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Interactive Audiences?
The “Collective Intelligence” of Media Fans
Henry Jenkins
Jianwei Zhang
308111893
• New tools and technologies enable consumers to
archive, annotate, appropriate, and recirculate
media content;
• A range ...
Page  4
What is Collective Intelligence?
• According to Pierre Levy (1997)
• It is a form of universally distributed
inte...
What is Collective Intelligence?
• Levy’s initial premise is based on the notion of
a universally distributed intelligence...
Cosmopedia
• New “knowledge space”– self-organized groups
• The new knowledge communities will be voluntary,
temporary, an...
Cosmopedia
• Online Fan communities
• Memberships <= affinities
• Fandoms: virtual communities
“imagined” & “imagining”
• ...
Cosmopedia
• Early Science Fiction Fandom:
Informal postal network—circulate letters and
amateur publications
Conventions ...
How Computers Changed Fandom
• New digital environment increases the speed of fan
communication, resulting in “just in tim...
Fan Production in Digital Environment
• Fanzine transformation: print=> digital
• New forms: Photoshop collage
mp3s of fan...
Photoshop collage
Knowledge Culture Meets Commodity Culture
• “The distinctions between authors and
readers, producers and spectators, creat...
Marketing in an Interactive Environment
• “Marketing in an interactive world is a
collaborative process with the marketer
...
• Copyright issue
fansub groups
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=xdTqQh4fz3g
Reference
• Pierre Levy, Collective Intelligence: Mankind's Emerging World in
Cyberspace (Cambridge: Perseus, 1997)
• Don ...
Thank you ^_^
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Transcript of "Interactive Audiences?"

  1. 1. Interactive Audiences? The “Collective Intelligence” of Media Fans Henry Jenkins Jianwei Zhang 308111893
  2. 2. • New tools and technologies enable consumers to archive, annotate, appropriate, and recirculate media content; • A range of subcultures promote Do-It-Yourself (DIY) media production, a discourse that shapes how consumers have deployed those technologies; • Economic trends favoring the horizontally integrated media conglomerates encourage the flow of images, ideas, and narratives across multiple media channels and demand more active modes of spectatorship. Participatory Culture
  3. 3. Page  4 What is Collective Intelligence? • According to Pierre Levy (1997) • It is a form of universally distributed intelligence, constantly enhanced, coordinated in real time, and resulting in the effective mobilization of skills. • The basis and goal of Collective Intelligence is the mutual recognition and enrichment of individuals rather than the cult of fetishized or hypostatized communities.
  4. 4. What is Collective Intelligence? • Levy’s initial premise is based on the notion of a universally distributed intelligence. • No one knows everything, everyone knows something, all knowledge resides in humanity. There is no transcendent store of knowledge and knowledge is simply the sum of what we know.
  5. 5. Cosmopedia • New “knowledge space”– self-organized groups • The new knowledge communities will be voluntary, temporary, and tactical affiliations, defined through common intellectual enterprises and emotional investments. • Members may shift from one community to another as their interests and needs change, and they may belong to more than one community at the same time. • They are held together through the mutual production and reciprocal exchange of knowledge.
  6. 6. Cosmopedia • Online Fan communities • Memberships <= affinities • Fandoms: virtual communities “imagined” & “imagining” • http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=sV7741jTOHc
  7. 7. Cosmopedia • Early Science Fiction Fandom: Informal postal network—circulate letters and amateur publications Conventions facilitated the face-to-face contact between fans from across the country and around the world • Fans were early adopters of digital technologies
  8. 8. How Computers Changed Fandom • New digital environment increases the speed of fan communication, resulting in “just in time fandom” (Matthew Hills). • The digital media also alters the scope of communication. =>Fandom becomes much more effective as a platform for consumer activism. • The speed and frequency of communication may intensify the social bonds within the fan community.
  9. 9. Fan Production in Digital Environment • Fanzine transformation: print=> digital • New forms: Photoshop collage mp3s of fan-generated music (filk) Amateur film and video • World Wide Web becomes a powerful distribution channel of fan production
  10. 10. Photoshop collage
  11. 11. Knowledge Culture Meets Commodity Culture • “The distinctions between authors and readers, producers and spectators, creators and interpretations will blend to form a reading-writing continuum, which will extend from the machine and network designers to the ultimate recipient, each helping to sustain the activities of the others” (Levy, 1997) • Room for participation and improvisation are being built into new media franchises.
  12. 12. Marketing in an Interactive Environment • “Marketing in an interactive world is a collaborative process with the marketer helping the consumer to buy and the consumer helping the marketer to sell.” (Peppers,1999 ) • “permission-based marketing” • “relationship marketing” • “viral marketing”
  13. 13. • Copyright issue fansub groups • http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=xdTqQh4fz3g
  14. 14. Reference • Pierre Levy, Collective Intelligence: Mankind's Emerging World in Cyberspace (Cambridge: Perseus, 1997) • Don Peppers, Introduction, in Seth Godon, Permission Marketing: Turning Strangers into Friends, and Friends into Customers (NewYork: Simon and Schuster, 1999) • Henry Jenkins, Interactive Audiences? The Collective Intelligence of Media Fans, Fans, bloggers, and gamers: exploring participatory culture (New York: New York University Press, 2006)
  15. 15. Thank you ^_^

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