Lesson 3 phases of neural dvelopment

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Lesson 3 phases of neural dvelopment

  1. 1. PHASES OF NEURAL DEVELOPMENT IN LEARNING Lesson 3: Phases of Neural DevelopmentThursday, 21 June 2012
  2. 2. Revision a) Identify and explain 5 key areas of the brain thought to be involved in learning (5 marks)Thursday, 21 June 2012
  3. 3. Outcomes (What you need to know and be able to do)   •  Explain the neural pathways involved in learning, synapse formation, and the roles of various neurotransmitters  Thursday, 21 June 2012
  4. 4. Why is learning important............Thursday, 21 June 2012
  5. 5. Why is learning important............ It is crucial to SURVIVALThursday, 21 June 2012
  6. 6. Donald Hebb (1946) Theorised that when two neurons are jointly activated they become more closely linked ʻneurons that fire together wire togetherʼ This creates neural pathways (neural circuits) which are an interconnected groups of neurons organised as a network that is active during the learning processThursday, 21 June 2012
  7. 7. Zygote (single cell) Cells multiply They differentiate (become specialised) Cells must form relationships with cells around them - They form synapses in a process called synaptogenesisThursday, 21 June 2012
  8. 8. Synaptogensis Synaptogensis occurs throughout a healthy person’s lifetime This happens rapidly from 2months before birth - 2years of ageThursday, 21 June 2012
  9. 9. Effects of Experience on Neural Development Genetics alone do not determine neural development Experience plays a part in neural development Hebb proposed that use of neurons improved their function ‘Use it or loose it’Thursday, 21 June 2012
  10. 10. Studies Supporting the Hebb ideaAnimals reared in the dark (Cragg, 1976)were found to have fewer synapses andfewer dendrites in their visual cortices Rats raised in a enriched environment show greater synapse formation and grater dendrite development Kandel’s research and LTP theoryThursday, 21 June 2012
  11. 11. What is LTP again..........Thursday, 21 June 2012
  12. 12. What is LTP again.......... The long-lasting strengthening of synaptic connections resulting in enhanced function of neurons along a neural pathway whenever activatedThursday, 21 June 2012
  13. 13. What is LTP again.......... The long-lasting strengthening of synaptic connections resulting in enhanced function of neurons along a neural pathway whenever activated LTP is a crucial mechanism of learning: Learning may not be possible without itThursday, 21 June 2012
  14. 14. The role of neurotransmitters in learning NT’s involved in learning: Glutamate: Strengthens connections at the synapse during learning Dopamine: May be involved through rewarding ‘pleasure’ experience. Acetylcholine: Present in some learning experiences but specific role unclearThursday, 21 June 2012
  15. 15. Activity 1 - Create a poster 1. Hand draw or use a computer program to represent the following: - Create a flow chart to show the neural steps involved in learning (Include the following: the creation of new pathways, synaptogenesis, neurotransmitters)Thursday, 21 June 2012

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