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  1. 1. Reports Module 5 Lesson 4
  2. 2. What is a Report? <ul><li>Written communication which presents focused content to a specific audience. </li></ul><ul><li>The audience can be academic or business </li></ul><ul><li>The report can be bound or unbound </li></ul>
  3. 3. Business vs Academic <ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Market research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Academic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position/opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Book Report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case Study </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Business vs Academic <ul><li>Differ in purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Differ in audience </li></ul><ul><li>Differ in layout </li></ul><ul><li>Differ in spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Differ in supporting documents </li></ul><ul><li>Differ in reference documents </li></ul>
  5. 5. Business Reports Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3
  6. 6. Parts of a Business Report <ul><li>Title Page (Topic 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Table of Contents (Topic 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Outline (Topic 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Report (Now) </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliography (Topic 3) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Business Reports <ul><li>Unbound-- Typically short reports prepared without binders or covers. A multi-page report may be held together by paper clip or staple. </li></ul><ul><li>Bound-- Typically longer reports are bound with covers or binders. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Unbound vs Bound <ul><li>Unbound Margins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top 2” first page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Top 1” second page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom 1” (depending on page break decisions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left 1” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right 1” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bound Margins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top 2” first page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Top 1” second page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom 1” (depending on page break decisions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left 1.5” (for binding) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right 1” </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Unbound vs Bound Top Right Bottom 1” Left Margin 1.5” Left Margin Unbound Bound
  10. 10. 1” depending on page breaks? <ul><li>When writing a report, you want to avoid widows, orphans and splitting side headings from their paragraphs. This gives your report a cleaner, more tied together appearance. </li></ul>Widow—last line of a paragraph at the top of a page by itself Orphan—first line of a paragraph at the bottom of a page by itself
  11. 11. Widow
  12. 12. Orphan
  13. 13. Report Body Formatting <ul><li>Center the title of the report in ALL CAPS, then quadruple space after the title before beginning the body of the report. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Report Body Formatting <ul><li>Double space the body of the report. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Report Body Formatting <ul><li>Side headings are underlined and keyed in initial caps. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Report Body Formatting <ul><li>Paragraph headings are indented .5” from the left margin and end with a period. Capitalize the 1 st letter of the 1 st word only. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Side vs Paragraph Heading Underlined initial caps left margin no period 1 st letter of 1 st word capped indented .5” end with a period Side Paragraph
  18. 18. Report Body Formatting <ul><li>Key references/bibliography on the last page or on a separate page of the report in hanging-indent style. </li></ul><ul><li>To cite sources, use textual citations within the report or key endnotes on the last page or on a separate page in hanging indent style. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Report Body Formatting <ul><li>Short Quotations—less than 4 lines, use quotation marks </li></ul>Ellipsis: Used to show an omission of words from quoted material.
  20. 20. Report Body Formatting <ul><li>Long Quotations—4 or more lines, indented .5” on left (and right if you like) AND single spaced </li></ul>
  21. 21. Short vs Long Quote site source use ellipsis as necessary <4 lines with paragraph quotation marks 4 or more lines indent .5” on left no quotation marks Short Long
  22. 22. Academic Reports also known as MLA (Modern Language Association) Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3
  23. 23. Parts of a Academic Report <ul><li>Table of Contents (Topic 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Outline (Topic 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Report (Now) </li></ul><ul><li>Works Cited (Topic 3) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Bound or Unbound? <ul><li>Like a business report, the academic report may either be bound (1.5” left margin or unbound (1” left margin.) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Margins <ul><li>Top 1” </li></ul><ul><li>Left 1” if unbound or 1.5” if bound </li></ul><ul><li>Right 1” </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom 1” depending on page break decisions </li></ul>
  26. 26. Title Page? <ul><li>No title page is used for Academic style reports. Instead, key a heading in the top left corner on the first page. Double space between lines and include the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Name of Student </li></ul><ul><li>Name of Instructor </li></ul><ul><li>Course Title </li></ul><ul><li>Date in military style (21 November 2010) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Heading Sample
  28. 28. Spacing? <ul><li>Double-space the body of the report—no exceptions. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Quotations? <ul><li>Long quotes are indented 1” from the left. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Business vs Academic Left, Right and Bottom Margins DS body Side & Paragraph Headings Short Quotes Title Page Top margin of 1 st page is 2” Indent long quote .5” SS long quote Business Academic Heading Top margin of 1 st page is 1” Indent long quote 1” DS everything