for a day or several months. They are believed to be the disturbances in the lower atmosphere of the sun. They are temporary in nature. Most sunspots are found within about 30ºC of the sun’s equator. The sun is the major source of energy on earth. Plants, animals and humans use this energy for growth and maintenance of life. Humans use the energy of the sun to produce electricity. They also use the energy of the sun as the source of fuels for burning and as source of fuel for transportation.
  • 53. The energy that reaches earth comes mostly in the form of sunlight and heat. It is more than 12,000 times greater than the amount of fuel the world can consume. Since the sun sheds its rays thinly over a wide area, its heat must be collected and concentrated. Concentrated solar energy can be in homes or power plants. For domestic use, there are solar panels (called collectors) that can be mounted on roofs facing the sun. As well as heat and light, the sun also emits a low density stream of charged particles known as the solar wind and reaches the solar system.
  • 54. Name: ________________________ Score: ______ % ____ Section: __________ Teacher: __________________ ACTIVITY 1 DEFINING WHAT THE SUN IS.
  • 55. PROCEDURES: I. Draw the sun on the box.
  • 56. II. Answer the following questions: 1. Is the sun a star or a planet? Why? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Describe the sun. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 57. 3. Why the sun is important? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. If the sun stops shining, what would happen to life on earth? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 58. DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE SUN The sun, a mass of glowing gas has distinct parts namely: the photosphere, the chromospheres and the corona or crown. Lesson 2
    • At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
    • identify the parts of the sun.
    • lend attention on each part of the sun.
    • draw and label the parts of the sun.
  • 59. Fig. 2.2 Different Parts of the Sun
  • 60. The sun has different parts. The innermost of the sun is the core . This has a diameter of about 400,000 km. It generates a tremendous amount of energy from nuclear reactions. Radiation zone is about 300,000 km thick, above the core and transports solar energy toward the surface by electromagnetic radiation. Above the radiation zone is the convection zone. This zone is about 200,000 km thick and transports energy toward the surface by convection movement of the sun’s material. The convection and radiation zones are referred to as solar interior .
  • 61. Its bright and visible surface is called the photosphere. It estimated to be from 500 to 800 km thick. The temperature is about 5,500ºK. In this part sunspots appear. The photosphere appears black when it is blocked out by the moon during an eclipse. It is also known as lightsphere. Above the photosphere is a 8,000 km thick on the surface and it flashes like a brilliant red rings called the chromospheres . When the moon blocked the photosphere during an eclipse, a thin layer of red light around the sun appears.
  • 62. Above the chromospheres and extending over million kilometers beyond the surface of the sun is the corona or crown . It is a halo to faint silver white light during total eclipse and it becomes visible to earth. It is composed of extremely gas and thin dust.
  • 63. Name: ________________________ Score: ______ % ____ Section: __________ Teacher: __________________ ACTIVITY 2 IDENTIFYING THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE SUN
  • 64. MATERIALS: An illustration of the sun PROCEDURES: I. Examine the parts of the sun as shown in the diagram.
  • 65. II. Draw the sun and label its parts: the core, the radiation zone, the convection zone, the photosphere, the chromospheres and the corona or crown.
  • 66. III. Answer the following questions: 1. Describe each part of the sun. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. In which part of the sun extends beyond earth? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 67. 3. Which part of the sun is blocked out by the moon during an eclipse? _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. When is corona seen? _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 68. 5. Why does the chromosphere glow? _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 69. THE PLANETS Planets emit no light. They merely reflect sunlight. How big are the planets? Are there living things on the planets? Lesson 3
    • At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
    • tell what a planet is.
    • enumerate the different planets.
    • increase their awareness on different planets.
    • demonstrate and illustrate each planet.
  • 70. The members of the International astronomical Union (IAU) agreed that for a celestial body to be considered a planet, it must be in orbit around the sun; be massive enough for its own gravity to make it round and have cleared its neighborhood of smaller objects making it dominant in the area. Pluto classified as a major planet since its discovery in 1930, does not meet these criteria. Pluto has not cleared its neighborhood around its orbit. It is now classified as a dwarf planet. The number of planets in the solar system is reduced from nine to eight.
  • 71. The eight planets in the solar system are divided into two groups: the inner planets and the outer planets . Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are the four planets closest to the sun are the inner planets. They are small dense bodies with thin atmosphere. Each inner planet has a solid, mineral containing crust. This is the reason why they are called terrestrial planets .
  • 72. The outer planets are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. They are giant planets and they are called the jovian planets . They are very different from the inner planets in size, composition and the way they are formed. All have rings. The most prominent of which are those of Saturn.
  • 73. MERCURY: A Planet the Size of the Moon Mercury is the planet closest to the sun; it is a little bit larger than our moon. The spacecraft Mariner 10 took picture of this planet. The pictures showed the surface of Mercury to be full of craters. Mercury is only 52 million km away from the sun, it has no plate tectonics, it much denser than the moon (5.43 g/cm 3 ). It also has a small magnetic field. Fig.2.3.1 Mars
  • 74. The temperature can reach as high as 430ºC. Mercury is small, so it has a weak gravitational force and holds very little atmosphere and scarcity of winds. The inner core of Mercury is made of iron, with a diameter of 3,600 km.
  • 75. VENUS: The Greenhouse Planet Venus is still a sight of natural beauty and the brightest solar body visible from earth. Venus is the second planet from the sun. It is brighter than Mercury and can be seen near the sun during sunrise or sunset. It most closely resembles earth in size, density and distances from the sun. Fig.2.3.2 Venus
  • 76. It is 108 million km from the sun. It has a diameter of 12,104 km and has a solid surface and an atmosphere. Venus has an iron core of about 600 km in diameter, a molten rocky mantel and a crust which is a lot stronger and thicker. Venus doesn’t have a magnetic field. The thick clouds in Venus cause a greenhouse effect, making the temperature to rise to 460ºC. Carbon dioxide which makes up 95% of its atmosphere adds up to the greenhouse effect.
  • 77. Spacecraft Pioneer Venus in 1978 and Magellan in 1993 gathered data on its surface and provided that life cannot thrive on Venus. Venus has been volcanically active, which makes its surface very rough.
  • 78. EARTH: The Blue Planet The Earth is a blue planet with more water surface than land. Its total surface are, about 30% is land and about 70% is water. Water an essential ingredient for life; also helps regulate the temperature of the planet. Fig.2.3.3 Earth
  • 79. Earth is the only planet in our solar system capable of sustaining life. Located at 150 million km from the sun, with the diameter of 12,756 km. Earth is just right distance from the sun so it is either too hot or too cold. It is surrounded by an atmosphere which contains enough oxygen, a gas needed to support life.
  • 80. Temperatures on earth vary from 60 ° C-100 ° C, although the mean temperature is 15 ° C, suitable for sustaining life. Earth has gravity that pulls things toward it so they will not fall into space. Among the planets, Earth is unique because it is the only one which has the right conditions to support life.
  • 81. MARS: A Search for Lost Water Mars is called a red planet . The bright areas on the surface of Mars are yellow-orange while the dark areas are gray-red. Iron oxide (rust) in Mars soil gives it a reddy complexion. Mars has a diameter of 6,739 km, a mass of 6.421 E23 and has a mean density of 3.94 g/cm 3 . Fig.2.3.4 Mars
  • 82. Mars has polar ice caps very similar to Earth. Mars has rocks and soil, mountains, valleys as well as volcanoes. In 1965, Mariner 4 spacecraft transmitted pictures of the planet. The strong winds of Mars blow soil into the atmosphere and cause large dust storms. Fig.2.3.4.1 Surface of Mars
  • 83. Its axis tilts from the perpendicular to its orbital plane which explains its polar ice caps and seasons that are nearly twice as long as the seasons of the earth.
  • 84. JUPITER: A Star That Failed Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system with a diameter of 142,984 km, has a mean density of 1.31 g/cm 3 . Fig.2.3.5 Jupiter
  • 85. Its very active atmospheric weather pattern gives Jupiter a very violent appearance. Jupiter does not have a solid surface or a molten core, but rather it is gaseous and has a small, solid core. Jupiter is made mostly of hydrogen and helium. Its surface is very cold, with a temperature of about -150ºC. The upper atmosphere is composed of alternating bands of bright colors caused by the rising and falling of gases due to heat from the core.
  • 86. The most outstanding feature on Jupiter is the Great Red Spot which is over three times the size of earth. Information gathered by voyager 1 and voyager 2 in 1974 show that Jupiter has a thin ring like that of Saturn. This ring appears to be composed of very hot electrified sulfur particles. Jupiter has a strong magnetic field ten times that of the earth. Fig.2.3.5.1 Great Red Spot
  • 87. SATURN: The Ringed Giant Saturn is the second largest planet. Saturn is the last planet that is visible with the naked eye from Earth. Like Jupiter, it is made up of hydrogen, helium and other few gases. Saturn has a diameter of 120,000 km making it the second largest planet in the solar system, has a temperature of -180 ° C. Fig.2.3.6 Saturn
  • 88. Saturn has no solid surface, but rather a small rocky core the size of Earth, which is covered by a layer of frozen water. Saturn is easy to recognize because of its rings. It’s literally thousands of rings. The most prominent feature of Saturn is its ring system. The diameter of these rings is the same distance between the earth and the moon. The rings are divided in the 7 main rings. The rings are named in order of their discovery, and from the planet outwards. They are the D, C, B, A, F, G, and E rings. The most noticeable feature in Saturn’s atmosphere is Anne’s spot . It is a pale red feature in the southern hemisphere.
  • 89. URANUS: The Lazy Giant Uranus is the planet where the sun never rises. Uranus revolves around the side on its side. Uranus has a diameter of 51,000 km, a mass of 14.6E, has a mean density of 1.3 g/cm 3 . It has also a ring system which was discovered in 1977. Fig.2.3.7 Uranus
  • 90. Uranus is a gaseous planet like Saturn and Jupiter; it looks like a large, smooth, blue-green ball. The Uranus core composed of silicate rock and metals. The most abundant elements in Uranus’ atmosphere are hydrogen and helium. Uranus is too far away from the sun that it reflects only very little light.
  • 91. NEPTUNE: A Distant Giant Neptune is the eight planets from the sun. it does not shine very brightly so it cannot be seen by the naked eye. It has a diameter of 49,500 km. The existence of the magnetic field was confirmed. Has a mass of 17E, a density of 1.66 g/cm 3 . Fig.2.3.8 Neptune
  • 92. Neptune is very much like Uranus in physical composition, primarily a hydrogen, helium, methane and ammonia atmosphere. The most noticeable aspect about Neptune is the Great Dark Spot (GDS). GDS is an elliptical, storm like feature. Neptune’s rings are very irregular. It is known that there are four thin rings around the planet. Fig.2.3.8.1 Great Dark Spot
  • 93. DWARF PLANET A dwarf planet is defined by the IAU as a celestial body that orbits around the sun, has sufficient mass for its self gravity to overcome rigid body forces so it assumes a nearly round shape, has not cleared its neighborhood around its orbit and is not a satellite. Fig.2.3.9 Pluto
  • 94. Currently Pluto was included in the dwarf planet. Pluto’s size is estimated to be between 3,456 km-2,200 km. Pluto is thought to have a rocky core and might have a tenuous methane vapor atmosphere.
  • 95. ASTEROID BELT The asteroid belt is a belt of rocky bodies between Mars and Jupiter. Most asteroids in the Main Belt are composed of three materials, 92.9% are composed of silicates, 5.7% metals and the rest as a mix of those materials and carbon-rich substances. If all the asteroids were combined together, their diameter would be about 1,300 km-1,500 km. The asteroids revolved around the sun in a counterclockwise direction, or eastward, in the same manner as the planet’s do.
  • 96. The largest asteroid in the main asteroid belt is Ceres . Fig.2.3.10 Asteroid Belt
  • 97. Name: ________________________ Score: ______ % ____ Section: __________ Teacher: __________________ ACTIVITY 3 ENUMERATING THE DIFFERENT PLANETS
  • 98. MATERIALS: Illustration of the planets PROCEDURES: 1. Study the illustration of the planets according to its order from the sun.
  • 99. 2. Identify the order of each planet from the sun by placing with number PLANETSORDER FROM THE SUN Saturn Mars Jupiter Earth Uranus Neptune Venus Mercury
  • 100. 3. Enumerate the names of inner planets in the order from the sun. a. ______________________ b. ______________________ c. ______________________ d. ______________________ 4. Enumerate the names of outer planets in the order from the sun. a. _____________________ b. _____________________ c. _____________________ d. _____________________
  • 101. 5. What does each planet have? Give your reasons. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Why is life not possible in other planets? _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 102. DISTANCES OF PLANETS FROM THE SUN Lesson 4
    • At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
    • enumerate the planets according to its distances from the sun.
    • share in class their ideas which planet is the nearest and farthest.
    • draw or make a table that illustrates the relative distances of the planets from the sun.
  • 103. Different planets have different distances from the sun. The distances between the planetary orbits are not uniform. The orbits are spread out farther from each other as their distances from the sun increases. The nearest planet from the sun is Mercury and the farthest is Neptune.
  • 104. 4490 Million 8. Neptune 2860 Million 7. Uranus 1420 Million 6. Saturn 778 Million 5. Jupiter 229 Million 4. Mars 150 Million 3. Earth 108 Million 2. Venus 58 Million 1. Mercury DISTANCES FROM THE SUN (IN) MILLION KILOMETERS PLANET Table 1 . Showing the Distances of the Planets from the Sun.
  • 105. Name: ________________________ Score: ______ % ____ Section: __________ Teacher: __________________ ACTIVITY 4 IDENTIFYING AND ENUMERATING THE PLANETS AND ITS DISTANCES
  • 106. MATERIAL: Basic information about the distances of the planets PROCEDURES: 1. Study the information given about the distances of the planets. 2. Identify the planets that correspond to the distances.
  • 107. 3. Fill in the table with information needed. _________________ 8. Neptune _________________ 7. Uranus 1420 Million 6.___________________ 778 Million 5. ___________________ _________________ 4. Mars _________________ 3. Earth 108 Million 2.___________________ 58 Million 1.___________________ DISTANCES FROM THE SUN (IN MILLION KILOMETERS) PLANET
  • 108. REVOLUTION OF PLANETS AROUND THE SUN The planets revolve or turn around the sun in the same direction. The planets rotate or spin on their axes. Lesson 5
    • At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
    • distinguish the time of planets to revolve around the sun.
    • determine the importance of revolution of the planets.
    • make a chart showing the number of days of revolution of different planets around the sun.
  • 109. Fig.2.5.1 Revolution of Planets
  • 110. Revolution is the movement of planets around the sun. The nearer a planet is to the sun, the faster it makes a complete turn around the sun. The farther planets take a longer time to make a complete turn around the sun. The period of revolution of the inner planets is in terms of Earth days only. On the other hand, that of the outer planets is in terms of Earth-years. While the inner planets complete one revolution around the sun faster than the outer planets, they rotate on their axes much slower than the outer planets. Of the 8 planets, Venus and Uranus rotate on their axes from east to west. The remaining 6 planets rotate from west to east.
  • 111. 16 hours 165 years 8. Neptune 17 hours 84 years 7. Uranus 10 hours 29 years 6. Saturn 10 hours 12 years 5. Jupiter 25 hours 687 days 4. Mars 24 hours 365 days 3. Earth 243 days 225 days 2. Venus 59 days 88 days 1. Mercury PERIOD OF ROTATION (IN EARTH-DAYS/YEARS) PERIOD OF REVOLUTION (IN EARTH-YEARS/DAYS) PLANET Table 2. Showing the Time of Revolution and Rotation of Planets
  • 112. Fig.2.5.2 Rotation of Planets
  • 113. Name: ________________________ Score: ______ % ____ Section: __________ Teacher: __________________ ACTIVITY 5 DISTINGUISHING THE TIME OF REVOLUTION OF PLANETS AROUND THE SUN AND THE TIME OF ROTATION OF PLANETS ON ITS OWN AXIS
  • 114. MATERIAL: Chart showing the time of revolution of planets and the time of planets to make a complete rotation. PROCEDURES 1: I Study the chart with the time of revolution. II. Answer the following questions: 1. Which planet has the shortest year? _________________________ 2 Which planet has the longest year? _________________________
  • 115. 3. How many earth days will it take each planet to complete one revolution? Mercury - _______________ Venus - _______________ Mars - _______________ Jupiter - _______________ Saturn - _______________ Uranus - _______________ Neptune- _______________ 4. How many times has the planet earth revolved around the sun before Neptune will complete one revolution? ________________________
  • 116. PROCEDURES 2: I. Study the chart. II. Answer the following questions: 1. Which planet has the shortest day? ___________________ 2. Which planet has the longest day? ____________________
  • 117. 3. Which planet takes the shortest time to make a complete rotation? __________________________ 4. How old were you on your most recent birthday: a. If you were a citizen of Venus instead of Earth, would you be younger or older than your age now? ________________
  • 118. PLANETARY ORBIT The solar system is a group of planets and moons which travel around in its orbit. Every star is actually a sun, which may have its own solar system. Lesson 6
    • At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
    • interpret the orbit of different planets.
    • react actively on how the planet moves around the sun.
    • share their ideas about the orbit of different planets.
    • make a graph showing the speed of motion of different planets
  • 119. How long does it take each planet to orbit the sun? It takes Earth a year to travel once around the sun. Planets nearer the sun take less time and planets further away take longer.
  • 120. 164.79 days Neptune 84.01 days Uranus 29.50 days Saturn 11.86 days Jupiter 686.98 days Mars 365.26 days Earth 224.70 days Venus 87.97 days Mercury NO. OF DAYS/ YEARS PLANETS Table 3. Showing how long it takes each planet to orbit the sun.
  • 121. The planets revolve around the sun in their respective paths or orbits. The orbits of planets are not exactly circular but a little bit oval or a closed curved that is elongated, they are elliptical. Hence, they are at one point closest to the sun called perihelion and at another point farthest from the sun called aphelion . Fig.2.6 Planetary Orbit
  • 122. Name: ________________________ Score: ______ % ____ Section: __________ Teacher: __________________ ACTIVITY 6 DOES THE PLANET STAY IN THEIR ORBIT?
  • 123. MATERIALS: 2 pieces Yoyo PROCEDURES: I. Ask the pupil who will volunteer to swing the yoyo up in the air. II.. Observe the yoyo while it turns. III. Ask another pupil to handle another yoyo, and then both of them swing it on the air at the same time IV. Observe what happen.
  • 124.
    • V. Answer the following questions:
      • 1. How does the orbit look like? ________________________________
      • 2. How is a circle similar to an ellipse? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
      • 3. How is a circle different from an ellipse? ________________________________________________________________________________
    • 4. Does the planet stay in its orbit as it revolve around the sun? Explain your answer.
    • ______________________________________________________________________________________
  • 125. VI. Illustrate the orbit of the planet earth inside the box.
  • 126. PLANETARY MOONS & EARTH MOON Lesson 7
    • At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
    • define what the moon is.
    • differentiate the number of moons of different planets.
    • draw the moon to show the craters in it.
    • be aware of the effect of the moon to the earth.
  • 127. From the Earth, the most splendid object to be seen in the night sky is the moon. From our study of solar system we know that it is a mere satellite of the Earth, shining only by reflected sunlight. Although the moon cannot be considered a large or important body within the solar system, it is an unusual satellite. The moon is very large compared with its planet, 2160 miles in diameter compared with the Earth’s diameter of 7926 miles. Relatively speaking, no other planet has a satellite of such large size. Some of the satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune are larger in diameter than the moon. But these are not large when compared with the size of the giant planets around which they revolve. Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn is almost as large as Mars. However, it is only one-twentieth of Saturn’s diameter.
  • 128. Because the moon and the Earth are so close in size, they are more like twin planets than a planet and a satellite. Does another planet have moons? Yes, most planets have moons. According to Guinness World Records 2008, the planet in the solar system with the most satellites is Jupiter with 63 moons, Saturn with 47 moons, Uranus with 27, Neptune with13 moons, Mars with 2 moons and Earth has only one. Mercury and Venus are the only planets that do not have moons. Fig.2.7 The Moon
  • 129. Could people live on the moon? There is no atmosphere on the moon, so you would not be able to breathe. It’s possible to set up scientific bases there, but anyone walking around on the moon would need a space suit. The force of gravity at the surface of the moon is determined by its mass and diameter. A 180-pound man would weigh only 30 pounds on the moon. Climbing the moon’s rugged mountains would be a great deal easier than mountain climbing on Earth.
  • 130. Some of the moon was covered with craters. Most of those craters were caused about three billion years ago by meteorites. This lumps of rock and iron hurtled though space crashed into the moon at high speed. When people first looked though telescopes at the moon, they thought that the dark areas were seas. They gave them names, such as the sea of tranquility. It was later discovered that these seas were really areas of day dark lava from volcanic eruptions.
  • 131. Name: ________________________ Score: ______ % ____ Section: __________ Teacher: __________________ ACTIVITY 7 IDENTIFYING THE NUMBERS OF THE MOONS OF DIFFERENT PLANETS
  • 132.
    • PROCEDURES:
    • 1. Study the moon of every planet.
    • Know the number of moons of every planet.
  • 133. 3. Fill in the blank with numerical data in the chart below: Neptune Uranus Saturn Jupiter Mars Earth Venus Mercury Number of Moons Planets
  • 134. 4. Answer the following questions: A. Is there anyone who can live in the moon? Explain your answer. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ B. Why the moon affects the earth? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ C. What is the feature of the surface of the moon? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 135. PHASES OF THE MOON Lesson 8
    • At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
    • remember what are the faces of the moon.
    • be aware why the moon seems to change its shape.
    • share to their classmates the quarters of the moon.
  • 136. The apparent changes in the shape of the moon that we see are called phases of the moon . The moon goes though this phases in 29 1/2 days. As the moon revolves around the earth, its orbit takes it first between the sun and the earth and then to the other side of the earth away from the sun. The moon seldom passes directly between the sun and earth because its orbit is tilted about 50° from the plane of the earth’s orbit around the sun.
  • 137. When the moon is in the area between the earth and sun, the side of the moon toward us is not lighted directly by the sun. Still, the moon is faintly visible because of sunlight reflected by the earth. This light reflected by the earth is called earth shine . It must be much brighter on the moon than moonlight ever is on earth because the earth is a much better reflector than the moon’s rocky surface. After the moon has gone halfway around in its orbit, it is on the side of the earth away from the sun. Then the face of the moon we see is fully lighted.
  • 138. Fig.2.8 Phases of the Moon
  • 139. The moon rises & sets at different times. In the new moon phases, the moon rises with the sun. It occurs when the moon is between the earth and the sun in the days that follow; it rises later than the sun. In the first quarter phase, it rises at noon time and sets at midnight and sets at midnight. The moon is right angles with the sun and the earth. During the full moon, it rises at the time the sun sets and sets at the time the sun rises, it occurs one week after the first quarter moon. During the last quarter, it rises at midnight and set noontime it appears like the first quarter moon. Half of the lighted part is visible.
  • 140. The moon seems to change shape because, as it evolves around the Earth, the Sun light only falls on one side of the moon. The term “month” came from the length of time it takes the moon one month to complete one revolution around the earth.
  • 141. Group No.: __________ Name: ________________________ Score: ______ % ____ Section: __________ Teacher: __________________ ACTIVITY 8 KNOWING THE PHASES OF THE MOON
  • 142.
    • MATERIAL:
    • Calendar of a current year
    • PROCEDURES:
    • 1. The teacher will group your class into teams.
    • Study the calendar of a current year that shows the dates of phases of the moon. You can choose the present month.
    • Observe how many days it takes the moon to go through different phases.
  • 143. 4. Fill up the table below: Last – quarter – new moon Full moon – last quarter First-quarter - full moon New moon - first quarter Number of Days Movement of Moon
  • 144. 5. Answer the following: A. Why the moon seems to change shape? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ B. Why the moon rises and sets at different times? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 145. ECLIPSES AND TIDES Eclipse occurs when the earth and the moon cuts off light from the sun. A solar eclipse occurs when the moon blocks the light coming from the sun. It maybe total or partial eclipse. Lesson 9
    • At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
    • differentiate solar from lunar eclipse.
    • react actively on solar and lunar eclipse.
    • develop their awareness about eclipses and tides.
  • 146. Fig.2.9.1 Solar Eclipse
  • 147. When moon passes directly between the earth and sun, the moon’s shadow falls on the earth, producing solar eclipse. As the moon slides in front of the sun, an unnatural darkness descends, and the earth becomes still and quite. Birds return to their nest and stop singing. While the eclipse is total , the moon blocks out the entire surface of the sun, but the outer solar atmosphere, or corona, normally invisible owing to the sun’s brilliance, appears as a halo around the black moon. Due to the relative distances between sun, moon, and earth and their respective sizes, the moon’s shadow is only a narrow band on the earth. The band where the sun is totally eclipse, called the umbra is never wider than 275km. In the penumbra , a wider band outside the umbra, only a portion of the sun is eclipsed.
  • 148. During the partial eclipse of the sun, the sky loses some of it’s brilliance but does not become dark. Solar eclipse occurs during a new moon because, at this time, the moon is between the earth and the sun. But it does not happen every month when there is new moon. This is because the moon’s orbit is a little bit tilted to the earth’s orbit around the sun. As a result, the shadow of the moon falls into space and not on earth. Fig.2.9.2 Lunar Eclipse
  • 149. Lunar Eclipse occurs when earth block’s the sun’s light from the moon, so the moon passes through the earth’s shadow, it stop the sun’s light reaching the moon, so the moon seem to disappear. When the earth lies directly between the sun and moon, the earth’s shadow falls on the moon and the moon temporarily darkens to produce a lunar eclipse . Lunar eclipse is more common and last longer than solar eclipse because the earth is larger than the moon, and therefore its shadow is more likely to cover the entire lunar surface. A lunar eclipse can last a few hours and occurs only during full moon.
  • 150. A solar eclipse usually takes place during only two to five new moons instead of twelve a year. While lunar eclipses are even more rare. The maximum in a one year is only three lunar eclipses. In general, when five solar eclipses happen in one year, only two lunar eclipses take place. The Moon affects the earth because it has its own gravity which pulls Earth’s seas towards it, making them bulge. As the earth spins, the bulges move around its surface. When the moon is overhead, the sea reaches its highest level. When the moon is over the coast, there is a high tide. Tides are the periodic rise and fall of ocean waters on a coast line. We call these high tide and low tide.
  • 151. People long ago already know that the moon and tides are related. When there is a new moon or a full moon, they observed the water level to be low. Just as they observed that the moon rises about less than an hour late each night, they also observed that the tide rises about less than an hour late. Newton explained the tides by showing how the moons gravity affects us on earth.
  • 152. Spring tides – the sun and the moon are aligned with earth. The gravitational effects of the sun and the moon combine. During this time, high tides are higher than average and low tides are lower. Fig.2.9.3 Spring Tide
  • 153. Neap tides – the sun is at right angle to the moon, the sun gravitational force diminishes the tidal effects of the moon. When the moon and sun are 90 ° C out of alignment with earth, each partially offsets the effect of the other and tidal differences are less. These smaller tidal differences are called neap tides. Fig.2.9.4 Neap Tide
  • 154. Name: ________________________ Score: ______ % ____ Section: __________ Teacher: __________________ ACTIVITY 9 IDENTIFYING AND DRAWING OF THE DIFFERENT TIDES AND ECLIPSES
  • 155. Fill the blank w/ the correct word (s) chooses the answers from the blank below: _____________ 1. The body that cast shadow on earth, in solar eclipse. _____________2. A very bright day suddenly turn into a night Earth’ shadow Moon Total solar eclipse Straight line New moon Horizon
  • 156. _______________ 3 .It appears to be during new moon & pull moon phases, the sun, the Earth and moon. _______________ 4. During this phase of the moon, only a solar eclipse can occur. _______________ 5. A lunar eclipse does not occur when the moon phases below or above.
  • 157. PROCEDURE A: Draw the position of sun, moon & earth during a full moon phase. Show the areas of high & low tides.
  • 158. 2. Draw the position of sun moon and earth during a quarter moon phase. Show the areas of high & low tides.
  • 159. PROCEDURE B: 1. Draw the position of the sun, earth, and moon during a solar eclipse.
  • 160. 2. Draw the position of the sun, earth and moon during lunar eclipse.
  • 161. ASTEROIDS, METEOROIDS AND COMETS Lesson 10
    • At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
    • define the meaning of asteroid, meteoroids and comets.
    • differentiate the asteroid from meteoroids.
    • draw different size of asteroid and meteoroids.
  • 162. There are thousand of pieces of rock, called asteroids , in orbit around the sun. Most of these asteroids are grouped together between mars and Jupiter. This large group of rock is known as asteroid belts. Asteroids are bigger than the meteors and are like small planets. The largest asteroid in our solar system is Ceres.
  • 163. The number and size of asteroids, estimate is that few have diameters greater than 300 km. Much of the asteroids have a greater number just boulders, gravel, and grains of sand and astronomers tell us that all the asteroids together have a total mass that is much less than of earth’s moon. Fig.2.10.1 Asteroids
  • 164. Meteoroids are an asteroids or a fragment of a comet that orbits the inner planets. If it comes close to earth it is pulled by earth’s gravity and falls. Friction with atmosphere cause it to burn so that we see it as a burning stick in the sky we call it a meteor or a shooting star. A fallen meteoroid is called a meteorite . They may provide a window into the past by reflecting the primordial composition of the solar system. Fig.2.10.2. Meteor Fig.2.10.3 Meteor Shower
  • 165. A comet is a chunk of dust and ice that orbits the sun and slowly vaporizes as it goes near the sun. The orbit of comets is highly elliptical and extends far beyond the orbit of Pluto. As it goes near the sun, solar heat vaporizes the ice. Escaping vapors glow to produce a luminous ball called the coma. Within the bright coma is the nucleus which is the solid part of the comet. The nucleus contains the chunk of ice, dust and other materials. As the coma orbits the sun, radiation repels the luminous vapor so the comet’s tail develops. The long flowing tail is always away from the sun.
  • 166. Fig.2.10.4 Comet Fig.2.10.5 Halley Comet
  • 167. Name: ________________________ Score: ______ % ____ Section: __________ Teacher: __________________ ACTIVITY 1O DEFINING AND DIFFERENTIATING THE ASTEROIDS AND METEOROIDS
  • 168.
    • Answer the following questions:
    • In your opinion, which is more appropriate term – asteroids or planetoids? Explain your answer.
    • _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
    • 2. Differentiate meteor from meteorite.
    • ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 169. 3. What is the tail of a comet composed of? _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 170. Name: ________________________ Score: ______ %_ ______ Section: _________ Teacher: _________________ CHAPTER TEST II Multiple Choice. Direction: Encircle the best answer.
  • 171. 1. Which is the center of the solar system? a. asteroids c. sun b. moon d. planet 2. Which of the following is a member of outer planets? a. Mercury c. Uranus b. Mars d. Venus 3. What holds the solar system together? a. The orbit of each planet b. The temperature of different planets c. The suns gravitational force d. The earth’s gravity
  • 172. 4. What do you call when the earth and the moon cuts off light from the sun? a. Tides b. Sunspots c. Eclipse d. Solar Powers 5. How will you describe the sun? a. It is a ball of burning gases b. It is a source of energy c. It is one of the stars in the universe d. All of the above
  • 173. 6. Which of the following is NOT a member of the solar system? a. Meteor c. Tide b. Planet d. Comet 7. Why is the sun the main source of energy on Earth? a. It contains a large amount of heat b. It is the center of the solar system c. The sun’s energy can be changed into other forms of energy d. It is a ball of burning gases
  • 174. 8. Which planet is termed as red planet? a. Saturn c. Venus b. Mercury d. Mars 9. Which planet whose period of rotation is equal to its period of revolution? a. Mercury c. Saturn b. Mars d. Neptune 10. Which is a common characteristic of planets? a. All of them have moons b. All of them revolve around the sun c. All of them can sustain life d. All of them have atmosphere
  • 175. 11. What is the term that came from the length of time it takes the moon to compare one revolution around the earth. a. Month b. Day c. Year d.. None of the above 12. The movement around its axis is called __________. a. Revolution b. Rotation c. Perihelion d. None of the above
  • 176. 13. Which of the following do NOT have their own supply of light? a. Asteroids b. Meteors c. Comets d. All of the above 14. What is the type of eclipse when Earth is between the sun and moon? a. Lunar eclipse b. Solar eclipse c. Partial eclipse d. Total eclipse
  • 177. 15. The following have something to do with the characteristics and movement of the moon EXCEPT ____________. a. Meteor shower b. Phases of the moon c. Tides d. Eclipse
  • 178. Chapter 3 Beyond the Solar System
  • 179. The solar system fascinates us with the distinct structures and characteristics of its members. But there are still other heavenly bodies.
    • At the end of this chapter, the pupils will be able to
    • know the galaxies.
    • share their ideas by comparing stars in terms of brightness, size, mass, temperature and other characteristics.
    • draw the objects that can be found beyond the solar system.
  • 180. Stars are naturally fascinating to people. They are objects wonder to those who feel deeply grateful for the beauty and magnificence of creation. A star is born, it radiates energy for a long time. Toward the end it expands, it may or may not explode and then it dies. How stars are distributed in space? Are they just scattered in space?
  • 181. THE GALAXIES Lesson 1 Fig. 3.1.1. Galaxy
    • At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
    • define the meaning of galaxy.
    • describe the different shape of galaxy.
    • draw the different structure of galaxy.
  • 182. A galaxy is a huge group of billions of stars that move through space as a unit. The galaxy to which our sun belongs, called Milky Way, it has about 200 billion stars. The center of the milky way can sometimes be spotted at night. It looks like a misty streak across the sky. The andromeda galaxy is the biggest galaxy of those near the milky way. On the clearer night, all you can see of these galaxies is a small fuzzy blob, but it has twice as many stars as the milky way, perhaps as many as 200 billion. Edwin P. Hubble identified the four shapes of galaxies, the spiral, elliptical, barred spiral, and irregular galaxy.
  • 183. A spiral galaxy has a circular bulge at the center and arms, which of course indicate the direction of its spin. The central bulge of some spirals, however, is longer that it is wide; this is the case of the barred spiral galaxy. An elliptical galaxy looks the central bulge of a regular spiral galaxy. Elliptical galaxies are reported to contain mostly older stars. A few galaxies have no definite form; such is describing as an irregular galaxy. It contains interstellar material and young stars
  • 184. Fig.3.1.1 Milky Way Fig.3.1.2 Andromeda Galaxy
  • 185. Different Shapes of Galaxies Fig.3.1.3 Spiral Galaxy Fig.3.1.4 Barred Spiral Galaxy Fig.3.1.5 Elliptical Galaxy Fig. 3.1.6 Irregular Galaxy
  • 186. Group No.:__________ Name: ________________________ Score: ______ % ____ Section: __________ Teacher: __________________ ACTIVITY11 PRESENTING DIFFERENT SHAPES OF GALAXY
  • 187.
    • MATERIALS:
    • Crayons and pencils
    • PROCEDURES:
    • The teacher will arrange your class into four groups.
    • 2. Every group has an assigned shape of galaxy.
  • 188. 3. Draw the assigned galaxy on the box.
  • 189. 4. Answer the following : A. What are the different shapes of the galaxy? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ B.Where in the milky way is our sun located? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 190. C. How large a galaxy is? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 191. THE STARS Lesson 2
    • At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
    • know the meaning of stars.
    • be aware of the size, brightness, distance & life history of a star.
    • draw a star.
  • 192. Look up at the sky on cloudness, starry night. What bright objects do you see? Can you count all the stars that you see? Stars fascinate us. They make the night sky wonderful. Stars are giant balls of hydrogen gas. They are so massive that the pressure inside is great enough to combine hydrogen, atoms together. This fusion yields a great deal of energy which we can see as visible light.
  • 193. Fig.3.2.1 Stars
  • 194. Sizes of Stars Observe the sizes of the stars that you see. You will notice that some stars look big, some look small. The smallest known star has a diameter of about 4800 kilometers. The largest known star has a diameter nearly 3000 times that of the sun.
  • 195. Diameter(kilometers) 1,390,000 16,000,000 41,800,000 402,000,000 539,000,000 Star Sun Capella Arcturus Betelgeuse Antares Table 4. Showing the diameter of some stars. The diameter gives us an idea of the size of a round object.
  • 196. Some stars are so large yet they may not be seen by the naked eye because they are too far away. In size, our sun is an average star. Brightness of stars Which star has the lowest temperature? What is its color? Which star has the hottest temperature? What is its color? Some stars such as Vega & Rigel are much hotter than the sun. Their colors are different from the color of the sun. Betelgeuse & Arcturus are different in color of the sun.
  • 197. Fig.3.2.2 Brightness of Stars
  • 198. Scientist have found out that a star may change in color since color is related to brightness, brightness also changes when star change in color. 20000°C Bluish white Rigel 11000°C White Vega 6000°C Yellow Sun 4200°C Orange Arcturus 3000°C Red Betelgeuse TEMPERATURE COLOR STAR Table 5. Showing the color and temperature of some stars.
  • 199. When talking about the brightness of a star, three things should be considered. They are the distance of the star from the earth, its temperature, & its size. A star may actually be bright but because it is too far away from the earth it may look dim. The brightness of the star as seen from the earth is called apparent magnitude. The true brightness of a star is its actual brightness or the actual amount of light will cause it to expand. When most of the nuclear fuel is consumed, the star will pulsate & finally contract to a cooling white dwarf.
  • 200. Star Distances The distance of the star from the earth affects its apparent magnitude. The father it is from the earth the less bright it will appear. The temperature of the star also affects its brightness. The higher its temperature the brighter it is the size is also another factor that affects the brightness of a star. The red giant stars give off reddish light & they have lower temperature. The very high temperature of super giant stars enables them to give off more light.
  • 201. The magnitude scale of stars is used to describe the apparent brightness of a star as seen from the earth. The stars that look brightest have a magnitude of 1. Those that are dimmer have a magnitude of 6.
  • 202. Name: ________________________ Score: ______ % ____ Section: __________ Teacher: __________________ ACTIVITY 12 DETERMINING THE RELATIONSHIP OF COLOR AND THE TEMPERATURE OF STARS
  • 203. Procedures: I. Put a number on the blank according to the temperature of stars. Arrange it from lowest to highest. ___________ Red ___________ Orange ___________ Bluish White ___________ Yellow ___________ White
  • 204.
    • II. Answer the following questions:
      • 1. Which stars has the highest temperature? What is its color?
    • ________________________________________
      • 2. Which star has the lowest temperature? What is its color?
    • ________________________________________
      • 3. How do their temperature compare with the sun?
      • _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 205.
      • 4. Is the temperature of a star is related to its color? Explain your answer.
      • _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 206. THE FORMATION OF STARS Stars form when hydrogen atoms in space are attracted to each other & clump together. The gas begins to burn &the star shines. The larger a star is, the shorter its life will be Lesson 3
    • At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
    • determine how stars were formed.
    • appreciate the super nova, pulsar & the black hole.
    • each group can report in front of the class what they have learned.
  • 207. A super nova is a huge star which has blown up after running out of fuel. After it explodes, the star collapses & debris is flung into space to form new stars & planet. All that is left of the super nova is a small neutron star. Fig.3.3.1 Super Nova Star
  • 208. Pulsar is a spinning neutron star, left behind after a large super nova explosion. It is called a pulsar because of the pulses, or flashes of energy, it sends out as it spins. Fig.3.3.2 Pulsar Star
  • 209. Black hole formed when squashed star has so much gravity that it attracts other material, even light, towards it & sucks it all in, so that it can never escape. Fig.3.3.3 Black hole
  • 210. Table 6. A List of Stars and their apparent magnitude. 2.1 Polaris 26.5 Sun 1.7 Scorpios Shaula 1.2 Gemini Pollux 1.6 Canis major Sirius 0.2 Auriga Capella 0.3 Orion Rigel 1.0 Taurus Aldebaran APPARENT MAGNITUDE CONSTELLATION STAR
  • 211. Fig.3.3.4 Vega Stars Fig.3.3.5 Betelgeuse Star Fig.3.3.6 Arcturus Star Fig.3.3.5 Rigel Stars
  • 212. The astronomers talk of light- years when they describe the distance of the star Scientist measure the distance of stars in terms of light years. a light year is the distance light travels in one year at a speed of 300,000 kilometers per second. The light of some stars reaches the earth after hundred of the years & some after a thousand or more years to express these distances in terms of kilometers would make use of as many as 15 digit numbers1 how do you read 15 digit numbers?
  • 213. 1600 Denelo 520 Betelgeuse 26.5 Vega 8.7 Sirius 4.3 Alpha Centauri DISTANCE (light- years) STAR Table 7. The distances of some stars from the earth in light years.
  • 214. Life History of a star During the early stage of the star’s revolution, the temperature rises due to nuclear reactions within the star. The young star then becomes a mature white star, like the sun. Eventually, a star will undergo a new series of internal reactions within the star. Most astronomers agree that the general events in thee life cycle of a typical star are as follows:
  • 215. 2. As the protostar continues to contract, its temperature rises soon it becomes hot enough to allow nuclear reaction and it begins to generate its own, supply of radiant energy. A star is born! 3. The stars position in the main sequence of the H-R diagram depends on its mass. It will continue to radiate energy. 1. Clouds of interstellar material or nebulae, made up of dust, hydrogen and other gases begin to contract as a result mostly of gravitational attraction. The greater the mass of instellar material, the faster the contraction into a protostar.
  • 216. 6. When the star’s hydrogen supply has been exhausted, what remains of the star begins to collapse due to gravitational attraction. 5. Soon the temperature at the star’s core becomes so high that other nuclear reactions take place. If the nuclear reactions in the core would continue at a rapid rate, the large star may explode into a supernova. 4. As more and more hydrogen its converted into helium, the star’s core begins to collapse.
  • 217. Name: ________________________ Score: ______ % ____ Section: __________ Teacher: __________________ ACTIVITY 13 FORMATION OF STARS
  • 218.
    • PROCEDURE:
    • I. Answer the following questions:
      • How a star formed?
      • ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
      • 2. What is the so-called life cycle of a star?
      • ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 219.
      • 3. Does a star last forever or does it ends? Explain your answer.
    • ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
      • 4. Why that the larger a star is, the shorter its life will be?
    • ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 220. THE CONSTELLATIONS Have you ever experienced observing the sky on a clear dark night & recognized loose groups of stars arranged in a pattern? Lesson 4
    • At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
    • know the meaning of constellation & the different constellation.
    • differentiate the North Polar Constellation to South Polar constellation.
    • draw the constellation in Zodiac.
  • 221. Star clusters are hundreds or thousands of associated stars..Star clusters arrange in definite pattern from constellation . These constellations are usually named after gods, heroes & animals. After constellation like the Ursa, major, Draco & Cassiopeia are always visible around Polaris the North Star. The polar constellation seen in the northern skies called the north polar constellation & constellation seen in the southern skies called the south polar constellation.
  • 222. Visible stars are usually named by their location in a constellation and by their degree of brightness with respect to the other stars of the constellation. The letters of the Greek alphabet are used to indicate rank. Thus, Alpha (a) Lyrae is the brightest star in the constellation of Lyra, the lyre: Beta (b) Pagasae is the second brightest star in Pegasus, the winged horse, Cysoon. Many of the brightest stars have individual names in addition. The five brightest stars of the northern sky, in order of their brightest, are called Sirius, Canopuss, Vega, Capella and Arcturus.
  • 223. The motion of the earth as it turns on its axis makes the constellations seem to move trough the sky. They seem as if they were on a transparent globe surrounding the earth. If the axis of the earth were extended out into space it would also form the axis of this imaginary globe on which stars appear to be located. From the northern half of the earth, all stars seem to turn around a point in the sky, called the celestial North Pole . A star located directly on the celestial North Pole would not appear to move.
  • 224. The North Star, called Polaris , is very close to the celestial North Pole. It seems to move only very slightly. All other stars follow circular paths around the celestial pole. However, those farther to the south are visible for only a part of their total path. These stars rise in the eastern part of the sky and set in the west as they pass out of view behind the earth.
  • 225. Fig.3.4.1 The Constellations
  • 226. Constellations in the Zodiac Zodiac is an imaginary celestial belt whose outer limits lie on both sides of the apparent yearly path of the sun & the paths of the planet. Zodiac constellation divides into twelve equal zones of 30co each they are. Aries (the ram); Taurus (the bull); Gemini (the twins); Cancer (the crab); Leo (the lion); Virgo (the virgin); Libra (the balance); Scorpio (the Scorpion); Sagittarius (the archer); Capricorn (the goat); Aquarius (the water carrier); & Pisces (the fishes);.
  • 227. Fig.3.4.2 Constellations of the Zodiac
  • 228. Name: ________________________ Score: ______ % ____ Section: __________ Teacher: __________________ ACTIVITY 14 KNOWING THE CONSTELLATION OF ZODIAC
  • 229. MATERIALS: Picture of the constellation of zodiac List of Zodiac Sign PROCEDURES: 1. Study the picture of the constellation of zodiac. 2. Know your zodiac sign. 3. In the box make a pattern of constellation of your zodiac sign using a dot showing the formation of star to form a constellation.
  • 230. 4. Trace it as how they look.
  • 231. Name: ________________________ Score: ______ %_ ______ Section: _________ Teacher: _________________ CHAPTER TEST III Multiple Choice. Direction: Encircle the best answer.
  • 232.
    • 1. Which of the following does not affect the color of the star?
      • a. Shape
      • b. Size
      • c. Surface
      • d. Age or stage
    • 2. What do you called a huge group of billions of stars that move through space as a unit?
      • a. Milky Way
      • b. Galaxy
      • c. Andromeda Galaxy
      • d. Elliptical
  • 233.
    • 3. The group of stars that forms images of animals, heroes or gods is a ________.
      • a. Solar System
      • b. Galaxy
      • c. Milky Way
      • d. Constellation
    • 4. The apparent brightness of star due to their size and distance from earth is called _____________.
      • a. Apparent magnitude
      • b. Light year
      • c. Color
      • d. Size
  • 234.
    • 5. Which color of the star is the hottest?
      • a. Yellow
      • b. Bluish White
      • c. Red
      • d. White
    • 6. Which of the following is the color of a young star?
      • a. Red star
      • b. Yellow star
      • c. Bluish white star
      • d. Both a and b.
  • 235.
    • 7. Which star is an exploding star?
      • a. Supernova
      • b. Black dwarf
      • c. Black hole
      • d. White dwarf
    • 8. As a star gets older, it changes in a ______________.
      • a. Bluish white star
      • b. Yellow star
      • c. Red star
    • d. White star
  • 236.
    • 9. It is a unit for distance used in describing instellar distances.
      • a. Apparent magnitude
      • b. Protostar
      • c. Supernova
      • d. Light year
    • 10. It is a constellation divides into twelve equal zones of 30 0 C each.
      • a. Big dipper
      • b. Zodiac
      • c. Sirius
      • d. Lyrae
  • 237. Chapter 4 The Earth
  • 238. Fig.4.1 The Earth
    • At the end of this chapter the pupils will be able to
    • define the earth.
    • know how far is the Earth from the sun, the gases that formed the Earth
    • cooperate in answering the following questions about the planet Earth.
  • 239. The earth we live in is only one of the countless objects found in space. Earth is one of the nine planets that revolve around the sun as it rotates on its axis. The earth is a planet that is almost spherical in shape & is made up of land, water & air. Earth is one of the smaller planets of the solar system. Its diameter is 7,926 miles through the poles and about 27 miles greater at the equator. The earth’s rotation has apparently caused this slight bulge. The earth is much closer too perfect sphere, however, than some of the larger planets such as Jupiter and Saturn.
  • 240. Like most of the planets, the earth is surrounded by a thick blanket of gases. The earth atmosphere is unusual in that it contains a large amount of free oxygen. This gas is not found. Its appreciable amount of water it possesses. The one characteristics of the earth that makes it stand out among the planets is its weight compared to its size, the earth is denser than any other planet. In density, the earth is distinctly unusual. It has the highest density of any other except possibly Pluto, whose density is unknown.
  • 241. STRUCTURE OF EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE Lesson 1
    • At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
    • know the structure of the earth’s atmosphere.
    • become aware about the Earth’s atmosphere.
    • participate in class discussion about structure of earth’s atmosphere.
  • 242. Fig.4.1.1. Structure of the Earth’s Atmosphere
  • 243. Troposphere is the layer of the atmosphere closest to the earth’s surface. It has an average height of 13 kilometers. It is here where whether phenomena occur. On top of the troposphere is the tropopause, the layer that separates the troposphere from the stratosphere. It is about 17 kilometers thick at the equator and 6.4 kilometers at the poles.
  • 244. The stratosphere is the weather less part of the atmosphere. It extends from the tropopause to an altitude of about 32 kilometers. There are no clouds and air movement is fairly uniform in this layer. Beyond this layer, there is a gradual rise of temperature until the stratopause. The stratopause is around 50 kilometers above the earth’s surface. The upper part of the stratopause is the ozonosphere. It consists of oxygen molecules called ozone that filters the ultraviolet rays from the sun. These layers are essential for the survival of life on earth. Above the stratosphere is the mesosphere which extends about 80 kilometers above the earth. The temperature here decreases with height until the mesopause.
  • 245. The thermosphere is the layers that extend upward from the mesopause. Air here is exceedingly thin. The ionosphere is the layer extending about 640 kilometers beyond the earth’s surface. It is composed of electrically charged particles called ions. These charged particles are caused by strong cosmic rays. The ionosphere is responsible for the transmission of radio waves used in broad casting. It also protects us from falling meteors. The northern lights called aurora borealis and the southern lights known as aurora australis originate in the ionosphere. The exosphere is the highest layer of the atmosphere. It is about 16,000 to 28,000 kilometers above the earth’s surface.
  • 246. Name: ________________________ Score: ______ % ____ Section: __________ Teacher: __________________ ACTIVITY 15 IDENTIFYING THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE
  • 247. MATERIAL: An illustration of the earth’s atmosphere PROCEDURES: I. Examine the layers of the earth’s atmosphere as shown in the illustration. II. Draw the earth’s atmosphere
  • 248. III. Label it as the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and the ionosphere.
  • 249.
    • IV. Describe each layer of the earth’s atmosphere.
    • ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 250. THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH What is inside the earth? In gravel quarries on mountain side opened for road – building we see layers of soil & rocks. We sometimes ask ourselves. “Is the earth composed of soil & rocks all throughout?” What have geologists learned about the earth’s composition? Lesson 2
    • At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
    • know the three layers of the Earth
    • describe the three layers and its composition.
    • make an illustration showing the characteristics of the three layers
  • 251. Fig.4.2 Layers of the Earth
  • 252. The Crust The surface makes up the earth’s crust or the outermost layer of the earth. Scientist believe that the earth’s crust consist of an upper crust & a lower crust. The upper crust is made up of granite rock formed from magma rich in silicon & oxygen. Scientist have called this layer the sial, from a combination of the first two letters of the names of the two most abundant elements founding it, silicon (Si) & aluminum (Al). The lower crust is made up of basalt like rock. Basalt is a dark colored igneous rock formed from magma rich in iron, silicon & magnesium. Scientist have called this layer the sima, from silicon (Si) & magnesium (Mg), the two most abundant elements found in the lower crust.
  • 253. Mantle The mantle is the thickest layer of the earth extending to a depth about 2900 kilometers. It is made mostly of very hot rocks containing silica, oxygen, magnesium, iron & aluminum. Mantle rocks are different from rocks in the crust. They are more tightly packed & therefore, have a much higher temperature. The temperature is so high that some of them, especially those near the core, are partly melted. Scientist believes that the temperature ranges from 860oc in the upper part of the mantle to about 2200oc in the lower mantle.
  • 254. Core The innermost part of the earth is the core. the core has two layer the outer core consists of molten iron & nicked. This outer surrounds an inner core consisting of solid iron & nickel. The core is the hottest part of the earth. Estimated temperature of boiling water is 100oc which is enough to burn your skin.
  • 255. Name: ________________________ Score: ______ % ____ Section: __________ Teacher: __________________ ACTIVITY 16 KNOWING THE LAYERS OF THE EARTH
  • 256. MATERIAL: Illustration of the layers of the earth PROCEDURES: 1. Study the illustration. 2. Draw the earth showing the earth’s layers on the box.
  • 257. 3. Make a table showing the characteristics of the three (3) layers of the Earth. Fill up the information needed. Characteristics Layers of the earth
  • 258. THE WATER CYCLE Lesson 3
    • At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
    • explain the importance of water cycle.
    • be aware of the different stages of Water Cycle.
    • enumerate the stages of Water Cycle.
  • 259. Fig.4.3.1 The Water Cycle
  • 260. Water Cycle or hydrologic cycle remaining water of the earth follows an unending sequence of evaporation, precipitation, runoff, and storage. The cycle may be illustrated in terms of a limited area. The average rainfall for the United States is about 30 inches per year. This varies from the 100-inch totals in the Pacific Northwest to the 5 inches or less that fall in the deserts. Of the 30 inches of annual precipitation, 5 1/2 inches runs off directly into streams or travels through the uppermost soil layers and enters the nearest stream channel. Another 3 inches seeps down through the soil to the ground water table. After flowing through round about subterranean paths, it eventually reaches stream channels or flows directly to the sea. The remaining 21 ½ inches evaporated into the atmosphere from the soil, from plants, or from the surfaces of lakes and streams.
  • 261. Fig.4.3.2 Showing the Evaporation of Water
  • 262. Thus the amount of water returned to the atmosphere by evaporation is about 70 percent of the total precipitation the land. It might seem logical to assume that most of the precipitation is simply the return of the recently evaporated moisture. Until a few years ago, this was generally accepted as correct. It was supposed that evaporation from lakes and large rivers or forests made the climate of the immediate vicinity appreciably rainier. Measurements over a long period do show that large amounts of water are lost by evaporation. However, they also show that this moisture is quickly carried away by air movements and does not return to the land. Most of it falls into the sea as rain.
  • 263. The oceans are the source of most of the water received by the land surfaces. Rainfall is produced from the moist air that has moved over the sea surface, the over land. Here it meets conditions that cause it to precipitate its water vapor. Air currents moving from the land to the sea actually function as great invisible rivers which carry water back to the sea. These rivers in the sky are far mightier than any of the surface streams, which carry only a small fraction of the total water received by the land.
  • 264. The oceans, then, are the basic source of water for the hydrologic cycle. The moist air must generally come to the land from the sea. Thus the direction of air movements is of great importance in determining the rainfall received at any location. Without the constant flow of the sea air, precipitation usually does not occur and a dry climate results.
  • 265. Name: ________________________ Score: ______ % ____ Section: __________ Teacher: __________________ ACTIVITY 17 KNOWING THE SEQUENCE OF WATER CYCLE
  • 266. MATERIAL: Illustration of the water cycle PROCEDURE: 1. Study the illustration of the water cycle. 2. Draw the water cycle and label every stage.
  • 267. 3. Explain the different stages of the water cycle. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. How does the water move? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 268. THE ROCKS Lesson 4
    • At the end of the lesson the pupils will be able to
    • know what rock is.
    • be aware on different types of rocks and their texture.
    • differentiate the different types of rocks.
  • 269. What is rock? We think of rocks as small pieces of hard substances that vary widely in color and texture. However, in earth science, the word applies to great masses of material that cover large areas of the earth. The smaller rocks we know are merely fragments broken from large masses that may extend for many miles. The study of rocks is called petrology.
  • 270. Rocks are classified in several ways: by their origin, their mineral composition, their texture, and their color. The last three properties may be determined directly by examinations of rock samples. Origin can be determined indirectly according to theories developed from experience and observation of geologists over the years. It can also be determined from the evidence of the rocks themselves and the circumstances in which they were found.
  • 271. Igneous Rocks Fig.4.4.1 Igneous Rocks
  • 272. Rock origins. The composition of rocks reveals much of their origin. Most rocks are mixtures of the minerals. Some rocks, such as coal, are of organic origin. As we have seen, the rock-forming minerals are relatively few. However, the number of possible mixtures is many. This makes classification difficult. One type of rock grades into another by small degrees. The colors, textures, and other properties of the minerals cause great variety of appearance. Nevertheless, certain features of rocks provide clues to the circumstances under which the rock masses where formed. These features indicate whether the rock are igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic. Sometimes it is obvious that metamorphic rocks were formerly either igneous or sedimentary types. Some metamorphic rocks, however, may be so changed that their origin cannot be determined.
  • 273. The formation of igneous rocks. The hot liquid magma, which is the source of the igneous rocks, comes from deep within the earth’s crust. Scientist believes that the material below the earth’s surface, though very hot, is kept in a rigid state by the great pressures in the depths. If the pressure is lessened at any place, the material becomes liquid. This forms a body of magma. The magma may work its way upward through the overlying layers of rock. The heat and pressure of magma may cause the rocks above to move or breakup. This makes room for magma to rise. The processes probably hastened by melting of the overlying rock. The hot magma may then break through cracks in the earth’s surface. Then the molten rock or lava spreads over wide areas of the land. A small cone or large mountain of rock may form at the opening.
  • 274. The term volcano is used for both the opening and the accumulation of material. Magma that reaches the surface cools to form extrusive rocks. Literally, these rocks have been “push out”. Such rocks are usually glassy or finely crystalline in texture. Large crystals have not have time to develop. Sometimes the rock that overlies the mass of magma prevents it from reaching the surface. Then the magma cools slowly to form intrusive or plutonic rocks. These have a coarser texture, composed of masses of larger crystalline grains of varying sizes. Intrusive rocks are often exposed by erosion of the overlying rocks.
  • 275. Sedimentary Rocks Fig.4.4.2 Sedimentary Rocks
  • 276. The formation of sedimentary rocks. The weathering of granite illustrates the general process of formation of sedimentary rocks. First a large mass of granite may be exposed when the overlying rocks are weathered and eroded. Gradually, wind and weather break up the surface of granite. Some of this decomposed rock waste remains on the surface to form part of the residual soil. Some of it is carried away by wind an streams and deposited elsewhere, making up part of transported soil. A considerable amount of soil and broken bits of rock is carried by streams to bodies of water such as lakes or oceans. The streams themselves help to break up the granite as they flow over its surface, carving out a bed. The faster a stream flows, the more it can carry away.
  • 277. Thus the materials are carried away in two forms. Solid fragments of both decomposed and undecomposed rock {clays, sands, pebbles, and boulders} are mechanically carried. Materials derived from chemical decomposition of minerals {carbonates of potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, iron, etc. together with sulfates and chlorides of the above elements} are carried in solution.
  • 278. When the solid materials enter a sea or lake, assorting, or grading takes place. In this respect the sea may be likened to a series of graded sieves. As a stream enters the sea, its speed of flow, and therefore its ability to transport solid material, s lessened. This causes the stream to drop the coarsest materials of its load first. This, if left undisturbed, may later form conglomerate. As the stream proceeds, its speed becomes less and less.
  • 279. Correspondingly finer and finer materials are deposited. Ranging from coarse sand to very fine sand. These materials will become sandstone. Finally, the force of the stream is entirely spent. There still remain suspended in the sea exceedingly small particles of clay and other finely divided materials. These particles often give the ocean a muddy appearance near the mouth of a river. This is especially true in times of heavy rains over the lands drained by the river. The particles drift out to deep water, where they eventually settle in layers to form shale.
  • 280. The amount and quality of the rock waste entering the sea varies from very large amounts to practically nothing, depending on weather and other factors. Also, the current entering the sea is at times much stronger than at others. As a result, zones of sedimentation are farther out at some times than at others therefore deposition is subject to continual variations, overlappings and interruption. These variations cause the layers of sediments to stand out more or less distinctly. The deposits show bedding planes or sedimentation lines which are often conspicuous in sandstones and shales.
  • 281. As time goes on these sediments are converted into rocks. The sands are slowly cemented together by small amounts of substances, usually dissolved from the sands themselves. These cementing substances are deposited upon and between the particles, gradually filling the spaces between the grains of sand. The main cementing substances are silicon dioxide, calcium carbonate and ferric oxide.
  • 282. Metamorphic Rocks Fig.4.4.3 Metamorphic Rock
  • 283. The effects of the forces that shape the surface of the earth are far-reaching. The rocks of the crust are warped, folded, and compressed by tremendous heat and pressure. These may result from broad adjustments of the crust to igneous intrusion, the weight of accumulated sedimentary rocks, and earth movements due to various other causes. Heat and pressure bring about both physical and chemical changes in the rock-forming minerals. Thus, the rocks may also be very much altered by these factors. The heat at the contact areas of intrusions may cause recrystallization of minerals in the surrounding rocks.
  • 284. Beds of sedimentary rocks may be folded so sharply that there is tearing, Stretching, and mashing of the minerals. Gases and liquids escaping from the magma of intrusions may penetrate the surrounding rocks. Some new minerals are formed by this process. Chemical reactions between existing minerals may produce large crystals of garnet or other common metamorphic minerals. When rocks are buried deeply, the heat of the depths of the earth also brings about chemical changes.
  • 285. The most noticeable effect of metamorphism on a rock is foliation. This characteristic serves to divide these rocks into two groups. In foliated rocks, the minerals are drawn out, flattened, and arranged in parallel layers or bands. Rocks that contain mica or iron magnesium minerals show foliation. These minerals tend to form flakes or needles, growing larger in certain directions only. This tendency is increased by pressure that squeezes and mashes the grains as they form. Foliated rocks tend to split parallel to the banding. Unfoliated rocks fracture without definite pattern.
  • 286. The rock is coarse-grained. Grains are present. SEDIMEN- TARY ROCKS No Is it glossy? Crystals are present. Knife blade can scratch it. Yes IGNEOUS ROCK No Yes No METAMOR-PHIC ROKCS It contains dark and light bands. Knife-blade can scratch it. Yes No METAMOR-PHIC ROCKS It contains one kind of mineral. Yes No It contains dark and light. IGNEOUS ROCKS Yes No METAMOR-PHIC ROCKS IGNEOUS ROCKS Yes No METAMOR-PHIC ROKCS SEDIMEN-TARY ROCKS ROCK KEY
  • 287. Name: ________________________ Score: ______ % ____ Section: __________ Teacher: __________________ ACTIVITY 18 IDENTIFYING AND DIFFERENTIATING IGNEOUS, SEDIMENTARY AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS
  • 288. MATERIALS: Sample of rocks Magnifying Glass Knife Hammer PROCEDURE: 1.The teacher will group your class. 2.Place the rocks on the table. Label each sample from a, b and c. 3.Observe each under the magnifying glass. 4.Scratch each rock using a knife blade. Observe. 5.Pound each with a hammer. Observe.
  • 289. 6. Enter your observations in a table. TEXTURE HARDNESS COLOR CHARACTERISTICS ROCKS
  • 290. 7. Enter your observations in a table. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Describe an igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 291. Name: ________________________ Score: ______ %_ ______ Section: _________ Teacher: _________________ CHAPTER TEST IV Multiple Choice. Direction: Encircle the best answer.
  • 292. 1. What is the planet we are live in? a. Earth c. Mars b. Jupiter d. Saturn 2. What layer of the atmosphere is closest to the earth’s surface? a. Troposphere c. Mesosphere b. Stratosphere d. Ionosphere 3. This is the weather less part of the atmosphere. a. Mesosphere c. Troposphere b. Stratosphere d. Ionosphere
  • 293. 4. How many layers our planet has? a. 1 c. 3 b. 2 d. 4 5. What is the outer most layer of the earth? a. Crust c. Core b. Mantle d. Outer Core 6. What is the thickest layer of the earth? a. Mantle c. Crust b. Core d. Outer Core
  • 294. 7. What is the inner most part of the earth? a. Outer Core c. Mantle b. Crust d. Core 8. It is the unending sequence of water such as evaporation, precipitation, runoff and storage? a. Water cycle c. Ocean b. Sea d. Water Vapor 9. It is produced from the moist air that has moved over the sea surface to over land? a. Flood c. Climate b. typhoon d. Rainfall
  • 295. 10. This is the basic source of water for the hydrologic cycle? a. Oceans c. Seas b. River d. Lakes 11. A small piece of hard substances that vary widely in color and texture is called _____________. a. Sediment c. Rock b. Clays d. Magma
  • 296. 12. Rocks that form from hot liquid magma is called ____________. a. Metamorphic Rock c. Marble b. Igneous Rock d. Sedimentary Rock 13. A rock that form when carried away by water, wind and formed from materials precipitated from solution in water is called ____________. a. Limestone c. Metamorphic Rock b. Sedimentary Rock d. Igneous Rock
  • 297. 14. It is the most noticeable effect of metamorphism on a rock. a. Hematite c. Limonite b. Crystallization d. Foliation 15. It is the evidences of animals or plants that were buried when the sediment was deposited. a. Sands c. Pebbles b. Clays d. Fossils
  • 298. REFERENCES Books Barnham, Kay and Ford, Harry ( 2006 ). Hot Topic Space . London: Alligator Book Limited Coronel, Carmelita C..et.al (1999). Science and Health Textbook for Grade V , Quezon City: SD Publication,Inc. Cruz, Juanita et.al (2003). IntoThe Future : Science and Health . Makati City: Diwa Scholastic Press Inc.
  • 299. Felecita, Corazon N. and Pinar, Lecita B. (2006). Breaking Through Integrated Science , Quezon Ave: C&E Publishing Inc. Flores, Alvin C. and Rabago, Lilia M. (2003). Dynamic Science an Integration of Physical and Biological Science Modular Approach , Quezon City: Vibal Publishing House,Inc. Ilarde , Isabelina and Realuya, Zenaida M. (1987). Today”s Basic Concepts In Earth Science . Sta. Cruz Manila: Goodwill Trading Co., Inc.
  • 300. Mingoa,Thelma R.et.al (2006 ). Exploring and Protecting Our World . Davao: Vibal Publishing House, Inc. Thomson, Graham R. and Turk, Jonathan (1995). Earth Science and The Environment. Usa: Sounders College Publishing, Inc.
  • 301. PHOTO CREDITS Chapter 1 Opener : From http://www.flickr.com/ 1.1 (Big Bang Theory) : From http://www.iteachmykid.org/ 1.2 (Big Crunch Theory): From http://ca.geocities.com/ 1.3 (Steady State Theory): From http://www.gilsononline.karoo.net/ 1.4 (Nebular or Dust Cloud Theory) : From http://www.astro.phast.umass.edu / Chapter 2 Opener : From http://astro.cf.ac.uk/ 2.1 (Sun): From http://www-istp.gspc.nasa.gov/ 2.2 : From http://www.gpe.edu/ 2.3.1 (Mercury) : From http://www.novoaemfolha.com/ 2.3.2 (Venus) : From http://www.easy2search.info/ 2.3.4 (Mars) : From http://www.nibaru.nl/
  • 302. 2.3.4.1 : From http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/ 2.3.5 (Jupiter): From http://www.blinde-kuh.de/ 2.3.5.1 : http://www.the-planet-jupiter.com/ 2.3.6 (Saturn) : From http://boojum.as.arizona.edu/ 2.3.7 (Uranus) : From http://www.scholastic.com/ 2.3.8 (Neptune) : From http://www.mikeoates.org/ 2.3.8.1 : From http://stardate.org/ 2.3.9 (Pluto) : From http://schoolhousevideo.org/ 2.3.10 : From http://www.astro.virginia.edu/ 2.5.1 : From http://www.thegraceacademy.org/ 2.5.2 : From http://www.onr.navy.mil/ 2.6 : From http://singingsun.com/ 2.7 (Moon) : From http://www.yankeerobotics.com/ 2.8 : From http://www.utahskies.org/ 2.9.1 (Solar Eclipse) : From http://home.cwru.edu/
  • 303. 2.3.7 (Uranus) : From http://www.scholastic.com/ 2.3.8 (Neptune) : From http://www.mikeoates.org/ 2.3.8.1 : From http://stardate.org/ 2.3.9 (Pluto) : From http://schoolhousevideo.org/ 2.3.10 : From http://www.astro.virginia.edu/ 2.5.1 : From http://www.thegraceacademy.org/ 2.5.2 : From http://www.onr.navy.mil/ 2.6 : From http://singingsun.com/ 2.7 (Moon) : From http://www.yankeerobotics.com/ 2.8 : From http://www.utahskies.org/ 2.9.1 (Solar Eclipse) : From http://home.cwru.edu/ 2.9.2 (Lunar Eclipse) : From http://www.windows.ucar.edu/ 2.9.3 (Spring Tide) : From http://www.astunit.com/ 2.9.4 (Neap Tide) : From http://www.astunit.com/
  • 304. 2.10.1 (Asteroids) : From http://astro.berkeley.edu/ 2.10.2 : From http://www.eso-garden.com/ 2.10.3 : From http://www.aftertek.com/ 2.10.4 : From http://apod.nasa.gorv/ 2.10.5 : From http://www.galaxyphoto.com Chapter 3 Opener : From http://www.rps.psu.edu/ 3.1 : From http://ovnis21.4t.com/ 3.1.1 : From http://www.flickr.com/ 3.1.2 : From http://www.wolaver.org/ 3.1.3 (Spiral Galaxy) : From http://www.religiousworlds.com/ 3.1.4 (Barred Spiral Galaxy) : From http:/r/www.flickr.com/ 3.1.5 (Elliptical Galaxy) : From http://www.flickr.com/ 3.1.6 (Irregular galaxy) : From http://sci.esa.int/
  • 305. 3.2.1 : From http://lithops.as.arizona.edu/ 3.2.2 : From http://www.le.ac.uk/ 3.3.1 (Super nova Star) : From http://45870.rapidforum.com/ 3.3.2 (Pulsar Star) : From http://wrww.grantchronicles.com/ 3.3.4 (Vega Star) : From http://www.windows.ucar.edu/ 3.3.5 (Betelgeuse Star) : From http://www.dust.bunny.com/ 3.3.6 (Rigel Stars) : From http://www.windows.ucar.edu/ 3.3.7 (Arcturus Star): From http: // www.windows.ucar.edu/ 3.4.1 (Constellations): From http://wwwstephaniebrooks.com/ 3.4.2 : From http://physics.fortlewis.edu/
  • 306. Chapter 4 Opener (Revised): From 1. http://volcano.und.edu/ 2. http://wp.li-ru/natural/nature/ 4.1 : From http://mrnizz.blogspot.com 4.1.1 : From http://www.boseobel.k12.wi.us/ 4.2 : from http://www.travel-university.org/ 4.3.1 (Water Cycle) : from http://student.acu.edu/ 4.3.2 : From http://ellerbrunch.nmu.edu/ 4.4.1 (Revised): From 1. http://www.flickr.com/ 2. http://www.scottsdalecc.edu/ 4.4.2 (Revised): From 1&2 http://www.scottsdalecc.edu/ 4.4.3 (Revised): From http://ratw.asu.edu/
  • 307. Curriculum Vitae Of the Authors, Module Consultant and Module Adviser
  • 308. NAME : Cryster C. Sagritalo ADDRESS : #161 Isla Street Pangil, Laguna CELL NUMBER : 09186322494 E-MAIL ADD : [email_address] BIRTHDAY : January 28, 1990
  • 309. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND ELEMENTARY : Pangil Central Elementary School Pangil, Laguna SECONDARY : Laguna State Polytechnic College Siniloan, Laguna TERTIARY : Laguna State Polytechnic University Siniloan, Laguna COURSE : Bachelor in Elementary Education MAJOR : General Elementary Education
  • 310. NAME : Jennifer F. Calabita ADDRESS : #90 P. Burgos St. Siniloan, Laguna CELL NUMBER : 09098013671 E-MAIL ADD : [email_address] BIRTHDAY : January 13, 1990
  • 311. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND ELEMENTARY : Buhay Elementary School Siniloan, Laguna SECONDARY : Siniloan National High School Siniloan, Laguna TERTIARY : Laguna State Polytechnic University Siniloan, Laguna COURSE : Bachelor in Elementary Education MAJOR : General Elementary Education
  • 312. NAME : Maricel T. Taghap ADDRESS : Brgy. Igtuble, Tubungan, Iloilo CELL NUMBER : 09214252040 E-MAIL ADD : [email_address] BIRTHDAY : May 4, 1983
  • 313. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND ELEMENTARY : Igtuble Elementary School Tubungan, Iloilo SECONDARY : Tubungan, National High School Tubungan, Iloilo TERTIARY : Laguna State Polytechnic University Siniloan, Laguna COURSE : Bachelor in Elementary Education MAJOR : General Elementary Education
  • 314. NAME : Sandra P. Mesina ADDRESS : #69 Gen. Cailles Street Cavinti, Laguna CELL NUMBER : 09183134589 E-MAIL ADD : [email_address] BIRTHDAY : September 4, 1977
  • 315. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND ELEMENTARY : Siniloan Elementary School Siniloan, Laguna SECONDARY : Laguna State Polytechnic College Siniloan, Laguna TERTIARY : Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila Intramuros, Manila COURSE : Bachelor of Science in Biology
  • 316. NAME : For – Ian V. Sandoval ADDRESS : Siniloan, Laguna CELL NUMBER : 09162217711 E-MAIL ADD : [email_address] BIRTHDAY : April 5, 1979
  • 317. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND ELEMENTARY : Palasan Elementary School Sta. Cruz, Laguna SECONDARY : Union College of Laguna Sta. Cruz, Laguna TERTIARY : Far Eastern University COURSE : Bachelor of Science in Mathematics MAJOR : Major in Computer Science Bachelor in Secondary Education (18 units) MASTER’S DEGREE : Master of Arts in Education MAJOR : Educational Management (undergraduate)