Model Response VCAA Assessors Report 2012Thursday, 4 April 2013
Outcomes (What you need to know and be able to do) • Explain the neural pathways involved in learning, synapse formation, and the roles of various neurotransmitters Thursday, 4 April 2013
Why is learning important............Thursday, 4 April 2013
Why is learning important............ It is crucial to SURVIVALThursday, 4 April 2013
Donald Hebb (1946) Theorised that when two neurons are jointly activated they become more closely linked ʻneurons that ﬁre together wire togetherʼ This creates neural pathways (neural circuits) which are an interconnected groups of neurons organised as a network that is active during the learning processThursday, 4 April 2013
Zygote (single cell) Cells multiply They differentiate (become specialised) Cells must form relationships with cells around them - They form synapses in a process called synaptogenesisThursday, 4 April 2013
Synaptogensis Synaptogensis occurs throughout a healthy person’s lifetime This happens rapidly from 2months before birth - 2years of ageThursday, 4 April 2013
Effects of Experience on Neural Development Genetics alone do not determine neural development Experience plays a part in neural development Hebb proposed that use of neurons improved their function ‘Use it or loose it’Thursday, 4 April 2013
Studies Supporting the Hebb ideaAnimals reared in the dark (Cragg, 1976)were found to have fewer synapses andfewer dendrites in their visual cortices Rats raised in a enriched environment show greater synapse formation and grater dendrite development Kandel’s research and LTP theoryThursday, 4 April 2013
What is LTP again..........Thursday, 4 April 2013
What is LTP again.......... The long-lasting strengthening of synaptic connections resulting in enhanced function of neurons along a neural pathway whenever activatedThursday, 4 April 2013
What is LTP again.......... The long-lasting strengthening of synaptic connections resulting in enhanced function of neurons along a neural pathway whenever activated LTP is a crucial mechanism of learning: Learning may not be possible without itThursday, 4 April 2013
The role of neurotransmitters in learning NT’s involved in learning: Glutamate: Strengthens connections at the synapse during learning Dopamine: May be involved through rewarding ‘pleasure’ experience. Acetylcholine: Present in some learning experiences but speciﬁc role unclearThursday, 4 April 2013
Activity 1 - Create a poster 1. Hand draw or use a computer program to represent the following: - Create a ﬂow chart to show the neural steps involved in learning (Include the following: the creation of new pathways, synaptogenesis, neurotransmitters)Thursday, 4 April 2013
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