Setting Time and place are where the action occursDetails that describe: Furniture Scenery Customs Transportation Clothing Dialects Weather Time of day Time of year
Elements of a Setting L o c a t io n L i f e E r a P l a c e T i m ePhysilca S e t i n g H ir s to y Ae tp mo s h e r D a y M o d F e ls i ng W o rd C h o i c e Uitoarwi sstoctikgt evaplee arten.r ati roW c voe a d W e a t h er tehohdt hnavdd etorrae wboatn b rens o des e u cetiehlsei rohteaa eeesnhd aas.aaf t rTssr l n ac n i n .
The Functions of a Setting To create a mood or We left the home place behind, mile by slow mile, heading for the mountains, atmosphere across the prairie where the wind blew To show a reader a forever. At first there were four of us with different way of life one horse wagon and its skimpy load. Pa To make action seem and I walked, because I was a big boy of eleven. My two little sisters romped and more real trotted until they got tired and had to be To be the source of boosted up to the wagon bed. That was no covered Conestoga, like conflict or struggle Pa’s folks came West in, but just an old To symbolize an idea farm wagon, drawn by one weary horse, creaking and rumbling westward to the mountains, toward the little woods town where Pa thought he had an old uncle who owned a little two-bit sawmill. Taken from “The Day the Sun Came Out” by D. Johnson
Types of CharactersPeople or animalsMajor charactersMinor charactersRound charactersFlat characters
CharacterizationA writer reveals what a character is like and how the character changes throughout the story.Two primary methods of characterization: Direct- writer tells what the character is like Indirect- writer shows what a character is like by describing what the character looks like, by telling what the character says and does, and by what other characters say about and do in response to the character.
Direct Characterization …And I don’t play the dozens or believein standing around with somebody in my facedoing a lot of talking. I much rather justknock you down and take my chances even ifI’m a little girl with skinny arms and asqueaky voice, which is how I got the nameSqueaky. From “Raymond’s Run” by T. Bambara
Indirect Characterization The old man bowed to all of usin the room. Then he removed hishat and gloves, slowly and carefully. Chaplin once did that in a picture,in a bank--he was the janitor. From “Gentleman of Rio en Medio” by J. Sedillo
Elements of Character F u l y R es li at v e F rs id en D ed v e le o p M a i n M i n o r N o ty F u lPsrootti a g n C h a r c t e r D ed v e le o p F l a t C o -i Ma n A nt tn ag o i s E n e m y
Factors in Analyzing CharactersPhysical appearance of characterPersonalityBackground/personal historyMotivationRelationshipsConflictDoes character change?
PlotPlot is what happens and howit happens in a narrative. Anarrative is any work that tellsa story, such as a short story, anovel, a drama, or a narrativepoem.
Parts of a PlotInciting incident – event that gives rise to conflict (opening situation)Development- events that occur as result of central conflict (rising action)Climax- highest point of interest or suspense of storyResolution- when conflict endsDenouement- when characters go back to their life before the conflict
Diagram of Plot Climax Res Ac nt/ o n l ut i ing me tio Ris velop on DeIntroduction DenouementInciting incident/Opening situation
Special Techniques of PlotSuspense- excitement or tensionForeshadowing- hint or clue about what will happen in storyFlashback- interrupts the normal sequence of events to tell about something that happened in the pastSurprise Ending- conclusion that reader does not expect
ConflictConflict is a struggle between opposing forcesEvery plot must contain some kind of conflictStories can have more than one conflictConflicts can be external or internal External conflict- outside force may be person, group, animal, nature, or a nonhuman obstacle Internal conflict- takes place in a character’s mind
ThemeA central message, concern, or insight into life expressed through a literary workCan be expressed by one or two sentence statement about human beings or about lifeMay be stated directly or impliedInterpretation uncovers the theme
Example of Theme“Every man needs to feel allegiance tohis native country, whether he alwaysappreciates that country or not.” From “A Man Without a Country” by Edward Hale pg. 185 in Prentice Hall Literature book