Design Considerations of Water Features

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Provides an overview of the types of water features including design considerations for traditional and …

Provides an overview of the types of water features including design considerations for traditional and
sequenced solutions, as well as a discussion of the history and development of water features and the influences that have impacted today’s designs

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  • 1. This Online Learning Seminar is available through a professional courtesy provided by: Design Considerations of Water Features 60 Snow Boulevard Concord, ON L4K 4B3 Tel: 905-660-6674 Fax: 905-660-6916 Toll-Free: 1-800-539-8858 Email: saecdaily@crystalfountains.com Web: www.crystalfountains.com Getting Started Click on the start button START to begin this course START ©2007 Crystal Fountains. The material contained in this course was researched, assembled, and produced by Crystal Fountains and remains their property. Questions or concerns about the content of this course should be directed to the program instructor. powered by ©2007 Slide 1 of 102
  • 2. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Design Considerations of Water Features Presented By: Simon Gardiner Crystal Fountains 60 Snow Boulevard Concord, ON L4K 4B3 Description: Provides an overview of the types of water features including design considerations for traditional and sequenced solutions, as well as a discussion of the history and development of water features and the influences that have impacted today’s designs. To ensure the accuracy of this program material, this course is valid only when listed on AEC Daily's Online Learning Center. Please click here to verify the status of this course. If the course is not displayed on the above page, it is no longer offered. The American Institute of Architects · Course No. AEC199; LUs – 1.5 · This program qualifies for HSW credit. AEC Daily Corporation is a Registered Provider with the American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for non-AIA members are available on request. This program is registered with AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA or AEC Daily Corporation of any material or construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods and services should be directed to the program instructor. Construction Specifications Institute · Course No. CSI-A0009; CEUs 0.15 · This program qualifies for HSW credit. This program is a registered educational program with the Construction Specifications Institute of Alexandria, VA. The content within the program is not created or endorsed by CSI nor should the content be construed as an approval of any product, building method, or service. Information on the specific content can be addressed at the conclusion of the program, by the Registered Provider. AEC Daily is a Registered Provider with the Construction Specifications Institute Construction Education Network (CEN). Credit earned for completing this program will automatically be submitted to the CSI CEN. Completion certificates can be obtained by contacting the Provider directly. This logo and statement identify Provider programs registered with CSI CEN and are limited to the educational program content. This course is approved by other organizations. Please click here for details. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 2 of 102
  • 3. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert How to use this Online Learning Course To view this course, use the arrows at the bottom of each slide or the up and down arrow keys on your keyboard. To exit the course at any time, press the ESC key on your keyboard. This will minimize the full-screen presentation and allow you to close the program. Within this course is an exam password that you will be required to enter in order to proceed with the online examination. Please be sure to remember or write down this password so that you have it available for the test. To receive a certificate indicating course completion, refer to the instructions at the end of the course. For additional information and post-seminar assistance, click on any of the logos and icons within a page or any of the links at the top of each page. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 3 of 102
  • 4. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Section Title Learning Objectives Upon completing this course, you will be able to: • Discuss the history of fountains and the influences that have impacted today’s fountain designs • State the design principles and considerations of water features required to facilitate a successful installation • Describe methods of minimizing the impact of mechanical and electrical components • List the types and characteristics of various types of water features including fountains, channels, vanishing edge pools, vertical water features, and sequenced solutions ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 4 of 102
  • 5. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Table of Contents History of Fountains 6 Water Feature Design Principles 26 Types of Water Features 58 Sequenced Solutions 80 Summary 100 Click on title to view ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 5 of 102
  • 6. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert History of Fountains ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 6 of 102
  • 7. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert History of Fountains What is a Fountain? Originally, the word “Fountain” was used to refer to a natural spring or source of water; however, over time it has come to mean an artificial structure that is designed to contain and move water. Potable water from a reliable source was one of the first requirements of permanent settlements. In earliest settlements (similar to today) the fountain was proudly displayed to illustrate the power and civilization of a community. Source of Potable Water ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 7 of 102
  • 8. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert History of Fountains Four Principle Functions In early civilization, the fountain had four principle functions: 1. Supply drinking water for human consumption 2. Supply water for animals 3. Used domestically for washing, cleaning, and cooking 4. Used for display and as a communication/gathering center. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 8 of 102
  • 9. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert History of Fountains Ancient Symbolism Some of the earliest recorded water features were found in the deserts of Egypt where the waters were controlled and channeled for irrigation purposes. As evidenced in this tomb painting from 3000 B.C., the Egyptians planted gardens within the walled enclosures surrounding their homes. A central rectangular fish pond is flanked by rows of fruit trees and ornamental plants. Other irrigated gardens were developed around the cultivation of food sources: mainly the lotus and water lily. In Mari (Mesopotamia) a stone fountain figure dating around 2000 B.C. was discovered. This figure — a female goddess holding a vase into which water is piped and poured into a basin, can be considered a prototype for the types of fountains made in gardens for thousands of years thereafter. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 9 of 102
  • 10. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert History of Fountains Persian/Islamic Design A traditional Persian garden was comprised of four essentials: water for irrigation, display and sound; shade trees for shelter; flowers for scent and color; and music to delight the auditory senses. The designs typically included four water channels in the form of a cross, dividing the garden into four quadrants. Usually a pool or small hill with a pavilion was positioned at the intersection of the channels. When Muslim Arabs conquered Persia, Persian designs were readily assimilated into Islamic garden design, since they closely resembled the description of the Koran’s Garden of Paradise. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 10 of 102
  • 11. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert History of Fountains Moorish Design Moorish designs valued water as a resource and made the most of a small quantity of water by channeling it carefully for use in irrigation after its display function was met. The best example of water restraint is the bubble fountain in which basins were designed to be continually overflowing into a secondary channel where the water would then be channeled into a secondary area for alternate uses. The basins, believed to be used as a cooling method for interior courts, was often facetted or carved in a lotus pattern and mounted close to the ground, barely rising above the surface of the surrounding plane. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 11 of 102
  • 12. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert History of Fountains Moorish Design, cont’d… The Mugahals, in the 17th and 18th centuries, created similar gardens where flowers, fruit trees, water, and shade were arranged in unified compositions. The most notable examples are the Taj Mahal Gardens in Agra and the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore. The Mugahal gardens were developed with the expansion of the Arab Empire in Northern India. In areas with large amounts of water, the Mugahal designers were able to make use of water in a way that would appear extravagant to the Arabs who inhabited less generous climates. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 12 of 102
  • 13. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert History of Fountains Moorish Design, cont’d… At Shalamar Baghin Kashmir, at the foot hills of the Himalayas, the Persian tradition of severe water restraint was broken. They created complex gardens and used the ample water source to create pools, streams, and waterfalls. It was here that they invented a form of a waterfall called the “Chadar”, which was built in such a way to maximize the play of sunlight on the water and which was directed to a specific focal point. An Example of a Chadar Waterfall ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 13 of 102
  • 14. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert History of Fountains Chinese/Japanese Designs The water feature in China played two roles: as a landscape feature and to grow water lilies and lotus. In landscape terms, the Chinese used water as we do today, capturing its stillness and reflective quality or utilizing its turbulent nature for waterfalls and fountains. Japanese water gardening is all about creating a picture for contemplation, which brings the landscape of the countryside into the garden in a stylized, reduced form. Pools contain islands and rocky shorelines; cliffs are created with stark rocks that jut from the water. Running water plays an important role, not just in streams and waterfalls, but also through bamboo pipes in an array of configurations to create curves and ripples. In Beijing, China, the Imperial City contained similar elaborate gardens with masterly- placed potted plants, trees, artificial lakes, bridges and pavilions. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 14 of 102
  • 15. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert History of Fountains Chinese/Japanese Designs, cont’d… The gardens of the Orient have had considerable influence on European and North American styles, although the view of what a garden should be, and the whole philosophy of gardens and gardening is completely different. The Japanese and Chinese choose to reflect the natural effect with which water appears. Their designs are created around the theology that the garden is a place of solitude and contemplation, working with water rather than manipulating and overcoming its natural presence. The stone water basin or fountain has had a time-honored place in Japanese gardens for centuries. Stone basin fountains or “chozubachi” (top picture, next slide) originated in ancient shrines and temples for worshipers to wash their hands and rinse their mouths before entering the shrine as an act of purification of the mind and body. The fountains were usually 16" or taller in height. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 15 of 102
  • 16. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert History of Fountains Chinese/Japanese Designs, cont’d… Tea masters later redesigned the fountain bowls for Japanese tea gardens to 12" heights or shorter to create the “tsukubai”, (bottom image). The tsukubai or crouching bowl was designed to humble guest and create the right state of mind before guests joined the tea ceremony. Today, Japanese gardens have both the chozubachi and tsukubai and are fed with Chozubachi water from bamboo spouts called “kakei”. The deer chaser or “shisiodoshi” was originally developed by Japanese farmers to scare deer and boar from crops, but was later used in the gardens as an element of change. As water flows from the bamboo fountain spout, the Shisiodoshi knocking portion fills and spills the water, creating a rhythmic knocking sound as it hits a rock. Tsukubai ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 16 of 102
  • 17. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert History of Fountains Greek and Roman Influences France, in the 17th century, replaced Italy as the primary inspiration of architecture and landscape design. Rooted in Greek and Ancient Rome, symmetrical arrangements were designed to give an impression of limitless grandeur, exemplified by the royal architecture of this period. Grounds where intersected with radial alleys, lined with trees or hedges, and embellished with fountains, pavilions, and statuary. The development of the cascade or downward falling fountains appears to have flourished in the Renaissance gardens of Italy, particularly in Rome, where the water supply was plentiful and the local terrain allowed water to be captured and piped into gravity-fed creations. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 17 of 102
  • 18. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert History of Fountains Greek and Roman Influences, cont’d… Throughout the Roman Imperial period, the civic and cultural leaders of Corinth dignified and decorated their city with public fountains and water displays, systematically laminating new aesthetics and social values over carefully selected themes from the past. Architectural facades bearing the names of mortal benefactors shelter reminders of ancient monuments and statues of ageless deities. Stylized grottoes and flowing water offered domesticated nature as a break from hectic city life. In no other class of landmarks did Roman Corinth articulate her place in the world so clearly and none enjoyed greater fame. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 18 of 102
  • 19. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert History of Fountains Trevi Fountain Trevi fountain, representing affirmation of the water cycle, is an excellent example of a Roman display fountain, probably the world’s best known. A sculpted Oceanus, a mystical protector of the sea and a godfather to the Greek Pantheon, towers in the center, guarding the well or spring of life. His outreached arms point to two winged stallions (one is tame and placid, the other of violent and uncontrolled power) symbolizing the arrival of fresh water. Water is abounding, like that of the earth, and collects in a basin from which jets shoot water into the air simulating the completion of the cycle. Trevi Fountain ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 19 of 102
  • 20. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert History of Fountains Trevi Fountain, cont’d… Carved reliefs above Oceanus’s left shoulder depict the legend of the Virgin water. According to the Legend of Trivia, a virgin spirit named Trivia lead a band of soldiers in 19 B.C. to the source of a secret spring near Salome, a town east of Rome. The waters were believed to have magical powers to rejuvenate youth. The master builder of the times, Marcus Agrippi, ordered the construction of the aqueduct, known as the Aqua Virgo, (Latin for Virgin Water). The aqueduct was eventually hooked up to more than 2,500 taps in Rome. Many drinking fountains were placed in a central plaza close to the government buildings to facilitate people’s good health and fulfillment of their civic duties. The architectural element is tied to the symbolic references of good mind and moral spirit. The Roman empire spread the engineering skills of the Romans across Europe and Roman aqueducts can still be seen in the south of France and Segovia in Spain. At the time of the first Gothic sacking of Rome in 410 A.D., eleven aqueducts were feeding 1,212 public fountains, 11 great imperial thermae, and 926 public baths. Much of the modern water supply of Rome is based on these water engineering feats. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 20 of 102
  • 21. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert History of Fountains Other Famous Fountains Following the completion of the formal gardens at Versailles (1668), the cascade-style water feature and the French Classical garden became popular throughout Europe. The Palazzo Reale, Caserta, near Naples is the most extreme example of the formal cascade, it is nearly 1.9 miles (3 km) long. Versailles Manneken Pis Brussels is a well-known sculpture (made by Jerome Duquesnoy in 1618), of a little boy emitting an arching jet stream. According to 14th-century lore, the lad extinguished a fire and thereby saved the city from destruction. This fountain has been hidden, stolen, captured, and during local festivals, clothed and honored, with wine and beer replacing the water. Manneken Pis Brussels ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 21 of 102
  • 22. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert History of Fountains The Emperor Fountain at Chatsworth Interest in classical antiquity came to England, influenced by France. The enclosed medieval garden was eventually replaced by the Renaissance pleasure garden which was very much a formal garden, although the term “formal” was not adopted until the end of the 19th century. The principles of these enormous features are just as relevant when the concept is translated Cascades at Chatsworth to a small suburban plot. The gardens at Cascades at Chatsworth in Derbyshire, have evolved since the 16th century under the directions of the descendants of Bess of Hardwick who had built the original house and gardens. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 22 of 102
  • 23. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert History of Fountains The Emperor Fountain at Chatsworth, cont’d… The Emperor Fountain at Chatsworth was built for the first duke and finished in 1996, however, it was rebuilt only five years later on a grander scale. Water flows over varying numbers and widths of paving stones to create 24 groups of grand cascades. Each group has it’s own unique sound and aesthetic. Another distinctive design of Chatsworth is the cascade house and its watery forecourt Emperor Fountain at Chatsworth containing a series of fountains and jets from which the cascade is fed. Even the dome of the house can be turned into a waterfall and the interior is pierced with holes to soak the surprised visitor. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 23 of 102
  • 24. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert History of Fountains Modern Water Features Weather you have a fondness for formal, traditional fountains, for stylized natural stream and waterfalls, or for polished granite spheres floating on low pressure jets, the challenge for the water feature designer today is to sift through all the data. This involves such things as the client’s desires, the existing site conditions, the connection of the installation, architectural references, operational requirements and so forth in order to bring to light those elements that will make your water feature both beautiful and meaningful. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 24 of 102
  • 25. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert History of Fountains Modern Water Features, cont’d… The largest impact to the modern design water features is that of system integration and new technological advances. Many water features have evolved into sophisticated water displays with sequencing devices and LED RGB lighting. Additional audio components and an enhanced understanding of programmable water effects has lead to the development of choreographed water features, with their own unique characteristics and personalities. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 25 of 102
  • 26. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 26 of 102
  • 27. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Introduction The intent here is to present an overview of the basics and fundamentals of design theory as related to water features. These fundamentals are: context, line/form, materials, textures, light/color, motion/movement, sound, wind and concealed components. To begin, water is both simple and complicated. The simplicity of a silent and reflective lake or pool is undeniable; however, when water moves, complex interactions and forces, displacements, and energies control its dynamics. Two forces that modify the horizontal surface of water are: • Adhesion (the attraction of water molecules and other materials) and • Cohesion (the attraction of water molecules to one another). The key to designing a successful and captivating water feature is to direct the way water moves, without losing control of the water or ruining the aesthetic with poor execution. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 27 of 102
  • 28. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Design Guidelines – Traditional Pools Traditional pools - water effect height to offset distance ration 1:1 ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 28 of 102
  • 29. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Design Guidelines – Elevated Water Tables Elevated water tables - water effect height to offset distance ration 1:1.5 ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 29 of 102
  • 30. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Aesthetic Factors A designer usually incorporates water into a space as a visual element. The aesthetic qualities of water, however, reach far beyond the visual aspect due to the documented psychological effects of water and as a physical factor providing sound and climatic modification. The sound of water and the coolness associated with being near or touching water are equally part of our emotional response to water in our environment. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 30 of 102
  • 31. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Visual Impact Water can function as a focal point within a space or as a means of creating and maintaining a sense of continuity. A water display can strongly temper the character of a space. A sense of calm and serenity is created by a quiet stream or pool, while excitement and drama can be achieved by swiftly moving, densely massed, or strong vertical displays. The level of formality will be influenced by the forms of the pools and displays, and the mood further defined or reinforced by appropriate lighting. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 31 of 102
  • 32. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Context Every water feature has elements of context that must be considered during the design process. Contextual factors can be categorized as either aesthetic or safety related. Think about the surrounding architectural and landscape forms: Is there an opportunity to incorporate or use related design forms within the water feature composition? Would it be advantageous to consider using the same or similar materials, finishes, or textures for this water feature? If lighting is to be incorporated, consider the existing or proposed ambient light sources. A good water lighting scheme may end up being overwhelmed by the surrounding sources of ambient light. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 32 of 102
  • 33. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Context, cont’d… Psychological Impact It is an essential aspect of human behavior to be drawn toward a riverbank, lake edge, or seashore. We either live near water or convey it to where we live, using canals or pipelines. Our food supply, likewise, depends upon water for growth and sustenance. Auditory Impact The intensity and frequency of the sound generated by a water display can be used to convey a sense of calm or excitement, and can also mask unpleasant or distracting ambient noise. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 33 of 102
  • 34. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Context, cont’d… Sensory Impact Airborne spray and evaporation from water displays cause a cooling effect; droplets and sprays from active, aerated displays are particularly effective. The Middle East fountains perfected this design by creating small openings in the walls that surrounded courtyards and garden enclosures. Prevailing winds would be concentrated and directed towards the fountains, which were placed in line with the interior courtyards or buildings. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 34 of 102
  • 35. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Safety Context Consideration of safety contextual factors includes thinking about how the feature will be utilized both during the day and in the evening. Determine if there are safety issues that may restrict or have serious implications on the water feature design. Interactive water features, in particular, have unique spatial, water velocity, and water treatment considerations. These considerations may result in limitations on the type of water effects, operational heights, and dynamics designed into a feature. Also, consider if there are any splash issues related to the areas surrounding the feature. Adjacent plantings or public walking areas may mean that splash will not be tolerated due to liability concerns. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 35 of 102
  • 36. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Line Line is used to define a space as well as convey distance, establish perspective, and express emotion. Line gives direction and movement to the eye as it carries the eye along its route. This eye movement prompts emotional and psychological responses. For example, vertical lines can be perceived as severe and emphatic while horizontal lines can be perceived as pleasant and satisfying. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 36 of 102
  • 37. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Form Since water is a liquid with no apparent shape unto itself, its form is determined by the characteristics and qualities of its container/context. As a result, the same volume of water can have an infinite number of characteristics depending on such factors as the play of light, materials, textures, color and motion. Form has a mass and volume within a space and has degrees of symmetry and irregularity. The more striking, unusual or contrasting a form is from its surroundings, the stronger the visual attraction. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 37 of 102
  • 38. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Form, cont’d… As with all design, consider form and line as it relates to the design of any water feature. Also, think about adding decorative line to supporting elements and material details within the water feature. For instance, decorative grates are a creative way to reflect surrounding design elements and can enhance the viewer’s experience. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 38 of 102
  • 39. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Materials Materials and their accompanying textures help to enrich the visual quality of a water feature. Texture comes from the size and shape of the surface material that the water runs over. Textural qualities can be identified as light or heavy, thin or dense, rough or smooth. Smooth textures can be pleasant to touch, highly reflective, and complimentary to surrounding forms. Selecting the correct water feature materials can go a long way to conveying the right aesthetic for a particular space. A variety of materials can be applied to water feature designs including glass, stainless steel, and stone. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 39 of 102
  • 40. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Materials - Glass The transparency, translucency, and reflectivity of glass make it a rather unique material to use in a water feature. These characteristics can result in some spectacular outcomes and effects. Glass provides design versatility. It can be utilized as castings or panels in a variety of design options: frosted or textured, transparent or translucent, clear crystalline or colored. Textures can be added internally or externally and with the addition of light, these effects can be further enhanced. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 40 of 102
  • 41. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Materials – Glass, cont’d… Water is expressed differently depending on the type of glass and lighting that is utilized. Textured glass can help aerate and enhance the water flow over it. Water that flows over a smooth glass texture can be almost undetectable, depending on the lighting conditions. Textured Glass Can Enhance Water Flow Water Flowing Over Smooth Glass is Barely Discernible ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 41 of 102
  • 42. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Materials - Stainless Steel Because of its corrosion and oxidation resistance, strength, and reflective properties, stainless steel is often the metal of choice to use in commercial water features. It is important to carefully select the appropriate grade for particular applications as corrosion can result under certain conditions. Stainless steel can be effectively used in waterwall features and offers versatility as both a practical and decorative element for a variety of water displays. As a practical element, stainless steel panels can help to hide undesirable mechanical components. It can also be sculpted and used as a decorative element. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 42 of 102
  • 43. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Materials - Stone Natural stone has long been used in water features. There are many colors, textures and forms of stone that can be utilized, depending on the design style. Naturalistic designs may use less refined forms of stone while contemporary designs may incorporate a more refined stone finish with high reflectivity, such as dark river-washed stones. A stone’s porosity can also be a significant consideration especially when designing water walls. A porous stone may actually allow water to migrate along surrounding walls and run into places where water is not intended to be. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 43 of 102
  • 44. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Materials – Stone, cont’d… The lack of uniformity with stone may also be considered its greatest asset. A variety of textures allow for a range of water effects, from the aerated effects created when using split-faced stone within cascades, to the smooth and calming effects created with laminar flows over smooth-finished stones. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 44 of 102
  • 45. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Color Pure water is colorless and thus relies on its surroundings/context to transfer color. Light and color have strong influences on the resultant mood that a water feature conveys. Colors can soothe and evoke a sense of calmness or they can arouse and promote a sense of thrill and drama. There are two primary sources of color that should be considered when designing a water feature: 1) color that originates from the finished material pigments, and 2) color that is derived from lighting effects. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 45 of 102
  • 46. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Color - Material Various colored materials can have different impacts on a water feature’s overall character. Darker colored materials tend to showcase and enhance both active and inactive water effects. For instance, aerated water and the associated shimmering effects stands out more when run over darker surfaces. Inactive water, such as that of a reflecting pool, is most reflective over darker pool finishes. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 46 of 102
  • 47. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Color - Lighting Effects Lighting can have a very dramatic effect on almost any water feature. Evening viewing for both interior and exterior applications is dependant upon effective lighting techniques. White, submersible, incandescent halogen lighting is particularly effective at evoking an elegant character. Alternatively, color- changing, submersible LED lighting can project a very dramatic and eye-catching show. The position of light sources (in front, behind, within, and externally) also has an impact on the water’s visual character and overall aesthetic. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 47 of 102
  • 48. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Motion - Static Water can be classified into two general categories according to its motion: static (still) or dynamic (moving). Static water can be found in pools, ponds, and gently flowing channels and streams. Deemed visually placid, static water expresses a balance and equilibrium with the force of gravity. Consider the visual power of a static water display, especially when juxtaposed within a dynamic environment such as an urban core. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 48 of 102
  • 49. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Motion - Dynamic Energetic and emotionally stimulating, dynamic water is derived from moving, flowing, or falling water techniques. It easily captures the attention of the eye and is often used as a focal point within a designed space. Water movement can be influenced by the steepness of the slope, the introduction of obstructions, the depth and width of the pool or channel, and prevailing material textures. Highly textured surfaces can slow water flow and increase turbulence. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 49 of 102
  • 50. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Motion - Dynamic, cont’d… Because of its fluid state, a given volume of water expands outward until it is stopped and contained; hence, the characteristics of water flow are a result of the container it is in. For instance, the same volume of water can be rather placid in a wide container, but be quite turbulent when funneled through a narrower channel because of the increased resistance. Higher rates of movement are related to increased visual and sound characteristics. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 50 of 102
  • 51. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Sound A major characteristic of water is the ability to emit sound when it is in motion or strikes a surface. Depending on the amount of movement and volume of water involved, numerous sounds can be produced that complement and enhance the spatial experience. The sounds of water can be manipulated to produce trickles, dribbles, bubbles, gurgles, roars, gushes, and splashes. Attention to the audible aspects of water is very important; too little can be irritating (i.e. a dripping faucet); too much, especially in confined spaces, can be considered overpowering. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 51 of 102
  • 52. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Sound, cont’d… The neutralizing characteristics of water sound can also be a significant tool. For example, creating “white noise” can effectively temper external noise pollution. Conversely, the absence or near absence of water sounds can also be perceived as a source of emotional tranquility, as with a reflecting pool or a laminar water flow. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 52 of 102
  • 53. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Wind Wind can have a major impact on the character of water and water effects. As an aesthetic element, the interplay of wind and a water surface can create interesting variations within the same water feature. Prevailing winds should be considered when designing any exterior water feature. For instance, if a traditional water fountain pool is being located between two buildings where a wind tunnel effect is likely present, consider limiting the maximum height of the water jets to a value less than 1:1 (i.e., the maximum height of the vertical water jet is set to less than the distance it is from the pool wall). Wind sensors can also be used to regulate jet heights automatically. The splash that can result from sweeping winds can be especially problematic in public spaces where public safety is very critical. Additionally, in desert environments, sand, moved by wind into a water feature, may have certain unfavorable mechanical implications. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 53 of 102
  • 54. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Concealed Components The success of any water feature design is not only dependent upon implementation of basic design principals, it also hinges upon how the execution is carried out. In other words, has the detailed design of the various mechanical and electrical components incorporated low-impact solutions? The various techniques that can help to minimize the impact of these components will be discussed in the following slides. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 54 of 102
  • 55. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Suspended Paver Slabs Mechanical and electrical components can be concealed with the use of suspended paver slabs. A pedestal system and/or stainless steel framework which allows water to flow between each paver, typically supports these slabs. Penetrations are made to allow water jets and lights to be incorporated (lights are often hung off of the slabs). All equipment can be serviced by simply removing the suspended pavers. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 55 of 102
  • 56. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Types of Concealed Components Decorative Drain Plates: Submerged Water Jets – A deck level drain plate can be Sequencing Device: fabricated to have decorative grille Incorporating water jets that can be designs. submerged minimizes the impact of hardware during non-active periods. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 56 of 102
  • 57. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Water Feature Design Principles Types of Concealed Components, cont’d… Niche/Recessed Light Fixtures: Whenever possible, ensure that light fixtures are concealed with a recessed fixture or behind some sort of shroud. Suspended FRP Grating: Similar to suspended paver slabs, suspended FRP grating is an open grid of fiber-reinforced plastic from which lights can be hung and water jets can penetrate (refer to left image). A river-washed stone is usually applied over the grating to conceal all of the components below. Maintenance and wash-down is easily performed with this type of system. Decorative Diffusion Plates: A fountain pool that is clad with stone can also have the diffusion/inlet plate constructed of the same material. This allows for the pool bottom to be virtually uninterrupted (see examples below). Suspended FRP Grating Examples of Decorative Diffusion Plates ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 57 of 102
  • 58. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Types of Water Features ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 58 of 102
  • 59. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Types of Water Features Introduction In nature, water moves through the environment in an endless variety of ways. In response, water feature manufacturers offer a multitude of products with diverse water movement techniques that are available to designers. In this section of the presentation, we will introduce the characteristics of architectural styles of water features. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 59 of 102
  • 60. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Types of Water Features Traditional Fountains and Geysers A traditional water feature is one composed of a pool with a freeboard and one or several water effects within. The size and shape of the fountain can vary tremendously. Often used as a focal point, it can also be used to divide space or interrupt a vista, encouraging the visitor to pause before moving on. Alternatively, a single jet or geyser can be incorporated to offset and balance another garden or architectural feature nearby. Whether using single or multiple patterned fountain sprays, always consider combining it with light. Few features can compare with a pool in which a fountain is illuminated at night. Also, contemplate the possibility of incorporating programmed music. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 60 of 102
  • 61. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Types of Water Features Waterwalls A waterwall combines an elevated water source (usually a trough) with a level and consistent overflow edge. It is especially important that the leading edge or lip of the overflow coping allows for even, clean water movement. A weir strip is often incorporated to allow for leveling adjustments, as required. A projected coping or weir cape usually requires a drip channel be cut into its underside to prevent the water from running back under the weir coping. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 61 of 102
  • 62. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Types of Water Features Waterwalls, cont’d… Recessed reglets or channels are typically located at each end of the waterwall to prevent water tracking over the adjacent surfaces. Waterwall materials can vary. Common materials include stone, glass, and stainless steel and can take many forms such as shingled or shiplapped. Each material and material configuration can create different effects from clear stream flow to highly aerated flows. Uplighting a waterwall feature can help to create a far more dynamic and ever-changing appearance. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 62 of 102
  • 63. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Types of Water Features Cascades The look of water as it tumbles over a cascade or the patterns it creates as it sheets over granite-faced steps can be very compelling. The stepped dimensions, finishes, types of materials, and designed water flows used for a cascade all greatly influence the final effect (center image illustrates the variations of cascade design). Consider using non-traditional materials such as glass to create a truly unique cascade effect. Spectacular results can be achieved by combining both internal and front uplighting on a glass cascade water feature. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 63 of 102
  • 64. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Types of Water Features Waterfalls Since contemporary waterfall features generally consist of freefalling water flows, it’s important to consider the volume of water that is intended to flow over the top edge. As with any vertical water feature, different water flows can have dramatically varying characteristics. Think about using different types of freefall such as laminar flow (top photo) and divided/compartmentalized flow (bottom photo). Varied heights can also have a significant impact on the water effect and on the potential splash issues that may result at the bottom of a vertical feature. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 64 of 102
  • 65. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Types of Water Features Comb Weirs and Ejector Jets When splash constraints and a more consistent flow control is desired, a comb weir or ejector jet system may provide the solution. These two devices create individual spouts through a weir or series of NEA nozzles placed on a supply manifold. These effects require less water and are ideal when a reduced reservoir or water source is required. The overall water effect will fall in a more controlled means and provides a continuous broken sheet. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 65 of 102
  • 66. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Types of Water Features Spouts Traditional spouts have been used to create large vertical drops with low volumes of water. Usually complemented with an architectural facade or plaque, these effects create a sense of source for large bodies of water. Large hedge row effects can be used to suppress much of the splash of large elevation drops. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 66 of 102
  • 67. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Types of Water Features Water Curtains Water curtains are a type of waterfall consisting of individual strands or beads of water that run down a series of laces of mylar or stainless steel. These water droplets can fall from great heights in slow motion, quietly, and without splash. The laces can be installed up to 20 degrees from vertical without compromising the effect of the water curtain. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 67 of 102
  • 68. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Types of Water Features Schematic of a Water Curtain ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 68 of 102
  • 69. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Types of Water Features Uphill Waterfalls Technically, an uphill water display is not considered a vertical water feature, although the water appears to flow downwards. An uphill water display is simply a row of closely positioned aerating jets that are individually valved and properly pressurized to shoot water up a slanting base. So spectators don’t actually see the jets finish their trajectory, the water is collected at the top at a mock weir, which consists of a cap overhanging the spray and a shallow hidden cavity for the water to fall into. The most interesting aspect of this feature results from deflected water that runs back down the incline to create a near herringbone effect in combination with the uphill flow. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 69 of 102
  • 70. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Types of Water Features Channels - Rills Channels have long been used as devices to harness the power and beauty of water. These types of water features lead the eye in a given direction and form a physical link between separate areas of water. The two types of channels are known as rills and canals. Rills are narrow (maximum 12" wide) and act to visually compress the water, creating a feeling of tension between one larger area of water to another. Rills are most effective when they cover a longer distance and have no vegetation nearby competing for visual attention. Rill ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 70 of 102
  • 71. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Types of Water Features Channels - Canals Canals are similar to rills only on a larger scale with greater width and length and, as a result, aquatic plantings can be incorporated into the design. Considered a formal feature, a canal moves substantial amounts of water from one larger body of water to another and usually has a highly reflective surface. Canal Factors of channel design that affect the velocity and turbulence of the stream are presented on the next few slides. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 71 of 102
  • 72. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Types of Water Features Turbulent Stream/Channel Design As the stream cross section decreases, the velocity of any given volume will increase in direct proportion. As the slope increases, the velocity of the stream increases As the stream changes direction, the and the water depth decreases. outer edge water flow speeds up and turbulence increases. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 72 of 102
  • 73. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Types of Water Features Turbulent Stream/Channel Design, cont’d… A heavy texture on the bottom and/or As the stream encounters obstructions, side of the channel, particularly in directional changes and increased conjunction with high velocity, will velocity cause surface turbulence. cause substantial turbulence. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 73 of 102
  • 74. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Types of Water Features Vanishing Edge/Reflecting Pools The vanishing edge or infinity edge pool is an ideal solution for contemporary applications. With a clean and simple character, a vanishing edge pool redirects the focus of the water feature from the water container to the water itself. Providing there are no other water effects within the pool, the surface of a vanishing edge pool is highly reflective and can complement the surrounding environment. Vanishing edge pools are used to creating a sense of serenity or mystery. Usually a vanishing edge pool takes the form of an overflow weir with a laminar flow of clear water streaming into a collection trough. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 74 of 102
  • 75. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Types of Water Features Elevated Water Tables New trends in the architectural world have led to the development of a water feature type called an “elevated water table”. Consisting of a water body that has been elevated to or above the pool wall, this water feature gives the water more presence and increases the overall site lines. It also provides a structure where mechanical and electrical trenches can be built which will conceal the components, without penetrating the slab. This is an excellent water feature type for existing developments and renovations. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 75 of 102
  • 76. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Types of Water Features Schematic of an Elevated Water Table ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 76 of 102
  • 77. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Types of Water Features Elevated Water Table With Zero Edge Pool Much like an elevated water table in a traditional pool, zero edge water tables allow the viewers to interact with a water skin that descends the vertical wall of the structure. Special attention to detail is required for the collection trough and surface treatment throughout the area as water can be tracked away from the pool. This too provides a structure where mechanical and electrical trenches can be built which will conceal the components, with minimum penetration of the slab. It is an excellent water feature type for existing developments and renovations. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 77 of 102
  • 78. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Types of Water Features Vortex Water Effect The vortex is a natural occurring effect that can be mimicked within a pool. It is created by large volumes of water being pushed around a funnel structure generated by the interior pool surface. A large drain line is required. The effect can be dramatically increased by including a variable frequency drive where the overall water volume can be controlled from a small water skin to a large turning vortex that can overcome the structural elements of the water surface and effect the entire pool. Additional effects that may increase the aesthetic impact can include a large vertical column within the “black hole” and LED lights that can be programmed to turn in an alternative direction of the swirling water. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 78 of 102
  • 79. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Types of Water Features Water Void Effect An aesthetic that nominally appears within a reflecting pool or water body is known as a water void effect. A distinctive shape appears within the water surface as a structural void is slowly drained. Numerous shapes and configurations can be used to emphasize trends or iconic symbols in the surrounding architecture. The interior surface can match the pool structure and should be uplit to provide optimal effect during night-time viewing. Multiple voids and LED lighting can create a subtle sequence effect. This type of feature is ideally suited for elevated site lines and provides a unique viewing experience from multiple angles. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 79 of 102
  • 80. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Sequenced Solutions ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 80 of 102
  • 81. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Sequenced Solutions Introduction Adding sequencing devices to a fountain can result in a very versatile and visually dynamic design feature. Water character can take the form of a highly choreographed and elegant fountain that is intended to complement the surrounding architectural forms and hardscape. It can also be designed to form the heart of a children’s interactive feature with both random and rhythmic bursts. The basic considerations when incorporating sequenced elements within a water feature will be discussed in this next section. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 81 of 102
  • 82. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Sequenced Solutions Considerations Operating Heights: Decide if the feature is to be used strictly as a showpiece, as an interactive piece, or as a dual-use element. Always be mindful of safe operating heights when designing interactive water features as excessive water flows can lead to serious user injuries. Sequencing Speeds: Like music, water effects can be choreographed to various speeds and rhythms. The desired mood, style, and character of a particular application will dictate which speeds are appropriate. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 82 of 102
  • 83. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Sequenced Solutions Considerations, cont’d… Music: Sequenced water effects can be further enhanced with the integration of music, although the element of music usually adds considerable complexity and costs to a choreographed water feature. Music added to a large exterior applications has the additional challenge of having to consider time delays to ensure the water and sound effects are synchronized. Lighting: Adding lighting effects, especially color changing light effects, adds yet another dimension to a water feature. Lighting is generally a crucial element for commercial applications. Quantity and Types of Water Jets: Many jet effects can be utilized to create a sequenced solution. The right water effect positioned at the correct spacing and overall configuration can enhance the types of sequencing that can be used. For example, a circular configuration with a minimum quantity of jets allows for such dynamic sequences as the “tilting plate”. Types of sequencing solutions include: the sequencing device, the electric leaper, the fog column nozzle, and the burst jet. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 83 of 102
  • 84. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Sequenced Solutions Sequencing Devices Sequencing devices can be activated at 0.1 second intervals to create unique water patterns and sequences. Grouped together or used in circular patterns, the sequencing device can also produce interference patterns, so water is falling back down to the source as newly released water bursts through. Individual effects called “slugs”, “balls”, “roman candles” and “popcorn” can be combined together with an audio component to create a choreographed show. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 84 of 102
  • 85. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Sequenced Solutions Sequencing Devices, cont’d… At right is an example of the data of a sequencing nozzle that is typically supplied by a fountain manufacturer listing its function, specifications, options, any special notes, and performance. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 85 of 102
  • 86. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Sequenced Solutions Electrical Leaper A leaper device can be activated at 0.1 second intervals and is used to create dynamic jumping and leaping water rod effects. It is a unique product because once the water is out of the projectile, it still follows the parabolic curve of the normal operation. Leaper jets may be used singularly or in groups, in various layouts and cross-over patterns to achieve exciting visual experiences. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 86 of 102
  • 87. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Sequenced Solutions Electrical Leaper, cont’d… At right is an example of the data of an electrical leaper that is typically supplied by a fountain manufacturer listing its function, specifications, any special notes, and performance. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 87 of 102
  • 88. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Sequenced Solutions Fog Column Nozzle Sequencing fog effects can add a dramatic quality to a water feature display. Fog effects create mystery and also provide a blanket effect for other sequencing device to emerge from. Variations in both air and water pressure can tailor the aesthetic from a low, wide bushy effect to a tall fog column and is particularly beautiful at night when illuminated. Sensitive to wind and humidity, these effects are best utilized in children’s interactive features and large water bodies. Each system requires a fresh water source and a pneumatic system to drive the device. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 88 of 102
  • 89. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Sequenced Solutions Fog Column Nozzle, cont’d… At right is an example of the data of a fog column nozzle that is typically supplied by a fountain manufacturer listing its function, specifications, options, any special notes, and performance. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 89 of 102
  • 90. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Sequenced Solutions Burst Jet A burst jet creates a large vertical effect that is programmed to erupt to heights of 75 feet and can be captured in a pool approximately 25 feet wide (interior conditions only). As a key focal point, it is designed to create a sense of scale and drives attention to the space. If offers outstanding effects for multiple site lines and levels with open atriums. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 90 of 102
  • 91. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Sequenced Solutions Burst Jet, cont’d… At right is an example of the data of a burst jet that is typically supplied by a fountain manufacturer listing its function, specification, options, any special notes, and performance. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 91 of 102
  • 92. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Sequenced Solutions LED Lights LED lighting has altered our ideas about the function of light and how it can be applied. LED lighting is now used in a wide range of applications around the world: illuminating the exteriors of office buildings; the interiors of retail stores and residences; providing entertaining lighting effects for hospitality venues; and supplying versatile, high- performance lighting for television and stage sets. In water features, LED lighting solutions can be used in stand-alone or choreographed applications and are becoming increasingly popular in commercial, residential, and municipal installations. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 92 of 102
  • 93. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Sequenced Solutions LED Lights, cont’d… At right is an example of the data of LED lights that is typically supplied by a fountain manufacturer listing the specifications for a variety of LED light models. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 93 of 102
  • 94. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Sequenced Solutions Dry Deck Interactive Water Features Dry deck or dry plaza water features are relatively new and have evolved out of the development of sequencing devices. The entire mechanical and electrical systems are concealed below a deck structure. A reservoir structure can be built below the suspended deck system which can also collect much of the water generated by the sequencing nozzle effects. Dry deck structures require a reservoir with a minimum of 4000 gallons of water with a ½ turn-over rate for the entire water volume. Best-practice design calls for a maximum of 20 feet per second or approximately 7 feet of water height. Special attention to paver loads and the support structure is required to create a safe and easily accessible equipment pit. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 94 of 102
  • 95. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Sequenced Solutions Schematic of a Dry Deck Water Feature ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 95 of 102
  • 96. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Sequenced Solutions Slab Hung Sequencing Device with Lights When designing a dry deck interactive water feature that incorporates a slab hung sequencing device with lights, allow 10 feet for an additional run-out area with secondary area drains that will collect any water that is tracked out of the pool area. A poured, non-slip finished material should be utilized for the run-out area. Chase sequences and unique patterns can be created using different lines and shapes. Intersection of lines and shapes also allows for alternate paths and interference patterns. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 96 of 102
  • 97. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Sequenced Solutions Slab Hung Sequencing Device with Lights, cont’d… At right is an example of the data of a slab hung sequencing device with lights that is typically supplied by a fountain manufacturer listing its function, specifications, and options. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 97 of 102
  • 98. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Sequenced Solutions Application Test Hydraulic testing is used to determine the feasibility and design criteria for prototypical effects and/or to fine tune such items as weir configuration, splash containment, textured water walls, or effect development. Tests may be conducted by the designer to determine a system design or verify a material effect. Generally, tests must be conducted at full scale, since hydraulic factors such as surface tension may be constant or vary in a non-linear fashion. For most testing — a single spout, a short length of weir (5 feet), or a small area of water wall surface is adequate. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 98 of 102
  • 99. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Sequenced Solutions Application Test, cont’d… The construction of the test assembly, the variables to be evaluated, and the performance criteria should be carefully specified prior to testing in order that each item, such as weir profiles, surface textures, water wall joints, drip notches, pool depths, splash patterns, and jet heights can be evaluated as fully as possible. Where appropriate, two or three variations of each critical item should be tested. Please remember the exam password FLOW. You will be required to enter it in order to proceed with the online examination. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 99 of 102
  • 100. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Summary ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 100 of 102
  • 101. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Summary Important Points In summary, we discussed: • The history of fountains beginning with the four principle functions of the fountain in early civilization through to modern day while describing the characteristics of Persian, Moorish, Asian, and European design influences. • Water feature design principles including context, form, line, materials, color/light, motion, sound, wind, and concealed components • The types and characteristics of the different types of water features including traditional fountains, geysers, waterwalls, cascades, waterfalls, comb weirs, spouts, water curtains, channels, vanishing edge/reflecting pools, elevated water tables, and vertical water features. • The factors to consider when incorporating sequenced solutions for traditional and dry deck interactive water features such as operating heights, sequencing speeds, music, lighting, quantity and types of water jets. ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 101 of 102
  • 102. • About the Instructor • About the Sponsor • Ask an Expert Conclusion of This Program If you desire AIA/CES, CSI and/or state licensing continuing education credits, please click on the button below to commence your online examination. Upon successful (80% or better) completion of the exam, please print your Certificate of Completion. For additional knowledge and post-seminar assistance, please visit the Ask an Expert forum (click on the link above and ©2007 Crystal Fountains. The material contained in this course was researched, bookmark it in your browser). assembled, and produced by Crystal Fountains and remains their property. Questions or concerns about this course If you have colleagues that might benefit from this seminar, should be directed to the instructor. please let them know. Feel free to revisit the AEC Daily web site to download additional programs from the Online Learning Center. Click Here To Take The Test Exit powered by ©2007 • Table of Contents Slide 102 of 102