Learning revision2013

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Learning revision2013

  1. 1. Unit 4 Revision Area of Study 1 LEARNING Friday, 20 September 2013
  2. 2. Friday, 20 September 2013
  3. 3. Learning can be defined as any relatively permanent change in behaviour that may occur as a result of experience. Friday, 20 September 2013
  4. 4. Key Concepts Friday, 20 September 2013
  5. 5. Key Concepts Behaviours not dependent on learning Friday, 20 September 2013
  6. 6. Key Concepts Behaviours not dependent on learning Neural Development Friday, 20 September 2013
  7. 7. Key Concepts Behaviours not dependent on learning Neural Development Plasticity Friday, 20 September 2013
  8. 8. Key Concepts Behaviours not dependent on learning Neural Development Plasticity Classical Conditioning Friday, 20 September 2013
  9. 9. Key Concepts Behaviours not dependent on learning Neural Development Plasticity Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Friday, 20 September 2013
  10. 10. Key Concepts Behaviours not dependent on learning Neural Development Plasticity Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Trial & Error Friday, 20 September 2013
  11. 11. Key Concepts Behaviours not dependent on learning Neural Development Plasticity Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Trial & Error Observational Learning Friday, 20 September 2013
  12. 12. Question 1 What is the difference between a reflex action and a fixed action pattern? (2 marks) Friday, 20 September 2013
  13. 13. Suggested Solution Explanation of difference should refer to: • Reflex action is typically a single or simple response, whereas a fixed action pattern is more complex, usually consisting of a sequence of responses. • The same reflex action may be observed across species, whereas a fixed action pattern is species- specific. Award 1 mark each for each point. Friday, 20 September 2013
  14. 14. Question 2 Which of the following statement is true of neurotransmitters? A. Neurotransmitters are the chemical messengers that transmit impulses between neurons B. Neurotransmitters exist only in the brains of humans C. Neurotransmitters have a nucleus D. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that always excited neighbouring neurons to fire electrically Friday, 20 September 2013
  15. 15. Suggested Solution Which of the following statement is true of neurotransmitters? A. Neurotransmitters are the chemical messengers that transmit impulses between neurons B. Neurotransmitters exist only in the brains of humans C. Neurotransmitters have a nucleus D. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that always excited neighbouring neurons to fire electrically Friday, 20 September 2013
  16. 16. Question 3 Explain the meaning of the term 'adaptive brain plasticity'. Use an example to demonstrate your understanding of the concept. (2 marks) Friday, 20 September 2013
  17. 17. Suggested Solution Explanation may refer to: • change in neural structure/organisation to enable adjustment to experience • change in neural structure/organisation to compensate for lost function or to maximise remaining function May involve rerouting, whereby an undamaged neuron that has lost a connection (due to damage of its connecting neuron) connects with a different neuron (e.g. in an undamaged pathway) as a replacement, or sprouting, which involves the growth of new, bushier connections on the neuron's dendrites. For example, lost movement of an index finger due to motor cortex damage may be regained if motor cortex adjacent to the damaged area assumes some control over that movement. Award 1 mark for correctly explaining plasticity. Award 1 mark for a relevant example. Friday, 20 September 2013
  18. 18. Question 4 In the context of Pavlov's original experiments, describe an example of spontaneous recovery. (2 marks) Friday, 20 September 2013
  19. 19. Suggested Solution • The dog has been conditioned to salivate at the sound of the bell (metronome, buzzer or similar), the bell being the conditioned stimulus (CS). • Extinction occurs after repeated exposure to the CS without the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), the food (meat, meat powder or other). That is, the dog fails to produce the conditioned response (CR), salivating, upon presentation of the CS alone without the UCS. • After a time gap, the CS is presented again, without the presentation of the UCS, but the CR (salivation) occurs. • We say that it has spontaneously recovered; the CR re-occurs after it has been previously extinguished. Explanation of spontaneous recovery should refer to extinction [1 mark], followed by reappearance of the CR [1 mark]. Friday, 20 September 2013
  20. 20. Question 5 Define trial and error learning. (2 marks) Friday, 20 September 2013
  21. 21. Suggested Solution Learning by trying alternative possibilities [1 mark] until the desired outcome is achieved [1 mark] Friday, 20 September 2013
  22. 22. Question 6 Vicki had not completed her Psychology homework. When she told her teacher she had not done the homework, the teacher was very angry and gave Vicki a detention. The next time Vicki had not done her homework she lied and told her mother that she did not feel well so she could stay home from school to complete the work. She returned to school and was able to hand in the work without getting a detention. Vicki then repeated the behaviour of staying home each time she did not complete homework. a. What type of learning is Vicki displaying when she avoids going to school because she has not done her homework? b. Explain your answer. (3 marks) Friday, 20 September 2013
  23. 23. Suggested Solution a. Type of learning may be operant conditioning or avoidance learning. [1 mark] b. Explanation should refer to: • Vicki's behaviour of going to school without having done her homework was punished, so the behaviour was not repeated. • Vicki's behaviour of staying at home (when she has not completed her homework) is reinforced because she feels good about avoiding detention, or, her behaviour of staying at home (when she has not completed her homework) is reinforced because it avoids the unpleasant consequence of detention. Award 1 mark for identifying detention as punishment and 1 mark for noting that the avoidance of detention, by staying home, has acted as a reinforcer. VCAA Assessment Report note: A common error was to identify the process as ‘one-trial learning'; however, it should be emphasised that the study design specifies one-trial learning in the form of taste aversion. Friday, 20 September 2013
  24. 24. Question 7 Joe's parents want him to keep his room tidy and are using a method of encouragement. Whenever his room is untidy, Joe is not permitted to watch television until he tidies the room. Joe's parents are using ________________ to modify his behaviour. A. positive reinforcement B. modelling C. negative reinforcement D. shaping Friday, 20 September 2013
  25. 25. Suggested Solution Joe's parents want him to keep his room tidy and are using a method of encouragement. Whenever his room is untidy, Joe is not permitted to watch television until he tidies the room. Joe's parents are using ________________ to modify his behaviour. A. positive reinforcement B. modelling C. negative reinforcement D. shaping Friday, 20 September 2013
  26. 26. Question 8 A soft-drink vending machine operates on a _____________ reinforcement schedule, while a gaming machine operates on a _____________ reinforcement schedule. A. variable ratio; fixed interval B. fixed ratio; variable interval C. partial; continuous D. continuous; partial Friday, 20 September 2013
  27. 27. Suggested Solution A soft-drink vending machine operates on a _____________ reinforcement schedule, while a gaming machine operates on a _____________ reinforcement schedule. A. variable ratio; fixed interval B. fixed ratio; variable interval C. partial; continuous D. continuous; partial Friday, 20 September 2013
  28. 28. Question 9 In operant conditioning, the acquisition of a learned response occurs due to ___________ , whereas in classical conditioning acquisition relies on ___________ . A. the association of one stimulus with another; the reinforcement of a desired response B. the reinforcement of a desired response; the retention of a modelled behaviour C. the reinforcement of a desired response; the association of one stimulus with another D. retention of a modelled behaviour; the association of one stimulus with another Friday, 20 September 2013
  29. 29. Suggested Solution In operant conditioning, the acquisition of a learned response occurs due to ___________ , whereas in classical conditioning acquisition relies on ___________ . A. the association of one stimulus with another; the reinforcement of a desired response B. the reinforcement of a desired response; the retention of a modelled behaviour C. the reinforcement of a desired response; the association of one stimulus with another D. retention of a modelled behaviour; the association of one stimulus with another Friday, 20 September 2013
  30. 30. Question 10 Before Alex had moved out of home, he'd never had to cook for himself. He was keen to show that he could cope on his own and was pleasantly surprised to discover that he actually knew how to cook quite well. He then remembered that he often used to spend time in the kitchen watching his mother while she was cooking. i) What type of learning was used by Alex? ii) Identify two key elements of this type of learning and explain how they helped Alex learn to cook. (3 marks) Friday, 20 September 2013
  31. 31. Suggested Solution Explanation may include the following. i) observational learning or modelling ii) a) attention — watching/observing his mother cook;      b) retention — storing in memory what she did while cooking;      c) reproduction — replicating (from memory) what his mother did when trying to cook for himself;      d) motivation — the desire to perform what was observed, or desire to be independent/keen to show that he could cope.      e) reinforcement — enjoying the meal he cooked and meeting the standard of cooking he had set for himself. Award 1 mark for correctly naming observational learning (or modelling). Award 1 mark for each of two elements named and explained correctly, with reference to the scenario. Friday, 20 September 2013
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