Lesson 2 classifying mental disorders


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Lesson 2 classifying mental disorders

  1. 1. Lesson 2: Classifying Mental DisordersTuesday, 10 July 2012
  2. 2. Lesson 1: Normality EXAM QUESTION a) Define the ‘historical approach’ to defining normality b) Provide an example of this approach 1 + 1 = 2 marksTuesday, 10 July 2012
  3. 3. Lesson 1: Normality EXAM Answer a) Define the ‘historical approach’ to defining normality What is considered normal or abnormal in a society depends on the era/period of time when the judgement is made b) Provide an example of this approach School students used to get hit on the knuckles with a cain when they misbehaved, now this would be considered abnormal or wrong! 1 + 1 = 2 marksTuesday, 10 July 2012
  4. 4. Classification is the organisation of items into groups on the basis of their common properties. What are some ways in which you couldclassify potato chips? Rank them in order of importance. What are some ways in which you could classify shoes? Rank them in order of importance. What are some ways in which mental disorders could be classified? Rank them in order of importance.Tuesday, 10 July 2012
  5. 5. There are two main approaches to classifying mental conditions and disorders: Categorical & Dimensional Both have their strengths and limitationsTuesday, 10 July 2012
  6. 6. Categorical Approaches Yes or No approach Focus on deciding whether there is a presence or absence of a mental disorder Either have it or not Black or white - no grey areasTuesday, 10 July 2012
  7. 7. Categorical SystemsDiagnostic & Statistical Manual International Classification of Mental Disorders (DSM) of Disease (ICD) American Psychiatric World Health Association (APA) Organisation (WHO)Tuesday, 10 July 2012
  8. 8. Categorical approaches like the DMC and ICD organise and describe mental conditions in terms of different categories and subcategories, each with symptoms and characteristics that are typical of specific mental conditions and disorders. Can you think of another example that adopts a categorical approach?Tuesday, 10 July 2012
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  10. 10. Can you think of any reasons why it could be helpful to classify mental disorders into categories? How might it be unhelpful?Tuesday, 10 July 2012
  11. 11. Dimensional Approaches classify based on how much a symptom is presenting ranges from very low to very high Focus on ranking or grading a person’s symptoms on one or more continuos quantitative dimensions in terms of their severity or degree.Tuesday, 10 July 2012
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  13. 13. The table below simplifies the approaches using Depression as an exampleTuesday, 10 July 2012
  14. 14. Which approach is most valid? Which approach is the most reliable? Why/Why not?Tuesday, 10 July 2012
  15. 15. Essential Learning Activities DMC review Questions 1 - 4 1. Explain the meaning of the phrase ‘categorical approach to the classification of mental disorders’. 2. What are the underlying assumptions and principles of the categorical approach? Explain with reference to examples. 3. Why is it important that categorical approaches are valid and reliable? 4. a) What is the DSM, who is it created for and what is it used for? b) How many major categories of mental disorders does the current DSM have? c) What is the common purpose of diagnostic, inclusion, exclusion and polythetic criteria? d) Explain the meaning of the terms course and prevalence in relation to a mental disorder. e) Name each of the five axes in the DSM and briefly describe the type of information provided in each axis for classification and/or diagnostic purposes. f) What significant information about mental disorders is not provided in the DSM? ICD review Questions 1 & 2 1. a) What is the ICD-10, who is it prepared for and what is it used for? b) Name the ICD chapter that specifically relates to mental disorders. c) Name the Australian version of the ICD. d) How many major categories of mental and behavioural disorders does the ICD-10 have? e What are diagnostic guidelines and what are they used for?   2. Construct a table in which you compare key similarities and differences of the DSM and ICD-10.Tuesday, 10 July 2012