Lesson 5: Data Collection Objectives ~ Deﬁne descriptive statistics ~ Deﬁne qualitative research ~ Deﬁne quantitative research ~ Distinguish between subject and objective data ~ Outline scales of measurement ~ Describe the techniques of qualitative and quantitative data collection: case studies; observational studies; self- reports; questionnaires; interviews; brain imaging and recording technologies ~ Describe the different types of test reliability and validityFriday, 6 April 2012
Types of Data Scales of Measurement Qualitative Quantitative Nominal Subjective Ordinal Objective Interval Ratio Data Collection Techniques Case Studies Quality Interview Validity Questionnaires Psychological Tests Technology Reliability Internal External Cross-Sectional Internal Longitudinal Content Inter-rater Parallel forms Criterion-related Test-retest Construct GeneralisationFriday, 6 April 2012
Nominal: property with no quantitative value, e.g. hair colour Ordinal: deﬁnite sequence though inconsistent gaps, e.g. age of class Interval: scaled measure with constant values between each level *note no value of zero* Ratio: most precise, basically an interval scale but with zero meaning zero!Friday, 6 April 2012
What scale are each of the following measured? Psych Study Score? temperature? eye colour? height of people in room?Friday, 6 April 2012
Case Studies: detailed observations of an individual over a period of time Observation: Naturalistic - observing voluntary behaviours in natural environment Controlled - observing voluntary behaviours in structured environment Questionnaires: collecting written responses from participants Psychological Tests: personality or multiple choice Technology: Brain-imaging Cross-Sectional: participant data across different ages and groups compared Longitudinal: same participant over a long period of timeFriday, 6 April 2012
Provide an example of each Ask around roomFriday, 6 April 2012
Reliability Validity Internal - extent to which Internal - measures what it each aspect equally claims to measure contribute to ﬁnal score - content (face): appears to be valid Inter-rater - same result - construct: applied to obtained regardless of theory administrator Test-retest - same External - can results be participant, same results generalised? second time -criterion related: support from other research Parallel form - pre - characteristics of experiment and post test enable generalisationFriday, 6 April 2012
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