Research on Artistic Development


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Talks about the historical and theoretical perspectives of Viktor Lowenfeld and other researchers, as well as the informal survey taken on people of all ages regarding their artistic levels and developmental stages in art.

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Research on Artistic Development

  1. 1. Team 2 Artistic Development Keith Strawn Lani Salhus Victoria Sanchez Anthony Guyon Margarito Murillo
  2. 2. Artistic Development <ul><li>Viktor Lowenfeld- Stages of Artistic Development </li></ul><ul><li>Betty Edwards- Drawing Development in Children </li></ul><ul><li>Ferrara Nadia- Art as a Reflection of Child Development </li></ul><ul><li>Anna M. Kindler-Artistic Development and Art Education </li></ul><ul><li>Jonathan Feinstein- Nature of Creative Development </li></ul>
  3. 3. Age Ranges
  4. 4. Viktor Lowenfeld Stages of Artistic Development
  5. 5. Lowenfeld <ul><li>Viktor Lowenfeld was an art educator, artist, psychologist, author, and professor at Pennsylvania State University, and is famous for his works about child development and growth relating to art and creativity. Lowenfeld was born in Linz, Austria in 1903. He taught at elementary schools in Vienna as he was attending University in Vienna for art history and psychology, and Vienna Academy of Fine Arts, in which was where Lowenfeld studied under Edward Steinberg, whom required his students to work with ceramic sculptures while blindfolded. Intrigued by this method, Lowenfeld suggested this at the Institute for the Blind, to approach the same method but to blind people. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Lowenfeld continued <ul><li>The director of the institute was insulted by Lowenfelds request for research, but Lowenfeld found a group of blind people whom gladly helped him by initiating with the clay. Lowenfeld would later stash these sculptures safely in his briefcase and leave the Institute for the Blind, marking a significant event in his career and life. He then wrote an article about these sculptures of the blind, which triggered Sigmund Freud's interest and his visit to meet Lowenfeld. Lowenfeld also eventually wrote an important book about these studies titled “Sculptures of the Blind”, which was in collaboration with Dr. Ludwig Munz ― art historian and photographer. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Lowenfeld continued <ul><li>However, though this event may be hallmarked in Lowenfelds life and career, and considered perhaps his “first big step,” his most praised and renown works relates to child development and growth in relations to art and creativity, most especially the book titled “Creative and Mental Growth.” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Creative and Mental Growth <ul><li>Published in 1947, “Creative and Mental Growth” became the most influential book in art education. Lowenfeld believed that evidence of aesthetic, social, physical, intellectual, and emotional growth is reflect in the art of the child. In this theory, he developed Stages of Artistic Development which are based upon the child's age with relation to ability. Though this theory of age-to-stage development is relatively out-of-date, the basic principals and overall knowledgeable content of Lowenfelds book is still being accessed, utilized, appreciated, and re-evaluated. The main emphasis of the book are the Stages of Artistic Development, which a child experiences over time according to age and experience: </li></ul>
  9. 9. Lowenfeld’s Stages of Artistic Development
  10. 10. Scribble Stage (2 to 4 years) <ul><li>There are four sub stages:  </li></ul><ul><li>Disordered ,  Longitudinal ,  Circular, and   Naming .  Disordered  scribbling is uncontrolled markings created by lack of motor control. These scribbles look “random.”  Longitudinal  scribbling is controlled repetitions of motions that demonstrates the awareness of kinesthetic movements. These scribbles appear as “back-and-forth” lines.  Circular  scribbling further explores controlled motions. These scribbles appear something similar to circles and ovals, usually in a repetitive and conjunctive manner.  Naming  scribbling is when the child develops from kinesthetic thinking into imaginative thinking, transferring from terms of motion into terms of a story or picture. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Scribble Stage
  12. 12. Preschematic Stage (4 to 6 years) <ul><li>Conscious creation of form. There is little understanding of space as objects are placed without much contiguity. A common specimen of a Preschematic drawing would be drawings of people, usually depicted with a single-shaped body, lines for limbs, and a circle for the head. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Preschematic Stage
  14. 14. Preschematic Examples J.M. 8 M WC L B.C. 19 M MC A
  15. 15. Schematic Stage (7 to 9 years) <ul><li>Demonstrates an awareness of the concept of space as objects are placed with relative contiguity. A definite base and sky line is also apparent, and colors appear as they are in reality. More attention to detail; however, still mostly a vague drawings and consistent exaggerations in shape and proportions. Schematic generalizations and stereotypes are also developed in practice. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Schematic Stage
  17. 17. Schematic Examples D.S. 16 M WC AA B.C. 19 M MC A
  18. 18. The Gang Stage: The Dawning Realism (9 to 11 years) <ul><li>Self awareness and self-criticism becomes highly apparent and influential. Overlap and perspective become apparent in this stage as space is greater understood. Strive for greater attention to detail, minimizing or eliminating schematic generalizations and stereotypes. And because of the awareness of lack of ability, the child is less spontaneous and eager to draw as so in comparison to previous stages. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Gang Stage: The Dawning Realism
  20. 20. Dawning Realism Examples Valerie 17 F WC L A.G. 14 F WC L
  21. 21. Naturalism (11 to 13 years) <ul><li>Spontaneous activity cease as children become increasingly critical of their abilities. The goal is now of the end result of the drawing, to strive for “adult-like” naturalistic drawings. Signs of shading and motion are observed in their drawings. Proportions, perspective, and use of space are more accurate. This stage can also further investigate the child in by their psychological differences:  Visual  or  Non-visual .  Visual  concern more about the accuracy in the depiction of objects, e.g.: how color may change according to different external conditions; and  Non-visual  concern more about the expression or emotion of the drawing, such as using color as a tool to emphasize and reflect his or her feelings, or the emotional reaction to the subject matter. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Naturalism
  23. 23. Naturalism Examples D.S. 16 M WC AA Lilith 17 F WC L
  24. 24. Betty Edwards Drawing Development in Children
  25. 25. Betty Edwards <ul><li>Edwards is an American art teacher and author, best known for her 1979 book,  Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain . She taught and did research at CSU Long Beach until she retired in the late '90s. While there, she founded the Center for the Educational Applications of Brain Hemisphere Research. </li></ul><ul><li>She received a Bachelor’s in Art from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA, 1947), a Master's of Art from California State University, Northridge, and a Doctorate in Art, Education, and Psychology from UCLA (1978). </li></ul>
  26. 26. Theories on Drawing and Brain Function <ul><li>Edwards uses the findings of brain research as an organizing principle for her system, and is especially guided by Cerebral hemisphere and split-brain research which suggests that the two hemispheres of the brain have different functions. She proposes exercises to bring out the creative abilities of the right side of the brain, as opposed to the analytic and logical abilities of the left brain. </li></ul><ul><li>She feels that previously stored knowledge prevents students from seeing in a manner conducive to isomorphic representation, and suggests that a shift in brain mode facilitates accurate perception. </li></ul><ul><li>(L-Mode vs. R-Mode) </li></ul><ul><li>Current research has found her theory of L-Mode vs. R-Mode invalid. But Edwards exercises are still widely used by many and continue to teach children and adults how to draw. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Five Basic Skills of Drawing <ul><li>The perception of edges </li></ul><ul><li>The perception of spaces </li></ul><ul><li>The perception of relationships </li></ul><ul><li>The perception of lights and shadows </li></ul><ul><li>The perception of the whole, or gestalt </li></ul>Edwards states: “Drawing is a global or “whole” skill requiring only a limited set of basic components.” These skills are not drawing skills, they are perceptual skills. In time all of these skills reading, writing, walking and drawing become automatic because you have learned the components and have integrated them.
  28. 28. <ul><li>The Scribbling Stage (2 to 4 Years) First disordered scribbles are simply records of enjoyable kinesthetic activity, not attempts at portraying the visual world. After six months of scribbling, marks are more orderly as children become more engrossed. Soon they begin to name scribbles, an important milestone in development. </li></ul><ul><li>The Scribbling Stage (1 1/2 Years) Random scribbles begin at age one-and-a-half, but quite quickly take on definite shapes. Circular movement is first because it is most natural anatomically . </li></ul>Lowenfelds vs. Edwards Stages of Creative and Mental Growth
  29. 29. <ul><li>The Preschematic Stage (4 to 6 Years) First conscious creation of form occurs around age three and provides a tangible record of the child's thinking process. The first representational attempt is a person, usually with circle for head and two vertical lines for legs. Later other forms develop, clearly recognizable and often quite complex. Children continually search for new concepts so symbols constantly change. </li></ul><ul><li>The Stage of Symbols (3 Years) </li></ul><ul><li>After weeks of scribbling, children make the discovery of art: a drawn symbol can stand for a real thing in the environment. Circular form becomes a universal symbol for almost anything. Later symbols become more complex, reflecting child's observations on the world around him. </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures that Tell Stories ( 4 to 5 Years) </li></ul><ul><li>At four or five, the child begins to tell stories or work out problems with her drawings, changing basic forms as needed to express meaning. Often once the problem is expressed, the child feels better able to cope with it. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>The Schematic Stage (7 to 9 Years) </li></ul><ul><li>The child arrives at a &quot;schema,&quot; a definite way of portraying an object, although it will be modified when he needs to portray something important. The schema represents the child's active knowledge of the subject. At this stage, there is definite order in space relationships: everything sits on the base line. </li></ul><ul><li>The Landscape Stage </li></ul><ul><li>By five or six, children develop a set of symbols to create a landscape that eventually becomes a single variation repeated endlessly. A blue line and sun at the top of the page and a green line at the bottom become symbolic representations of the sky and ground. Landscapes are compose carefully, giving the impression that removing any single form would throw off the balance of the whole picture. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>The Gang Stage- Dawning Realism (9 to 11 Years) </li></ul><ul><li>The child finds that schematic generalization no longer suffices to express reality. This dawning of how things really look is usually expressed with more detail for individual parts, but is far from naturalism in drawing. Space is discovered and depicted with overlapping objects in drawings and a horizon line rather than a base line. Children begin to compare their work and become more critical of it. While they are more independent of adults, they are more anxious to conform to their peers. </li></ul><ul><li>The Stage of Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>At nine or ten years, children try for more detail, hoping to achieve greater realism, a prized goal. Concern for where things are in their drawings is replaced by concern for how things look-- particularly tanks, dinosaurs, super heroes, etc. for boys; models, horses, landscapes, etc. for girls. </li></ul><ul><li>The Stage of Realism </li></ul><ul><li>The passion for realism is in full bloom. When drawings do not &quot;come out right&quot; (look real) they seek help to resolve conflict between how the subject looks and previously stored information that prevents their seeing the object as it really looks. Struggle with perspective, foreshortening, and similar spatial issues as they learn how to see. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>The Naturalistic Stage (11 to 13 Years) </li></ul><ul><li>This stage marks the end of art as spontaneous activity as children are increasingly critical of their drawings. The focus is now on the end product as they strive to create &quot;adult-like&quot; naturalistic drawings. Light and shadow, folds, and motion are observed with mixed success, translated to paper. Space is depicted as three-dimensional by diminishing the size of objects that are further away. </li></ul><ul><li>The Crisis Period </li></ul><ul><li>The beginning of adolescence marks the end of artistic development among most children, due to frustration at &quot;getting things right.&quot; Those who do manage to weather the crisis and learn the &quot;secret&quot; of drawing will become absorbed in it. Edwards believes that proper teaching methods will help children learn to see and draw and prevent this crisis . </li></ul>
  33. 33. Nadia Ferrara Art as a Reflection of Child Development
  34. 34. Ferrara, Nadia <ul><li>Art as a Reflection of Child Development </li></ul>According to Ferrara, she explains how the cognitive, psychosexual, epigenetic psychosexual and ego development theories shows the child’s reflection in generating an artistic development.
  35. 35. Artistic Development (Piaget,1952) <ul><li>Sensorimotor stage :(age 0-2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior of Infant that does not know the events and does not think conceptually. The schemata is being constructed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preoperational Stage: (age 2-7) </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid conceptually development . </li></ul>
  36. 36. Psychosexual Stages of Development (Freud) <ul><li>Oral Stage- (age 0-2) </li></ul><ul><li>Infant’s sexual desires center around oral state. E.g. sucking at breast…etc. Food and other objects become the model for identifications. </li></ul><ul><li>Anal stage- (age 1-3) </li></ul><ul><li>Potty trained. Aware of the surrounding and familiar faces. </li></ul><ul><li>Phallic stage- (age 2-5) </li></ul><ul><li>This stage is Oedipus complex. It’s when the boy is sexuality attracted to his mother. For girls the Electra complex staged is being process. It’s when girls get competitive with the mother and to get the father’s attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Latency period- (age 5-12) </li></ul><ul><li>Age five to puberty. Want to associate with their same sex. When sexual interest is diminished. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Epigenetic Psychosexual Stages of Development (Erikson, 1982, 1963) <ul><li>Oral-Sensory Stage- (age 0-2) </li></ul><ul><li>Basic trust vs. Mistrust </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular-Anal Stage- (age 1-3) </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt </li></ul><ul><li>Locomotor-Genital Stage-(age 3-5) </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative vs. Guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Latency Stage- (age 5-12) </li></ul><ul><li>Industry vs. Inferiority </li></ul>
  38. 38. Stages of Ego development (Loevinger, 1979; Mahler, 1968) <ul><li>Presocial- (age 0-1) </li></ul><ul><li>Infant possesses autistic interactive manner. Does not differentiate animals and in- animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbiotic- (age 1-2) </li></ul><ul><li>Child becomes attached to his/her mother. </li></ul><ul><li>Impulse Ridden- (age 2-5) </li></ul><ul><li>Child’s cognitive style is characterized by stereotyping and conceptual confusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunistic/ Self-Protective- (age 5-7) </li></ul><ul><li>Child has a fear of punishment. Child is more independent. </li></ul><ul><li>Conformist- (ages 7-12) </li></ul><ul><li>Child begins to obey the rules. Once the child breaks the rules, child feels shame or guilt. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Stages of cognitive Development (Piaget, 1952) <ul><li>Concrete operational- (age 7-11) </li></ul><ul><li>Child makes judgments based on reasoning. Child generates logical thought to solve there problems. </li></ul><ul><li>These are some stages that may reflect the your child’s artistic development. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Anna M. Kindler Ed. D. Artistic Development and Art Education
  41. 41. <ul><li>“ Art education should provide learners with experiences with both analytic and synthetic approaches to image making with strategies that rely on observation, as well as imagination memory, as well as fantasy that require attention and observance of certain rules as well as those that value creative accident.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ An important characteristic of good teaching is the ability to frame educational practice within the understanding of learners’ benefit from instructional activities” </li></ul>Quotes from Anne Kindler
  42. 42. Areas of Focus <ul><li>The Development in Early Childhood </li></ul><ul><li>The Analysis of Children’s Drawings </li></ul><ul><li>Artistic Development and Culture </li></ul><ul><li>The Psychological Studies of Artistic Development. </li></ul><ul><li>Artistic Development as a Growth in Pictorial Repertoires </li></ul>
  43. 43. The Development of Early Childhood <ul><li>The relative lack of the systematic inquiry in the artistic production of adolescents can be explained to some extent by the fact that young children are more prolific and provide researchers with more visual data. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers Gardner and Winner (1982) suggested that artistic development can be described in terms of a U-shaped curve, with children’s interest and competence in drawing dramatically declining after the first 7 to 8 years of life, it is only the artistically persistent who ascend to the other high point of the U curve. </li></ul><ul><li>The emphasis on explaining development in drawing in terms of a uni-dimensional progression through a defined set of stages has been very strong in the field and that the ambition to search for universal trends in development in drawing and focus on the psycho-biological determinants of artistic development have underlined much of research in this area. </li></ul>
  44. 44. The Analysis of Children’s Drawings <ul><li>Explorations of children’s artistic development have almost exclusively focused on examination of pictorial evidence that children produced, with little attention given to the complexity of the process and the nature of the context within which the drawings were created. </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher Rhoda Kellogg (1969) examined and classified a very large collection of children’s drawings and identified a sequence of basic scribbles, patterns, diagrams, combines and aggregates. Kellogg proposed a universal theory of artistic development based on this sequence and insisted that scribbling experience was a necessary precursor to all pictorial production later in life. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the common concerns of research in artistic development is the emergence and use of shapes in drawing, the ability to represent spatial relations and the system of lines and points in the children’s drawing system. </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher John Willats (1997) states that initially children are satisfied when their drawings seem “right”, in terms of offering reasonable solutions to drawing problems in their drawing system, but later they want their drawings to also “look right”. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Artistic Development and Culture <ul><li>Although the impact of culture has been of interest to researchers since the second quarter of this century, it has lead to a theory of artistic development emphasizing cultural determinants. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers Brent and Marjory Wilson argue that children’s drawings have their roots in graphic models available in the culture. The Wilsons contend that only in the very early stages of life can children’s drawings be attributed to predominantly innate tendencies and that child development in art involves learning of pictorial conventions that children note in their environment. </li></ul><ul><li>These models include imagery that other children produce, as well as adult graphic models that children encounter in their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>This theory stipulates that children’s drawings result from acquisition of a graphic language, rather than involving an active construction of a pictorial language. </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher Kindler regards artistic development as a semiotic process rooted in psycho-biological foundations that responds to and is shaped by the socio-cultural context. </li></ul>
  46. 46. The Psychological Studies of Artistic Development. <ul><li>A large body of research on child development in art has been conducted by psychologists, whose interests have been focused on understanding mental processes underlying children’s graphic production rather than the pictorial production. </li></ul><ul><li>Many psychologists have used research on drawing development to support broader development theories, and, as a consequence, tended to focus on these aspects of pictorial production that have most closely related to their other specific research interests. </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher Rudolf Arnheim (1969) states that the development in drawing involves a distinct symbol system that is guided by its own graphic logic and cannot be considered as a mirror of a child’s cognitive abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Arnheim described development in drawing as a growth in the ability to use a graphic language that offers two dimensional substitutes for elements of three dimensional world. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Artistic Development as a Growth in Pictorial Repertoires <ul><li>One of the most significant recent advances in research has been the reconceptualization of artistic development as a growth in pictorial repertoires. </li></ul><ul><li>Children are often capable of constructing and using a range of visual images within the time frame of a single “stage” depending on the context and purpose of their drawings. </li></ul><ul><li>Kindler explains their emergence and use in terms of the broad ambitions and goals of children’s representational attempts and the importance that these youngsters accord to the visual and conceptual attributes of objects that they represent. The advantage of this new understanding of artistic development liese in the potential of this model to account for the variety of pictorial imagery that is produced by young children and its dependency on Western focus on visual realism. </li></ul><ul><li>Observations of children’s motor actions and representational occurs through a pluri-media channel, involving vocalization, verbalization, gestures and mark making. </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently in early childhood art education, integrated activities involving language, movement and graphic production are especially helpful for children in mastering a powerful system of representation. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Jonathan G. Sealer Feinstein The Nature of Artistic and Creative Development
  49. 49. Engage in Artistic and Creative Endeavors <ul><li>Artistic and creative development encompasses both processes, experience, and structures that lay the foundation for creativity. </li></ul><ul><li>The creative development of an individual centers on, is based in, and grows out of his creative interest. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Early Stages of Development <ul><li>Individuals express and describe creative interest, ideas, beliefs, plans or designs that they pursue and developed creatively, which turn out to be vital for their development and contributions to society. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Processes and Structures of Artistic and Creative Development <ul><li>The frame work Feinstein presents is to describe specific steps and structures that are the source and basis of generation of several principal forms of creativity leading to contributions. </li></ul><ul><li>It describes specifically hoe an individual’s ideas, insights, and contributions that are rooted in creative interest they form, explore, and strive to develop creatively. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Environment <ul><li>Artistic and creative development is influenced by the individual’s culture and the world around them. </li></ul><ul><li>Creative interest originates in the individual’s engagement with the world, sparked by specific experiences and elements they encounter. </li></ul><ul><li>Elements and experiences generate ideas and assist in building rich conceptual structure in the field of their interest. </li></ul>
  53. 53. The Core of Artistic and Creative Development Three Steps <ul><li>The formation of a creative interest, including a conception on the interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The process of exploring the interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing the interest artistically and creatively. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Learning and Contributing <ul><li>The defining and execution of the projects rooted in and growing out of its development, leading, to artistic works and contributions. </li></ul><ul><li>Through out an individual’s life they will encounter many social and personal experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Witness and learn about many events, concepts, theories, experiments, methods, approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Will be expose to, learn, and study the creative works and contributions of other people. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Response <ul><li>In forming their creative interest, especially in the initial stages of formation based in responding to experiences and elements they encounter and learn about. Individuals generally respond intuitively and spontaneously to what excites and interest them. </li></ul><ul><li>They find their interest exciting, fascinating, and challenging- that is why they form them and as interest and wish to pursue them. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals conceive of their creative interest as area filled with creative possibilities, filled with promise. </li></ul><ul><li>They desire to explore them and learn about them, and to develop them artistically and creatively. They believe or hope that through exploring their interest and striving to develop them creatively they will be able to define creative projects and pursue them, and ultimately-make contributions to their field and society. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Connection to the Responses
  57. 57. Projects are Crucial to Creative Works <ul><li>Notable features of artistic and creative development is the way individuals, at certain critical junctures, step back and reflect upon their coarse of development. </li></ul><ul><li>Every individual who engages in a creative endeavor follows his own unique path of creative development. Individual interests often change, as they learn and mature. </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns of creative development have a variety of forms. For many, over a period of time their pattern of development resembles the branching structure of a tree-their core artistic and creative interest are like the trunk and their projects are like branches coming out of the trunk. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Following his own unique path of Creative Development
  59. 61. Sample Study Findings <ul><li>5, 6, 10, 11, & 21 year olds </li></ul><ul><li>Our findings showed that Lowenfelds, Edwards, & Ferrara’s theories are a bit outdated. The examples contradict the theorists stages of development as you will see in the examples to follow. Age was not a determining factor in our view. </li></ul>
  60. 62. Scribble Stage
  61. 63. Scribble Stage Free Drawing XDG 10 M MC L
  62. 64. Preschematic Stage
  63. 65. Preschematic Stage Tree & Free Drawing V 6 F MC A MV 11 F WC L V 6 F MC A
  64. 66. Schematic Stage
  65. 67. Schematic Stage Tree Drawing XDG 10 M MC L WILLIAM 11 M WC L
  66. 68. Schematic Stage Free Drawing MS 5 M MC A ARCY 10 F WC L KIM 10 F WC L MV 11 F WC L TH 10 M MC M EC 11 M MC L
  67. 69. Dawning Realism
  68. 70. Dawning Realism Stage MS 5 M MC A W.I 11 M WC L
  69. 71. Naturalism
  70. 72. Naturalism Stage AJ 21 M MC C AW 21 F MC C