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Unit 3 Revision
a of
Are

Tuesday, 22 October 2013

dy 2
Stu

Memory
Tuesday, 22 October 2013
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Key Concepts

Tuesday, 22 October 2013
Key Concepts
Mechanics of Memory Formation

Tuesday, 22 October 2013
Key Concepts
Mechanics of Memory Formation
Models of Memory

Tuesday, 22 October 2013
Key Concepts
Mechanics of Memory Formation
Models of Memory
Theories of Forgetting

Tuesday, 22 October 2013
Key Concepts
Mechanics of Memory Formation
Models of Memory
Theories of Forgetting

Manipulation and Improvement of Memory...
Question 1
Sam is able to retain the vocabulary he learned in
his French class long after the class has ended. The
main me...
Suggested Solution
Sam is able to retain the vocabulary he learned in
his French class long after the class has ended. The...
Question 2

What is the difference between encoding of
information and retrieval of information in
memory?
(2 marks)

Tues...
Suggested Solution
Encoding involves converting or
transforming information into a
meaningful form or code for storage
[1m...
Question 3
The component of the neuron called the _________
receives information from the _________ and
sends it to the __...
Suggested Solution
The component of the neuron called the _________
receives information from the _________ and
sends it t...
Question 4

What are two roles of the neuron in memory
formation?
(2 marks)

Tuesday, 22 October 2013
Suggested Solution
Roles include:
*release more neurotransmitter e.g. glutamate
*strengthen connections within the network...
Question 5
David, a 23-year-old university student,
suffered from a brain injury and sustained
damage to his amygdala. Dav...
Suggested Solution
David, a 23-year-old university student,
suffered from a brain injury and sustained
damage to his amygd...
Question 6
Nina had a long conversation over the phone with
her friend. When she finished, Nina tripped and fell
heavily. ...
Suggested Solution
Consolidation theory proposes that:
¥ physical changes to the neurons in the brain occur after learning...
Question 7
Harry is a healthy 70-year-old man who has no brain disease or injury.
Choose the statement that most probably ...
Suggested Solution
Harry is a healthy 70-year-old man who has no brain disease or injury.
Choose the statement that most p...
Question 8
Sam was involved in a car accident in which he hit
his head. As a result he was unable to remember
anything abo...
Suggested Solution
Sam was involved in a car accident in which he hit
his head. As a result he was unable to remember
anyt...
Question 9

Name one psychological and one physiological symptom of
Alzheimer's disease.
(2 marks)

Tuesday, 22 October 20...
Suggested Solution

Psychological: apathy, depression, anxiety, agitation, aggressive
behaviour, delusions, hallucinations...
Question 10
Describe the relationship between sensory
memory, short-term memory and long-term
memory when learning new inf...
Suggested Solution
Sensory memory — unlimited capacity; duration — a
fraction of a second to a few seconds
Short-term memo...
Question 11

The memory system that stores information about personal events
and general knowledge is the
A. episodic syst...
Suggested Solution
The memory system that stores information about personal events and
general knowledge is the
A. episodi...
Question 12
Celia works in a busy hot bread shop that has a broken cash register. Celia
needs to use mental arithmetic to ...
Suggested Solution
Celia works in a busy hot bread shop that has a broken cash register. Celia
needs to use mental arithme...
Questiona part-time job in a plant nursery.
13
Marcus has just started
On his first day, he was given a list of 20 common ...
Suggested Solution
Marcus has just started a part-time job in a plant nursery.
On his first day, he was given a list of 20...
Question 14
Frank was concerned about remembering, in the correct order, all the items he
had to discuss during his work p...
Suggested Solution
Frank was concerned about remembering, in the correct order, all the items he
had to discuss during his...
Question 15
A school principal wanted to work out which two languages should be taught at her school. The
school already t...
Suggested Solution
a. Group A: retroactive interference — when new information inhibits retrieval of previously learnt
mat...
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Transcript of "U3 ao s 2 memory revision 2013"

  1. 1. Unit 3 Revision a of Are Tuesday, 22 October 2013 dy 2 Stu Memory
  2. 2. Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  3. 3. onati form e in es, v ceiv acti t re an tha y is m or vers em yste s reco M and ssing oce ores pr s, st tion nise rma rga o info Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  4. 4. Key Concepts Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  5. 5. Key Concepts Mechanics of Memory Formation Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  6. 6. Key Concepts Mechanics of Memory Formation Models of Memory Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  7. 7. Key Concepts Mechanics of Memory Formation Models of Memory Theories of Forgetting Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  8. 8. Key Concepts Mechanics of Memory Formation Models of Memory Theories of Forgetting Manipulation and Improvement of Memory Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  9. 9. Question 1 Sam is able to retain the vocabulary he learned in his French class long after the class has ended. The main memory process that accounts for the fact that Sam can hold information in his memory for extended periods of time is A.Encoding B. Retrieval C. Chunking D.Storage Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  10. 10. Suggested Solution Sam is able to retain the vocabulary he learned in his French class long after the class has ended. The main memory process that accounts for the fact that Sam can hold information in his memory for extended periods of time is A.Encoding B. Retrieval C. Chunking D.Storage Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  11. 11. Question 2 What is the difference between encoding of information and retrieval of information in memory? (2 marks) Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  12. 12. Suggested Solution Encoding involves converting or transforming information into a meaningful form or code for storage [1mark], whereas retrieval is the recovery or accessing of information or memories from storage. [1 mark] Award 1 mark each for describing encoding and retrieval. Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  13. 13. Question 3 The component of the neuron called the _________ receives information from the _________ and sends it to the _________. A. soma; dendrite; axon B. dendrite; soma; axon C. soma; axon; dendrite D. axon; dendrite; soma Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  14. 14. Suggested Solution The component of the neuron called the _________ receives information from the _________ and sends it to the _________. A. soma; dendrite; axon B. dendrite; soma; axon C. soma; axon; dendrite D. axon; dendrite; soma Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  15. 15. Question 4 What are two roles of the neuron in memory formation? (2 marks) Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  16. 16. Suggested Solution Roles include: *release more neurotransmitter e.g. glutamate *strengthen connections within the network forming the memory e.g. growth of dendritic spines, synaptic formation * LTP Award 1 mark for each of two relevant roles. Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  17. 17. Question 5 David, a 23-year-old university student, suffered from a brain injury and sustained damage to his amygdala. David is most likely to experience difficulty with A. implicit memory. B. explicit memory. C. semantic memory. D. sensory memory. Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  18. 18. Suggested Solution David, a 23-year-old university student, suffered from a brain injury and sustained damage to his amygdala. David is most likely to experience difficulty with A. implicit memory. B. explicit memory. C. semantic memory. D. sensory memory. Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  19. 19. Question 6 Nina had a long conversation over the phone with her friend. When she finished, Nina tripped and fell heavily. She was knocked unconscious and ended up in hospital. According to the consolidation theory, Nina would not be expected to remember the telephone conversation when she regained consciousness. Why? (2 marks) Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  20. 20. Suggested Solution Consolidation theory proposes that: ¥ physical changes to the neurons in the brain occur after learning, as the new information consolidates in memory ¥ if the memory is disrupted during the consolidation phase, the information may be lost before a long-term memory is formed ¥ the material being remembered is vulnerable to disruption for at least 30 minutes. Thus, Nina is likely to forget what occurred in the conversation as consolidation will not have taken place. Award 1 mark for explaining that the memory has been disrupted by Nina being knocked unconscious. Award 1 mark for explaining that disruption of a memory during the consolidation phase will mean that the long-term memory is not formed. Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  21. 21. Question 7 Harry is a healthy 70-year-old man who has no brain disease or injury. Choose the statement that most probably describes his memory abilities. A. He has joined a book club but cannot remember much about the weekly meetings. B. He is just as likely as a young person to recognise newly learnt information. C. He finds it very difficult to remember how to do activities he once enjoyed. D. He is likely to forget factual information that he once knew well. Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  22. 22. Suggested Solution Harry is a healthy 70-year-old man who has no brain disease or injury. Choose the statement that most probably describes his memory abilities. A. He has joined a book club but cannot remember much about the weekly meetings. B. He is just as likely as a young person to recognise newly learnt information. C. He finds it very difficult to remember how to do activities he once enjoyed. D. He is likely to forget factual information that he once knew well. Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  23. 23. Question 8 Sam was involved in a car accident in which he hit his head. As a result he was unable to remember anything about the few days before the accident. Sam is suffering from A. Alzheimer's disease. B. retrograde amnesia. C. anterograde amnesia. D. retroactive interference. Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  24. 24. Suggested Solution Sam was involved in a car accident in which he hit his head. As a result he was unable to remember anything about the few days before the accident. Sam is suffering from A. Alzheimer's disease. B. retrograde amnesia. C. anterograde amnesia. D. retroactive interference. Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  25. 25. Question 9 Name one psychological and one physiological symptom of Alzheimer's disease. (2 marks) Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  26. 26. Suggested Solution Psychological: apathy, depression, anxiety, agitation, aggressive behaviour, delusions, hallucinations, long and short-term memory impairment, personality changes  Physiological: degeneration of neurons of the brain, ameloid plaques in the brain, abnormal motor activity, impairment of basic motor functions such as chewing and swallowing, slowed movement, coordination may be impaired, there may be twitching or jerking.   Award 1 mark for a correct psychological symptom Award 1 mark for a correct physiological symptom. Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  27. 27. Question 10 Describe the relationship between sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory when learning new information. Your answer should include differences between capacity and duration for each level of memory. (3 marks) Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  28. 28. Suggested Solution Sensory memory — unlimited capacity; duration — a fraction of a second to a few seconds Short-term memory — capacity 7 ± 2 chunks of information; duration — 20–30 seconds, if unattended Long term memory — unlimited capacity; duration relatively permanent, indefinite or up to a lifetime. VCAA Assessment Report note: Correct information for both capacity and duration was required to gain 1 mark for each memory type. The most common flaw in students' answers involved providing only one of the two pieces of information for each memory level. Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  29. 29. Question 11 The memory system that stores information about personal events and general knowledge is the A. episodic system. B. semantic system. C. procedural system. D. declarative system. Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  30. 30. Suggested Solution The memory system that stores information about personal events and general knowledge is the A. episodic system. B. semantic system. C. procedural system. D. declarative system. Additional information VCAA Assessment Report note: Many students chose option A; this shows the importance of reading all options, even though the first option may appear to be a possible correct response. Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  31. 31. Question 12 Celia works in a busy hot bread shop that has a broken cash register. Celia needs to use mental arithmetic to calculate the amount of money customers must pay for their purchases. Which component of working memory is able to combine information from elsewhere in working memory and from long-term memory, but is not involved in the final decision of how much Celia’s customers have to pay? A. episodic buffer B. central executive C. phonological loop D. visuo-spatial sketchpad Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  32. 32. Suggested Solution Celia works in a busy hot bread shop that has a broken cash register. Celia needs to use mental arithmetic to calculate the amount of money customers must pay for their purchases. Which component of working memory is able to combine information from elsewhere in working memory and from long-term memory, but is not involved in the final decision of how much Celia’s customers have to pay? A. episodic buffer B. central executive C. phonological loop D. visuo-spatial sketchpad Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  33. 33. Questiona part-time job in a plant nursery. 13 Marcus has just started On his first day, he was given a list of 20 common plant names and asked to learn them. He spent some time learning this list. At the start of his next shift, his boss gave him two tasks. Task 1: Marcus was asked to write down as many of the plant names as he could remember from the original list. Marcus was then given a short break before completing Task 2. Task 2: Marcus was given a list of 50 common plant names, including the previous 20 plant names from the original list, and asked to circle the plants that were on the original list. After completing the tasks, Marcus was then given the original list again and asked to study it again. The following week he repeated the two tasks. Which of the following statements is most likely to be correct? A. Repeating Task 1 a week later is a more sensitive measure of retention than the original Task 1. B. Repeating Task 2 a week later is a less sensitive measure of retention than the original Task 2. C. Task 1 is a more sensitive measure of retention than Task 2. D. Tasks 1 and 2 are both relearning tasks. Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  34. 34. Suggested Solution Marcus has just started a part-time job in a plant nursery. On his first day, he was given a list of 20 common plant names and asked to learn them. He spent some time learning this list. At the start of his next shift, his boss gave him two tasks. Task 1: Marcus was asked to write down as many of the plant names as he could remember from the original list. Marcus was then given a short break before completing Task 2. Task 2: Marcus was given a list of 50 common plant names, including the previous 20 plant names from the original list, and asked to circle the plants that were on the original list. After completing the tasks, Marcus was then given the original list again and asked to study it again. The following week he repeated the two tasks. Which of the following statements is most likely to be correct? A. Repeating Task 1 a week later is a more sensitive measure of retention than the original Task 1. B. Repeating Task 2 a week later is a less sensitive measure of retention than the original Task 2. C. Task 1 is a more sensitive measure of retention than Task 2. D. Tasks 1 and 2 are both relearning tasks. Additional information VCAA Assessment Report note: Students had difficulty understanding that a more sensitive measure of retention will be capable of registering a low intensity or strength of retention, which would be missed by a less sensitive measure. Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  35. 35. Question 14 Frank was concerned about remembering, in the correct order, all the items he had to discuss during his work presentation. He made up a short and funny story which included each key word in order and then used this to assist recall when he presented the speech. The mnemonic device used by Frank would have assisted his memory by A. allowing him to rehearse information in short-term memory. B. adding state-dependent cues to the material to be learned and retrieved. C. decreasing the amount and complexity of information to be learned and retrieved. D. elaborating the information and enhancing its organisation in long-term memory. Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  36. 36. Suggested Solution Frank was concerned about remembering, in the correct order, all the items he had to discuss during his work presentation. He made up a short and funny story which included each key word in order and then used this to assist recall when he presented the speech. The mnemonic device used by Frank would have assisted his memory by A. allowing him to rehearse information in short-term memory. B. adding state-dependent cues to the material to be learned and retrieved. C. decreasing the amount and complexity of information to be learned and retrieved. D. elaborating the information and enhancing its organisation in long-term memory. Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  37. 37. Question 15 A school principal wanted to work out which two languages should be taught at her school. The school already taught French so she wanted to choose the second language from either Italian or Chinese. She wanted to introduce a language that would not interfere with students' retention of French. The school principal knew that Italian is a more similar language to French than Chinese which is a very different language from French. She divided the Year 7 students in her school into two groups and followed the procedure set out in the table below to find out what effect the study of Italian and Chinese may have on the students' retention of French. a. Identify and define the type of interference being tested by Groups A and B. b. With reference to interference theory, is the principal more likely to choose Italian or Chinese as the second language in her school, and why? 4 mark(s) Tuesday, 22 October 2013
  38. 38. Suggested Solution a. Group A: retroactive interference — when new information inhibits retrieval of previously learnt material. Group B: retroactive interference — when new information inhibits retrieval of previously learnt material. Award 1 mark for correctly naming and defining the type of interference for Group A and 1 mark for group B. VCAA Assessment Report note: Students needed to have a good understanding of interference theory to establish that in each case the type of interference being tested was retroactive. After identifying the type of interference, students were not required to define it twice. b. The principal would be most likely to choose Chinese as the second language in her school. According to the interference theory, there will be less retroactive interference between Chinese and French as they are not similar languages. Conversely, there is likely to be more retroactive interference between French and Italian as they are more similar. Award 1 mark for choosing Chinese. Award 1 mark for explaining that Chinese will produce less retroactive interference with French as it is less like French than Italian. Tuesday, 22 October 2013
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