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What the geeks know
What the geeks know
What the geeks know
What the geeks know
What the geeks know
What the geeks know
What the geeks know
What the geeks know
What the geeks know
What the geeks know
What the geeks know
What the geeks know
What the geeks know
What the geeks know
What the geeks know
What the geeks know
What the geeks know
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What the geeks know

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  • 1. What the Geeks Know: Hypertext and the Problem of Literacy Jianwei Zhang
  • 2. Stuart Moulthrop •  an innovator of electronic literature and hypertext fiction, both as a theoretician and as a writer. •  a Professor of Information Arts and Technologies at the University of Baltimore. •  a founding board member of the Electronic Literature Organization in 1999.
  • 3. Hypertext –  Hypertext is text, displayed on a computer, with references (hyperlinks) to other text that the reader can immediately access, usually by a mouse click or keypress sequence. –  The most extensive example of hypertext today is the World Wide Web. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hypertext)
  • 4. Hypertext -  Nodes +Link -  >Network (http://www.inf.fu-berlin.de/lehre/SS01/hc/www/)
  • 5. Normal Text vs. Hypertext (http://www.cs.sfu.ca/CC/365/mark/material/notes/Chap1/Chap1.html)
  • 6. Catching waves •  Three waves in the history of hypertext: 1. concept + first experimental systems 2. personal computers +Internet widely distributed systems +first examination of their implications 3. World Wide Web refinement of existing technologies
  • 7. Catching waves •  Hypertext as reality, not novelty (3rd wave) –  archive:“ a communication environment in which virtually all texts are exposed to automated search, retrieval and hypertext reference” (Dalgaard 2001) –  archive refers to any application of hypertext
  • 8. Catching waves –  Earlier accounts of hypertext: “remediation” (Dalgaard 2001) –  since the difference between hypertext and print culture there is the need to re-examine earlier positions –  the ‘archive’ and digital media in general have yet to establish legitimacy
  • 9. Misreading Reading –  The World Wide Web expands all over the world and we live with hypertext in our everyday life –  According to an American (NEA) report called “Reading at Risk”: reading of leisure literature is on decline in another half century nobody will pay for fiction and poetry, except textbooks
  • 10. Misreading Reading –  This report confines reading solely on printed books –  reading in context of the electronic archive, like Weblogs, Wikis or even Audiobooks are not incorporated at all in this study –  Electronic media is only seen as a threat to conventional print publishing –  demonstrates the ignorance towards digital technologies, as well as the problem to see the electronic archive as a possibility for literacy to evolve continuously
  • 11. What the Geeks Know –  encounters between old and new media are inherently adversarial and never assured of balanced resolution innovation in communication seems to be problematic
  • 12. What the Geeks Know –  Epistemology (theory of knowledge) of electronic text vs conventional writing –  According to Miles “hypertext” belongs not to an economy of scarcity but to a mode of excess”. –  The archive doesn’t know sufficiency, only surfeit. –  > With uncountable documents instantly available, there is an overload of information on the world wide web –  > attention must be elective
  • 13. Literacy in Babylon –  Moulthrop brings up the connection to Borges and his story “The Lottery in Babylon”, published in 1941. –  a fictional society in ancient Babylon which reorganizes its epistemology around a municipal numbers game –  perhaps God does not play at dice with the universe, perhaps God is the dice.
  • 14. Literacy in Babylon –  Moulthrop argues that literacy can no longer be ceded to print culture alone –  a new definition of literacy founded on pathwork in the hypertextual archive –  to take up the challenge of reinventing literacy for a world increasingly afflicted by ignorance –  he concedes that such a change in agenda will not automatically fix the widespread misunderstanding of media –  but he is confident that those ideas will tend to exceed initial expectations
  • 15. •  What is the new literacy we need in digital context? •  http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=_XqRR5WJ85k
  • 16. Reference •  http://iat.ubalt.edu/moulthrop/ •  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypertext •  http://www.inf.fuberlin.de/lehre/SS01/hc/www/ •  http://www.cs.sfu.ca/CC/365/mark/material/ notes/Chap1/Chap1.html •  Nielsen,J., (1995).Multimedia and Hypertext: The Internet and Beyond.
  • 17. Thank you

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