Interactive Audiences? The “Collective Intelligence” of Media Fans Henry Jenkins Jianwei Zhang 308111893
New tools and technologies enable consumers to archive, annotate, appropriate, and recirculate media content;
A range of subcultures promote Do-It-Yourself (DIY) media production, a discourse that shapes how consumers have deployed those technologies;
Economic trends favoring the horizontally integrated media conglomerates encourage the flow of images, ideas, and narratives across multiple media channels and demand more active modes of spectatorship.
What is Collective Intelligence?
According to Pierre Levy (1997)
It is a form of universally distributed intelligence, constantly enhanced, coordinated in real time, and resulting in the effective mobilization of skills.
The basis and goal of Collective Intelligence is the mutual recognition and enrichment of individuals rather than the cult of fetishized or hypostatized communities.
What is Collective Intelligence?
Levy’s initial premise is based on the notion of a universally distributed intelligence.
No one knows everything, everyone knows something, all knowledge resides in humanity. There is no transcendent store of knowledge and knowledge is simply the sum of what we know.
New “knowledge space”– self-organized groups
The new knowledge communities will be voluntary, temporary, and tactical affiliations, defined through common intellectual enterprises and emotional investments.
Members may shift from one community to another as their interests and needs change, and they may belong to more than one community at the same time.
They are held together through the mutual production and reciprocal exchange of knowledge.
Online Fan communities
Memberships <= affinities
Fandoms: virtual communities
“ imagined” & “imagining”
http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =sV7741jTOHc
Early Science Fiction Fandom:
Informal postal network—circulate letters and amateur publications
Conventions facilitated the face-to-face contact between fans from across the country and around the world
Fans were early adopters of digital technologies
How Computers Changed Fandom
New digital environment increases the speed of fan communication, resulting in “just in time fandom” (Matthew Hills).
The digital media also alters the scope of communication.
=>Fandom becomes much more effective as a platform for consumer activism.
The speed and frequency of communication may intensify the social bonds within the fan community.
Fan Production in Digital Environment
Fanzine transformation: print=> digital
New forms: Photoshop collage
mp3s of fan-generated music (filk)
Amateur film and video
World Wide Web becomes a powerful distribution channel of fan production
Knowledge Culture Meets Commodity Culture
“ The distinctions between authors and readers, producers and spectators, creators and interpretations will blend to form a reading-writing continuum, which will extend from the machine and network designers to the ultimate recipient, each helping to sustain the activities of the others” (Levy, 1997)
Room for participation and improvisation are being built into new media franchises.
Marketing in an Interactive Environment
“ Marketing in an interactive world is a collaborative process with the marketer helping the consumer to buy and the consumer helping the marketer to sell.” (Peppers,1999 )
“ permission-based marketing”
“ relationship marketing”
“ viral marketing”
Pierre Levy, Collective Intelligence: Mankind's Emerging World in Cyberspace (Cambridge: Perseus, 1997)
Don Peppers, Introduction, in Seth Godon, Permission Marketing: Turning Strangers into Friends, and Friends into Customers (NewYork: Simon and Schuster, 1999)
Henry Jenkins, Interactive Audiences? The Collective Intelligence of Media Fans, Fans, bloggers, and gamers: exploring participatory culture (New York: New York University Press, 2006)