1. Summary 1. Importance and Pipetting Practice January 25, 2013Sometimes the simplest detail in a masterpiece is what makes it look impressive. Well, in science most ofthe time, what helps to obtain the precise results in any type of experiment is the pipetting technique.Scientists use them in their daily work because of their exactness when measuring microliters. It isimportant to obtain the right amount of any kind of substance to make the right reaction and to completeany type of procedure where little amount of chemicals are used. In order to achieve this, the micropipetteis the instrument used. Having the ability to manage them is not as easy as it seems, and even though weused them several times already, practicing helps perfect this skill. As future scientists we have theresponsibility to be sure that the measurements are accurate. After mixing colors with the pipettes severalerrors were observed, which meant that we still needed more practice. The objective of the lab techniquetaught was complete; learning the purpose of pipetting and the techniques in order to do it perfectly.Summary 2. Microscopy and Photomicrography February 1, 2013“Determine what is observed and therefore, the results” was the last quote of Dr. Ross’ presentation.When Anton van Leeuwenhoek discovered the microscope, he didn’t imagine that thanks to it millions ofnatural processes would be explained and understood. Having the ability to focus a microscope isdefinitely an advantage in any type of investigation in the scientific community; nevertheless, it doesn’tjust involve focusing but, micro techniques and even photomicrography are needed to capture the imageand to communicate what has been discovered. After reviewing what we learned in the summer aboutMicroscopy, we began to work with specific microscopes. In the dissecting microscope, the one where Iwas situated, the observation process started by observing insects, then focusing and lighting; at the endwe took beautiful photos of termites, flies, and moss, focusing on different parts of each specimen.Resolution and magnification tell us a lot about the function and the structure of any organism just byobserving it. The objective of the workshop was complete after we taught a classmate how to use thetechnique we had practiced.Summary 3. Workshop UNC - From DNA to Protein February 14, 15 and 16, 2013DNA is the basis to any form of life. Thanks to its translation and transcription, proteins can be formed.These are the main workers in the cell. In the seminar we learned how these two macromolecules can beused to: diagnose diseases, clarify paternity tests, and identify criminals by electrophoresis.Electrophoresis separates particles of the DNA and the proteins based on molecular weight using anelectric field. After learning how to obtain our own DNA, they taught us how to prepare a gel beforerunning the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). We used tests of diabetes to determine if they werepositive or not. After analyzing the gel, the test resulted were positive. It was a clear example of how thistechnique is important to save lives. When using proteins you run an SDS-PAGE gel. The purpose of thisexperiment was to determine if the tests presented a Lysosomal Storage Disorder (LSD). After denaturingthe protein and running the gels, two out of four tests resulted positive for LSD.Biomedical TechniquesLaboratory Summaries
2. The main objective of this workshop was to isolate Plasminogen Activator (PA) from mammalian cellculture broth using magnetic affinity nanoadsorbents. The isolation of proteins is important since it isused for catalysts and as therapeutics. Chromatography is one of the techniques used to isolate proteinswhere a chemical mixture is separated into components as a result of a liquid and solid phase. In thisparticular case, proteins were purified using affinity and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). (, making theseparation from the other suspended solids, condensing as well the pretreatment and columnchromatography stages, into one easy, single step isolation You need to rephrase these ideas into acoherent sentence. ) . The steps for this procedure were, first, the preparation of the MNPs by adding themto the cell culture broth, then the separation process using magnets and washing the solution severaltimes, and finally the absorbance was read at 280 nm, the Chromatogram was prepared, and the SDS-PAGE was run (You need to separate these steps into at least 2 sentences). The results were not easy todetermine due to the lack of clarity of the SDS-PAGE gel, which means that the mixture was too liquid.Even though we did not have results, the main objective was accomplished.Summary 6. Protein – Protein Interactions: an In silicoapproach March 15, 2013The main objective was to understand the pharmaceutical development, the approval process and, learnhow new drugs can be discovered by Insilico. Based on the knowledge of the 3D structure of a biologicaltest, small molecules that are complementary in shape and charge can be designed (Are you designingmolecules?), and new medications can be revealed. After identifying a biological problem and relevantproteins, the 3D structure can be downloaded and an FT map can be created. Next, a target indicates thequality and distance of the “hot spots”, and then the optimal target for drug development is performed.After the Pharmacophore Model is developed the new drug is ready to be submitted for bioassays. Onlythe identification of the optimal targets for drug development where made, benzene mapping was tested inthis experiment. Since the databases were not functioning, we could not proceed; instead we cleaned theprotein, selected the right grid options, and attached the Benzene links. The main purpose was completed.