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  • 1. Lesson 5: Data CollectionFriday, 6 April 2012
  • 2. Lesson 4: Reconstructing Memories EXAM QUESTION Taken from 2011 Mid Year ExamFriday, 6 April 2012
  • 3. Model response:Friday, 6 April 2012
  • 4. Lesson 5: Data Collection Objectives ~ Define descriptive statistics  ~ Define qualitative research ~ Define quantitative research ~ Distinguish between subject and objective data ~ Outline scales of measurement  ~ Describe the techniques of qualitative and quantitative data collection: case studies; observational studies; self- reports; questionnaires; interviews; brain imaging and recording technologies ~ Describe the different types of test reliability and validityFriday, 6 April 2012
  • 5. Types of Data Scales of Measurement Qualitative Quantitative Nominal Subjective Ordinal Objective Interval Ratio Data Collection Techniques Case Studies Quality Interview Validity Questionnaires Psychological Tests Technology Reliability Internal External Cross-Sectional Internal Longitudinal Content Inter-rater Parallel forms Criterion-related Test-retest Construct GeneralisationFriday, 6 April 2012
  • 6. Types of DataFriday, 6 April 2012
  • 7. Qualitative: descriptions of characteristics Quantitative: refers to measurements Subjective: based on opinions Objective: based on identifiable external criterionFriday, 6 April 2012
  • 8. Friday, 6 April 2012
  • 9. What type of data was collected?? Qualitative or Quantitative? Objective or Subjective?Friday, 6 April 2012
  • 10. Scales of MeasurementFriday, 6 April 2012
  • 11. Nominal: property with no quantitative value, e.g. hair colour Ordinal: definite sequence though inconsistent gaps, e.g. age of class Interval: scaled measure with constant values between each level *note no value of zero* Ratio: most precise, basically an interval scale but with zero meaning zero!Friday, 6 April 2012
  • 12. What scale are each of the following measured? Psych Study Score? temperature? eye colour? height of people in room?Friday, 6 April 2012
  • 13. TechniquesFriday, 6 April 2012
  • 14. Case Studies: detailed observations of an individual over a period of time Observation: Naturalistic - observing voluntary behaviours in natural environment Controlled - observing voluntary behaviours in structured environment Questionnaires: collecting written responses from participants Psychological Tests: personality or multiple choice Technology: Brain-imaging Cross-Sectional: participant data across different ages and groups compared Longitudinal: same participant over a long period of timeFriday, 6 April 2012
  • 15. Provide an example of each Ask around roomFriday, 6 April 2012
  • 16. QualityFriday, 6 April 2012
  • 17. Reliability Validity Internal - extent to which Internal - measures what it each aspect equally claims to measure contribute to final score - content (face): appears to be valid Inter-rater - same result - construct: applied to obtained regardless of theory administrator Test-retest - same External - can results be participant, same results generalised? second time -criterion related: support from other research Parallel form - pre - characteristics of experiment and post test enable generalisationFriday, 6 April 2012