U3 ao s 1 revision psychology 2013 (1)

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U3 ao s 1 revision psychology 2013 (1)

  1. 1. Unit 3 Revision f ea o Ar dy 1 Stu MIND, BRAIN AND BODY Monday, 21 October 2013
  2. 2. Monday, 21 October 2013
  3. 3. l the fee and hink oIt do? yd Wh ay I rk ? w wo rain yb es m o ess? wd u sn Ho sc i o con ep? I sl e at is Wh hen ns w ppe t ha ha W Monday, 21 October 2013
  4. 4. 2 min to brain storm each of the Key Concepts Monday, 21 October 2013
  5. 5. 2 min to brain storm each of the Key Concepts States of consciousness Monday, 21 October 2013
  6. 6. 2 min to brain storm each of the Key Concepts States of consciousness Sleep as an altered state of consciousness Monday, 21 October 2013
  7. 7. 2 min to brain storm each of the Key Concepts States of consciousness Sleep as an altered state of consciousness Measuring states of consciousness Monday, 21 October 2013
  8. 8. 2 min to brain storm each of the Key Concepts States of consciousness Sleep as an altered state of consciousness Measuring states of consciousness The nervous system Monday, 21 October 2013
  9. 9. 2 min to brain storm each of the Key Concepts States of consciousness Sleep as an altered state of consciousness Sleep Deprivation Measuring states of consciousness The nervous system Monday, 21 October 2013
  10. 10. 2 min to brain storm each of the Key Concepts States of consciousness Sleep as an altered state of consciousness Sleep Deprivation Measuring states of consciousness The nervous system Hemispheric specialisation Monday, 21 October 2013
  11. 11. 2 min to brain storm each of the Key Concepts States of consciousness Sleep as an altered state of consciousness Sleep Deprivation Measuring states of consciousness The nervous system Hemispheric specialisation Broca’s and Wernicke’s aphasia Monday, 21 October 2013
  12. 12. 2 min to brain storm each of the Key Concepts States of consciousness Sleep as an altered state of consciousness Sleep Deprivation Measuring states of consciousness The nervous system Hemispheric specialisation Broca’s and Wernicke’s aphasia Spatial Neglect and split brain surgery Monday, 21 October 2013
  13. 13. Question 1 Which of the following descriptions of human consciousness is most accurate? A. awareness of the world around us and ourselves, including thoughts and feelings B. knowledge of events taking place in the world C. being able to understand and express our thoughts, feelings and knowledge of the world D. awareness of different situations that may cause an altered state of consciousness Monday, 21 October 2013
  14. 14. Question 1 Which of the following descriptions of human consciousness is most accurate? A. awareness of the world around us and ourselves, including thoughts and feelings B. knowledge of events taking place in the world C. being able to understand and express our thoughts, feelings and knowledge of the world D. awareness of different situations that may cause an altered state of consciousness Monday, 21 October 2013
  15. 15. Question 2 Which type of brain wave indicates an awake and relaxed state of consciousness? ( 1 mark) Monday, 21 October 2013
  16. 16. Question 2 Which type of brain wave indicates an awake and relaxed state of consciousness? ( 1 mark) Answer: Alpha Monday, 21 October 2013
  17. 17. Question 3 Roman is a distance runner who trains hard every day. He has volunteered to be a participant in a research study of sleep patterns of athletes. For the study, he is required to spend a night in a sleep laboratory where his sleep-wake cycle is recorded by the researcher. Name one device that the researcher might use to identify when Roman is in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and describe what this device would indicate for this specific stage of sleep. ( 2 marks) Monday, 21 October 2013
  18. 18. Question 3: Suggested solution Devices and descriptions may include: • EEG: beta-like brainwaves — high frequency/low amplitude (saw-tooth patterns) • EOG: high electrical activity in the muscles that move the eyes (muscles near the eyes) • heart rate monitor: relatively rapid heart rate • video monitor: no major body movement (some twitching), rapid eye movement • EMG: low levels of electrical activity in the muscles of the body • respiratory monitor: breathing rate would be relatively fast and irregular Award 1 mark for correctly naming a device that could be used to identify REM sleep. Award 1 mark for describing what that device would register during REM sleep. Monday, 21 October 2013
  19. 19. Question 4. The _________________________ theory of sleep proposes that sleep enables recovery from depleting activities when awake. Monday, 21 October 2013
  20. 20. Question 4. The _________________________ theory of sleep proposes that sleep enables recovery from depleting activities when awake. Question 4: Suggested solution Restorative Monday, 21 October 2013
  21. 21. Question 5 Generally, during REM sleep A. most skeletal muscles are relaxed. B. small muscles of the face are tense. C. virtually no electrical activity in eye muscles can be detected. D. large amounts of electrical activity can be detected in leg muscles. Monday, 21 October 2013
  22. 22. Question 5 Generally, during REM sleep A. most skeletal muscles are relaxed. B. small muscles of the face are tense. C. virtually no electrical activity in eye muscles can be detected. D. large amounts of electrical activity can be detected in leg muscles. Monday, 21 October 2013
  23. 23. Question 6 Describe how the proportions of NREM and REM sleep change across the human lifespan. (3 marks) Monday, 21 October 2013
  24. 24. Question 6: Suggested solution Changes may include: • The amount of night time sleep decreases with age, and the proportion of time spent in REM sleep also decreases with age. Newborns have about 50% REM, in infants and children this drops to about 20–25% REM. • By late adulthood, total sleep time drops to about 6 hours, with about 20% in REM sleep. • In old age, sleep is lighter with increased awakenings, and stages 3 and 4 NREM sleep is rarely experienced. That is, most sleep time is spent in stages 1 and 2 NREM. • Some illnesses, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases report even lower proportions of REM sleep in affected adults. Award 1 mark for each of three valid changes. Monday, 21 October 2013
  25. 25. Question 7. Jack has not done much study for his psychology examination. He decides to stay up all night to study for two nights prior to the examination. In terms of the effects of sleep deprivation, give two reasons why this decision may negatively impact on Jack's examination performance. (2 marks) Monday, 21 October 2013
  26. 26. Question 7: Suggested solution Reasons sleep deprivation will affect Jack's performance may include: • • • • • • • • • • impairment of memory processes a decrease in ability to perform cognitive tasks illogical/irrational thought lapses in attention and/or concentration difficulty focusing the eyes (which hinders reading) hallucinations micro-sleeps, which would interrupt his train of thought drowsiness (he may fall asleep in the exam) hand tremors (making it difficult to write answers) irritability (therefore he may give up easily or get angry during the exam) • increased experience of pain, which may hinder concentration on the exam. Award 1 mark for each of two valid reasons. Monday, 21 October 2013
  27. 27. Question 8 Alyse stays up late to watch a horror movie. During the movie she becomes very frightened and her fight/flight response is triggered, and then she calms down. a. Which branch of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for triggering Alyse's fight/flight response? (1 mark) b.Describe two physiological responses that Alyse may experience when her fight/flight response is triggered. (2 marks) c.Explain how these physiological responses aid survival in a life-threatening situation. ( 1 mark) Monday, 21 October 2013
  28. 28. Question 8: Suggested solution a. Sympathetic nervous system [1 mark] b. Two of: • heart rate increases • pupils dilate • dry mouth • perspiration increases • increase in blood pressure • increase in breathing rate • bronchioles (airways) dilate • release of sugar (glucose) from storage • release of fat from storage • slowing (inhibition) of the digestive process • release of adrenalin/noradrenalin • blushing • goose bumps. Award 1 mark for each of 2 responses from list above. c. One of: • heart rate increases to pump blood (and nutrients/oxygen) around the body faster, carrying more oxygen and glucose to the muscles • blood pressure increases to push blood through capillaries at a faster rate • breathing rate goes up to take in more oxygen • bronchioles dilate to allow more oxygen into the lungs • pupils dilate to let in more light and enhance vision • digestion is slowed to divert oxygen to muscles to allow a faster response • release of sugar and fat to provide instant energy to skeletal muscles • release of adrenalin and noradrenalin to activate muscles and organs to deal with the life-threatening situation. Award 1 mark for any one explanation from list above. VCAA Assessment Report note: Many students stated that 'the heart beats faster to pump more blood around the body'. This is incorrect as the amount of blood in the body remains the same. Monday, 21 October 2013
  29. 29. Question 9 Farrah's neurologist has explained that she needs to undergo a Computerised Tomography (CT) scan to assess the damage to her brain. The damage to Farrah's brain is within the association area of her frontal lobe. Describe one possible effect that could result from this damage. Monday, 21 October 2013
  30. 30. Question 9: Suggested solution Changes to personality or changes in: • the ability to perform complex mental functions • the ability to plan/organise (problems with executive function) • the ability to understand abstract concepts • the control of emotions • the expression of emotions • the production of speech (articulation of words). Award 1 mark for any one of the effects listed above. Monday, 21 October 2013
  31. 31. Question 10. Describe two major functions of the temporal lobe of the brain. (2 marks) Monday, 21 October 2013
  32. 32. Question 10: Suggested solution Functions may include: • It is the main auditory processing area. • Contains Wernicke's area — responsible for understanding speech. • Responsible for some memory functions such as facial recognition. Award 1 mark each for any two functions. Monday, 21 October 2013
  33. 33. Question 11. Charlotte is diagnosed with Broca's aphasia. a. Where is Broca's area located? (1 mark) b. Describe two ways in which her speech could be impaired. (2marks) Monday, 21 October 2013
  34. 34. Question 11: Suggested solution a. The frontal lobe in the left hemisphere. Award 1 mark for both pieces of information. b. Speech impairmant may include: • produces very little speech • speech requires much concentration and effort • difficulty articulating speech (pronouncing words) • speech tends to be slow and drawn out • short words — prepositions/conjunctions tend to be omitted • sentences tend to be very short (up to four words) • sentences tend to be made up of verbs and nouns only • words lack grammatical endings (for example, –ing). Award 1 mark for two of the above impairments. VCAA Assessment Report note: A common error was to list two descriptors of the same difficulty; for example, speech is slurred and poorly articulated; or words are shortened and words lack grammatical endings. Such responses received only one mark. Monday, 21 October 2013
  35. 35. Question 12. Eric has recently suffered from a stroke, which left him with damage to his cerebral cortex. He ignores the left side of his world and he behaves as though it does not exist. a. What condition is Eric suffering from? (1 mark) b. Which area of his cerebral cortex is most likely to have been damaged? (1 mark) Monday, 21 October 2013
  36. 36. Question 12: Suggested solution a. Spatial neglect/hemispatial neglect [1 mark] b. Right parietal lobe [1 mark] Monday, 21 October 2013
  37. 37. Question 13. Sperry pioneered research on split-brain patients. In one study, a picture of an object was presented to the right visual field of split-brain patients. The patients were all right-handed males. The patients were then shown a number of objects. They were asked to identify the original pictured object by pointing to it. They could use either hand. They were also asked to name the object. Sperry then presented the picture of another object to the left visual field. The patients were then asked to identify the original pictured object from among a number of other objects by pointing to it with either hand.They were also asked to name the object. What were the results for this study in regard to the following? a. when patients were asked to name the pictured object presented to the right visual field (1 mark) b. when patients were asked to identify the pictured object presented to the right visual field (1 mark) c. when patients were asked to name the pictured object presented to the left visual field (1 mark) d. when patients were asked to identify the pictured object presented to the left visual field (1 mark) Monday, 21 October 2013
  38. 38. Question 13: Suggested solution a. They could name the object. b. They could point to the object. c. They could not name the object. d. They could point to the object. Award 1 mark for each of the correct statements above. VCAA Assessment Report note: As all objects in Questions 2b. and 2d. were visible in both the left and right visual fields, it is possible that a process of 'cross-cuing' would occur, alerting both hemispheres to the identity of the object. Students could indicate that either hand could be used (or not specify a particular hand) and be awarded a mark. Monday, 21 October 2013

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