Comparison of the Dry Forest ofGuanica and the CaribbeanNational Forest “El Yunque”Group #1: Carla J. Figueroa Gustavo MartinezCrystal K. Colon John E. MunozZuleika Velazquez Luis F. Centeno
Introduction On the days of June 19 and 21, we had two separatefield trips to two completely different areas ofPuerto Rico. We traveled to el Bosque Seco deGuánica on June 19, then to el Bosque Nacional delCaribe, el Yunque, on June 21. After havingtravelled to both forests, we were able to comparethese completely different, yet similar areas.
Climate and Location Located in the southwestern area of Puerto Rico, thisforest expands all the way from Guánica to Ponce,covering roughly over 11,000 acres of land. The climate is hot and dry, due to a lack of precipitationbecause of the restrictions placed by the CordilleraCentral de P.R., which does not allow the passage ofrain-carrying winds. The forest receives approximately 30-40 in. of rain peryear. Because of the harsh climate and extreme temperature,the organisms have adapted to thrive and survive in thisforest.
Birds They have recorded 136 species of birds, 12 of them areendemic (3 of which are endangered and 8 in the list ofendangered species). Compared with rain forests: 31 versus 20 species of birdsper 1,000 individuals. More number of birds per linear mile (0.6 miles) inGuánica in a rainforest. The ecological role of frogs and lizards of the Anvil, inGuánica is carried out mainly by insectivorous birds. Furthermore, the forest contains a wide range of insectsthat provide food for many birds.
AvesPajaro Bobo MayorSan Pedrito Jui de PuertoRicoGuabairo Reinita Mariposera
Bird Adaptations High percentage of nocturnal animals. Many species with scales that prevent desiccation Obtain water from the dam to ingest and vegetation. Hibernation. Animals that are buried or used natural cavities. Low breathing. Bodies with light colors. They nest on the ground or in bushes.
Fauna There have been a very valuable herpetofaunawhich includes 21 species of reptiles and 6 species ofamphibians. Among the reptiles there are 8 species of lizardsendemic to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Among the amphibians there has been somenotoriety crested toad. During dry weather remains a refugee, just leavethe aestivation period as a result of precipitation.
Flora The flora of the Guanica Dry Forest is no longer than 49ft. Because in that form they conserve water and don’tspend it in biomass. Most of the vegetation is semideciduous are lost theirleaves in summer. In the Guanica Dry Forest, the flora modified theiractivities for the principal goal of all, conserve water.Some of the adaptations are: vertical orientation of theleave to avoid direct sunlight, stems that carry out thephotosynthesis and plants with spines.
FloraPrincipal CanopyNaked Indian-To keep water thestem performphotosyntesis CaobaDemonstrationof JaboncilloHuevo de Gato
FloraArbol Corcho- This tree represent how thevegetation placed their leaves invertically formWarriortree- Endemic ofPuerto RicoErisfalis Fruticosa-have a purple milkPiteselobiun- Endemic tree ofthe forest.Caoba’s Plantation
Clima y Localizacion Localizado a 49 Kms de San Juan en las Sierras deLuquillo, tiene una temperatura de 78 grados Fahrenheiten las partes bajas y alrededor de 65 grados Fahrenheiten areas sobre los 3,200 pies. Recibe alrededor de 250 pulgadas de precipitación al añosignificando que caen aguaceros ligeros pero intensosdiariamente esto causa que el suelo del bosque sufragrandes perdidas por la erosión. Por la cantidad de precipitación que cae la isla de PuertoRico depende de el para poder adquirir la cantidad deagua suficiente para los habitantes.
Fauna The fauna that lives in the forest is limited to smallanimals. Approximately 100 vertebrates including amphibiansand birds live in the different forests of “El Yunque”. Themammalian are represented by 11 different species ofbats. The most common invertebrates are snails and thePuerto Rican Boa. Puerto Rico’s most important native animal is the“Coqui”. It is an in danger specie and approximatelytwelve (12) different types of them live in the forest.
Flora Poses more vegetation diversity by area unit thanany other forest in America. 225 especies deárboles, nativos del bosque. It has twenty-three (23) endemic species, fourty-seven (47) introduced species, eighty-eight (88) treespecies that are considered rare or strange, fifty (50)different species of native orchids and one-hundred& fifty (150) fern species.
Types of Forests Pluvial Forest Palo Colorado Forest Palma de Sierra Forest Elfin Forest
Palma de Sierra Forest It is the most open forest of the four types. Monoculture of Palma de Sierra ( Prestoea montana)
Elfin Forest It’s location is limited to thepiques of the mountains thatcompose the forest andbecause of this plus otherreasons it’s vegetation doesnot grow more than 12 feet. The main tree of the forest is“Roble de Sierra” ( Tabebuiarígida).