Lesson 5   physiological and psychological charactertistics of responses to stress
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Lesson 5 physiological and psychological charactertistics of responses to stress

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Lesson 5 physiological and psychological charactertistics of responses to stress Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Lesson 5: Physiological & psychological characteristics of responses to stress
  • 2. Lesson 4 The biopsychosoical model exam question taken from - 2011 exam
  • 3. Model response
  • 4. Lesson 5: Physiological & psychological characteristics of responses to stress
  • 5. Outcomes (What you need to know and be able to do)Apply  a biopsychosocial framework tounderstanding the relationship betweenstress and physical and mental wellbeing: - Explain the physiological and psychological characteristics of responses to stress including fight-flight response, eustress and distress - Explain strengths and limitations of Selyes’ General Adaptation Syndrome
  • 6. Stress and HealthExposure to stressful situations and events is a common humanexperience. From losing your locker key to losing your job – these eventscan produce stress.Stressor = any person, situation orevent that produces stress.Virtually anything can be a stressorand therefore a cause of stress to anindividual.Stress =A state of physiological andpsychological arousal produced byinternal or external stressors that areperceived by the individual aschallenging or exceeding their abilityto cope.
  • 7. Biopsychosocial approach to stress
  • 8. Responses to StressStress affects different people in differentways – depending on severity, durationand the individual.A Stress Response = physiological (bodily)and psychological (mental) changesexperienced when confronted by astressor.Stress&can&be&classified&as&MILD,&ACUTE&or&CHRONIC.&Mild&stress&&?&can&be&s@mula@ng&–&low&levels&of&arousal&can&enhance&performance.&Acute&–&sudden&high&arousal&level.&Chronic&–&long&term&–&can&be&damaging.&&
  • 9. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress•  2"main"physiological"models"for"explaining"the"physiological"responses"to" stress."The"fight%flight(response(and"the(General(Adapta4on(Syndrome.! 1.!FightFlight!Response! FIGHTFLIGHT! RESPONSE!="an" involuntary"reac:on" resul:ng"in"a"state"of" physiological"readiness" to"deal"with"a"sudden" and"immediate"threat" by"either"confron:ng"it" (fight)"or"running"to" safety"(flight).""" Developed"by"Walter" Cannon."
  • 10. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress 1. Fight-Flight Response1.  Involves*sympathe1c*Nervous*System*and*Endocrine*(hormone)*system.!2.  Hypothalamus*is*ac1vated*–*s1mulates*pituitary*gland*which*releases* ACTH*(a*type*of*hormone)*which*then*s1mulates*the*adrenal*glands.**3.  This*chain*between*the*Hypothalamus,*the*Pituitary*Gland*and*the* Adrenal*Glands*is*called*the*HPA!Axis.**4.  When*the*adrenal*glands*are*s1mulated*they*release*stress*hormones*like* adrenaline*and*noradrenaline.*These*boost*the*sympathe1c*nervous* system.**5.  This!causes!Physiological!changes!to!occur*such*as:*increased*heart*rate,* increased*blood*flow*to*muscles*(from*skin*and*intes1nes),*increased* respira1on,*dila1on*of*pupils,*suppression*of*nonOessen1al*func1ons*to* conserve*energy.**6.  A*racing*heart*is*explained*by*the*surge*of*stress*hormones*in*the*body.**7.  Once*the*threat*has*passed,*the*parasympathe1c*Nervous*System*calms* and*restores*normal*func1oning,*usually*within*20O60*minutes.**
  • 11. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress 1. Fight-Flight Response•  The$surge$of$hormones$can$ensure$our$survival$when$faced$with$a$life$ threatening$situa5on$by$giving$us$great$strength$or$confidence.$$ $eg.$We$see$someone$with$a$knife$on$a$deserted$street$at$night.$•  If$the$exposure$to$the$threat$is$prolonged$–$the$physical$arousal$will$also$ be$prolonged.$This$is$believed$to$be$harmful$to$our$health.$$•  For$example,$if$stress$hormones$like$adrenaline,$noradrenaline$and$ cor5cal$remain$high$in$our$bloodstream,$then$our$body’s$func5oning$ deteriorates$and$our$immune$system$becomes$less$effec5ve$D$Open$to$ disease.$$$•  Other$bodily$reac5ons$to$prolonged$stress:$Dizziness,$aches$and$pains,$ muscle$tension,$heart$palpita5ons,$skin$rashes,$fa5gue,$cold$and$flue,$ stomach$ulcers,$indiges5on$issues$etc.$$
  • 12. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress•  The$second$model$which$addresses$the$physiological$responses$to$stress$is$$ the$General$Adapta-on$Syndrome.! 2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome# GeneralAdapta,on Syndrome= A"three"stage" physiological"stress" response"that"occurs" regardless"of"the" stressor"that"is" encountered."There" are"three"stages"in"the" GAS"–"Alarm"Reac;on," Resistance"and" Exhaus;on."" Research"by"Hans" Selye.""
  • 13. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress 2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome# •  Cannon’sbeliefthatprolongedstressisharmfulwasconfirmedbySelye. •  MostofSelye’sstressstudiesusedratswhowereexposedtoavarietyof stressors.(eg.Tailpulling,electricshocksetc). •  Regardlessofthestressor,theresultswererelaDvelysimilar–enlarged adrenalglands,weightloss,stomachulcersanddepletedimmunesystem etc. •  HethenconcludedthatstressisnonGspecific. •  Humansreactedinmuchthesamewaytostress. •  Basedonhisstudies,Selyedevelopthethreestage •  GENERALADAPTATIONSYNDROME.
  • 14. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress 2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome#(GAS)#There%are%three%stages%in%the%GAS.%Stage%One:%Alarm%Reac6on:%! Occurs!when!the!person/animal!is!first!exposed!to!the!stressor.!!•  Body!goes!into!temporary!state!of!‘shock’!–!body!temp!and!blood!pressure! drop.!!•  The!body!then!quickly!rebounds!from!this!during!what!is!called! ‘countershock’.!•  SympatheCc!NS!is!acCvated!and!a!reacCon!like!that!of!the!flightGflight! response!occurs.!Arousal!is!produced!by!the!release!of!hormones!by!the! endocrine!system:!the!pituitary!glands!secrete!ACTH,!which!causes!a! heightened!release!of!adrenaline,!noradrenaline,!and!corCsol!by!the!adrenal! glands!into!the!bloodstream.!!•  Organism!is!alert!and!ready.!% The body cannot stay in this state for long without serious consequences. Some organisms in a continuous state of alarm have died within hours or days
  • 15. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress 2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome#(GAS)#There%are%three%stages%in%the%GAS.%Stage%Two:%Resistance:%%•  If#the#reac*on#con*nues#and#is#not#strong#enough#to#cause#death#the# physiological#reac*on#enters#the#stage#of#resistance.##•  The#body#tries#to#adapt#to#the#stressor.#Physiological#arousal#declines#but# remains#higher#than#normal#and#the#body#replenishes#the#hormones# released#by#the#adrenal#glands.##•  The#organism#may#show#few#outward#signs#of#stress.#However,#the#body# may#not#be#able#to#resist#new#stressors.##•  The#body#becomes#increasingly#vulnerable#to#health#problems.#These#health# problems#include#ulcers,#high#blood#pressure,#asthma,#and#illnesses#that# result#from#impaired#immune#func*on.#
  • 16. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress 2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome#(GAS)#There%are%three%stages%in%the%GAS.%Stage%Three:%Exhaus4on:%%•  Severe%long*term%or%repeated%stress%will%cause%the%organism%to%enter%the% third%stage,%the%stage%of%exhaus9on.%%•  The%immune%system%and%the%bodys%energy%reserves%are%weakened%un9l% resistance%is%very%limited.%%•  If%the%stress%con9nues,%disease%and%physiological%damage%become% increasingly%likely%and%death%may%result.%
  • 17. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress 2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome#(GAS)#
  • 18. Physiological (Bodily) Responses to Stress 2.#General#Adapta.on#Syndrome#(GAS)# Strengths)and)Limita/ons)of)the)GAS.))+  Further(developed(awareness(and(understanding(of(links(between( stress(and(disease.(+  Has(helped(to(understand(detrimental(effects(of(stress.(–  Assumes(that(everyone(has(the(same,(predictable(physiological( responses(to(any(kind(of(stressor.((–  Overlooks(the(roles(of(the(other(bodily(systems(and(ignores( psychological(response(to(stressors.((Eg.(Individual(interpretaCons.(–  Not(all(people(respond(to(chronic(stress(in(the(same(way.(Eg.(Some(get( ulcers,(some(heart(disease(etc.((–  (CriCcism(that(Selye’s(research(focused(too(much(on(stress(within( animals((and(has(limited(relevance(to(humans.((