Lesson 11  trial error learning 2013
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Lesson 11 trial error learning 2013

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Lesson 11  trial error learning 2013 Lesson 11 trial error learning 2013 Presentation Transcript

  • Lesson 11: Trial and Error LearningThursday, 4 April 2013
  • From last lesson...... What role does the learner play in each of the different types of conditioning?Thursday, 4 April 2013
  • From last lesson...... What role does the learner play in each of the different types of conditioning? In classical conditioning, the learner is passive, whereas in operant conditioning the learner actively chooses to respond in a particular manner to gain reinforcement or avoid punishmentThursday, 4 April 2013
  • This lesson........  • Explain and apply trial-and-error learningThursday, 4 April 2013
  • Trial and error learning involves learning by trying alternative possibilities until the desired outcome is achievedThursday, 4 April 2013
  • Trial and error learning involves learning by trying alternative possibilities until the desired outcome is achievedA simple way of learning to cope with the environmentaldemandsThursday, 4 April 2013
  • Trial and error learning involves learning by trying alternative possibilities until the desired outcome is achievedA simple way of learning to cope with the environmentaldemands Required that an individual (or animal) be motivated to explore and respond to the environmentThursday, 4 April 2013
  • Trial and error learning involves learning by trying alternative possibilities until the desired outcome is achievedA simple way of learning to cope with the environmentaldemands Required that an individual (or animal) be motivated to explore and respond to the environment Correct Responses (trials) must be rewardedThursday, 4 April 2013
  • Thursday, 4 April 2013
  • Thorndike’s puzzle box experiment demonstrated trial and error in cats A hungry cat is placed in a box with slatted sides, food is placed outside the box and can be seen Cat must operate alever to open Cat initially explores box andthe door and unsuccessfully tries to escapeescape to get the food By accident (during trial and error) the cat presses the lever that opens the door Cat escapes and eats the food (i.e. is rewarded) Escape times become faster as the number of trails increaseThursday, 4 April 2013
  • Thursday, 4 April 2013
  • Cat is ‘instrumental’ in learning the correct responseand ‘operated’ on the environment to get the desiredoutcome. Thorndike called this ‘instrumentallearning’The results of this experiment led Thorndike to develop thelaw of effect.The law of effect essentially states that a behaviour that isaccompanied or closely followed by ‘satisfying‘ consequences ismore likely to recur, and a behaviour that is followed by ‘annoying‘consequences or discomfort is less likely to recur.Thursday, 4 April 2013
  • Activities1) Review Questions:1) What is trial-error learning?2) a. Describe Thorndikes puzzle-box experimentb. Draw a graph to illustrate change in time to escape compared withnumber of trials.3) State Thorndikes law of effect. What form of learning is described bythis law?2) Exam Questions: 1) Write five short answer questions that could be asked in the exam. With mark allocations. Knowledge to answer the questions could come from any lesson from the topic ‘learning’ we have studied thus far, with at least one involving Trail and Error learning 2) Partner up - swap questions and answer each others questions. When finished swap back and assess each others work.Thursday, 4 April 2013