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Grammar Book Grammar Book Document Transcript

  • Book created by: Aditya,Alefiya,Ammar, Anushka, Disha, Nikhil and 1
  • ContentsSerial Topic Page no.no.1. Nouns 32. Personal Pronouns 133. Adjectives 184. Active and Passive Voice 255. Subject Verb Agreement 316. Tenses 407. Transitive and Intransitive 50 Verbs8. Assessment 54 2
  • NOUN SA noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea.Whatever exists, we assume, can be named, and thatname is a noun.Examples:• Late last year our neighbours bought a goat.•Portia White was an opera singer.•The bus inspector looked at all the passengerspasses.•According to Plutarch, the library at Alexandriawas destroyed in 48 B.C.•Philosophy is of little comfort to the starving.A noun can function in a sentence as a subject, a direct objectand an indirect object.There are many types of nouns but we are going to learn only 3types ; proper, common and abstract nouns.Proper NounsYou always write a proper noun with a capital letter, since the nounrepresents the name of a specific person, place, or thing. The names ofdays of the week, months, historical documents, institutions,organizations, religions, their holy texts and their adherents are propernouns. A proper noun is the opposite of a common noun. 3
  • In each of the following sentences, the proper nounsare highlighted:•The Marroons were transported from Jamaica and forced to buildthe fortifications in Halifax.•Beltane is celebrated on the first of May.•Abraham appears in the Talmud and in the Koran.Common NounsA common noun is a noun referring to a person, place, or thingin a general sense - usually, you should write it with a capitalletter only when it begins a sentence. A common noun is theopposite of a proper noun.In each of the following sentences, the common nounsare highlighted:•According to the sign, the nearest town is 60 miles away.•The road crew was startled by the sight of three large moosecrossing the road.•Many child-care workers are underpaid.Sometimes you will make proper nouns out ofcommon nouns, as in the following examples:•The tenants in the Garnet Apartments are appealing the large andsudden increase in their rent.•The meals in the Bouncing Bean Restaurant are less expensivethan meals in ordinary restaurants. 4
  • •Many witches refer to the Renaissance as the Burning Times. •The Diary of Anne Frank is often a childs first introduction to the history of the Holocaust.Abstract NounsAn abstract noun is a noun which names anything which you cannot perceive through your five physical senses, and is theopposite of a concrete noun.The highlighted words in the following sentences are allabstract nouns:•Buying the fire extinguisher was an afterthought.•Tillie is amused by people who are nostalgic about childhood.•Justice often seems to slip out of our grasp.•Some scientists believe that schizophrenia is transmitted genetically.Collective NounsA collective noun is a noun naming a group of things, animals, orpersons. You could count the individual members of the group,but you usually think of the group as a whole is generally as oneunit. You need to be able to recognize collective nouns in order tomaintain subject-verb agreement. A collective noun is similar toan uncountable noun. 5
  • In each of the following sentences, the highlightedword is a collective noun.•The flock of geese spends most of its time inthe pasture.The collective noun "flock" takes the singularverb "spends."•The jury is dining on take-out chicken tonight.In this example the collective noun "jury" is thesubject of the singular compound verb "isdining."•The steering committee meets every Wednesdayafternoon.Here the collective noun "committee" takes asingular verb, "meets."•The class was startled by the bursting lightbulb.In this sentence the word "class" refers tostudents in a collective form and takes thesingular compound verb "was startled." 6
  • ExercisesA. Write down the nouns younotice.The major thoroughfares were already lit by the new gas, but this wasnot the bright and even glare of the late Victorian period: the light flaredand diminished ,casting a flickering light across the streets and lendingto the houses and pedestrians a faintly unreal or even theatrical quality.B. Form Abstract Nouns from thefollowing. scholar wise king brother know lose sell great think strong beautiful longC. Fill in the blank s with suitablecollective nouns. flew high in the sky.1. A of birds2. They saw a of lions at the zoo.3. The farmer has a of cattle on his farm.4. He ate a of grapes today. 7
  • 5. Our friend shows us a of stamps.6. We saw a of sheep on our way home.7. Police have arrested a of thieves.8. She bought a of bananas from the market.9. The of pupils are listening attentively to their teacher.10. You can put the of tools in that box. 8
  • PEOPLE an army of soldiers a gang of thieves a bevy of beauties/girls a horde of savages a band of musicians a host of angels a band of robbers a line of kings/rulers a board of directors a mob of rioters a body of men a group of dancers a bunch of crooks a group of singers a caravan of gypsies a pack of rascals a choir of singers a pack of thieves a class of pupils a party of friends a class of students a patrol of policemen a company of actors a posse of policemen a company of soldiers a regiment of soldiers a congregation of worshippers a staff of employees a crew of sailors a staff of servants a crowd of spectators a staff of teachers a crowd of people a team of players a dynasty of kings a tribe of natives a galaxy of beautiful women a troop of scouts a galaxy of film stars a troupe of artistes a gang of crooks a troupe of dancers a gang of labourers a troupe of performers a gang of prisoners a party of friends a gang of robbersTHINGS an album of autographs a hail of bullets an album of photographs a hand of bananas (each a finger) an album of stamps a harvest of wheat/corn an anthology of poems a heap of rubbish an archipelago of islands a heap of ruins a bale of cotton a hedge of bushes a basket of fruit a heap of stones a batch of bread a layer of soil/dirt a battery of guns a library of books a block of flats a line of cars a book of exercises a list of names a book of notes a mass of ruins/hair a bouquet of flowers a necklace of pearls a bowl of rice an outfit of clothes 9
  • a bunch of bananas an orchard of fruit treesa bunch of flowers a pack of cardsa bunch of grapes a pack of liesa bunch of keys a packet of cigarettesa bundle of rags/old clothes a packet of lettersa bundle of firewood/sticks a pair of shoesa bundle of hay a pencil of raysa catalogue of prices/goods a quiver of arrowsa chain of mountains a range of hillsa chest of drawers a range of mountainsa cluster of coconuts a ream of papera cluster of grapes a reel of thread/filma cloud of dust a roll of film/clotha clump of bushes a rope of pearlsa clump of trees a row of housesa collection of coins a series of eventsa collection of curiosities a set of chinaa collection of pictures a set of clubsa collection of relics a set of toolsa collection of stamps a sheaf of arrowsa column of smoke a sheaf of corna comb of bananas a sheaf of graina compendium of games a sheaf of papersa constellation of stars a sheaf of wheata cluster of diamonds a shower of blowsa cluster of stars a shower of raina clutch of eggs a stack of armsa crate of fruit a stack of corna crop of apples a stack of haya fall of rain a stack of timbera fall of snow a stack of wooda fleet of motor-cars/taxis a stock of wooda fleet of ships a string of beadsa flight of aeroplanes a string of pearlsa flight of steps a suit of clothesa forest of trees a suite of furniturea galaxy of stars a suite of roomsa garland of flowers a tuft of grassa glossary of difficult words/phrases a tuft of haira group of islands a wad of currency/notesa grove of trees a wreath of flowers 10
  • ANIMALS an army of ants a litter of kittens a bevy of quail a litter of puppies a brood/flock of chickens a menagerie of wild a catch of fish animals a cloud of flies a muster of peacocks a cloud of insects a nest of ants a cloud of locusts a nest of mice a colony of gulls a nest of rabbits a drove of cattle a pack of hounds a drove of horses a pack of wolves a flight of birds a plague of insects a flight of doves a plague of locusts a flight of locusts a pride of lions a flight of swallows a school of herrings/other a flock of birds small a afish a flock of geese a school of porpoises a flock of sheep a school of whales a gaggle of geese a shoal of fish a haul of fish a skein of wild geese in a herd of buffaloes flight a herd of cattle a string of horses a herd of deer a stud of horses a herd of elephants a swarm of ants a herd of goats a swarm of bees a herd of swine a swarm of insects a hive of bees a swarm of locusts a host of sparrows a team of horses a kindle of kittens a team of oxen a litter of cubs a train of camels a litter of piglets a tribe of goats a troop of lions a troop of monkeys a zoo of wild animals 11
  • SOME ABSTRACT NOUNS… ability energy intelligence sacrifice adoration enhancement jealousy sadness adventure enthusiasm joy amazement sanity envy justice anger kindness satisfaction evil anxiety excitement knowledge self-control apprehension failure laughter sensitivity artistry faith law service awe liberty shock faithfulness beauty life silliness faithlessness belief loss skill fascination bravery love favouritism slavery brutality loyalty fear sleep calm luck chaos forgiveness sophistication fragility luxury sorrow charity frailty maturity childhood sparkle freedom memory clarity speculation friendship mercy coldness speed generosity motivation comfort strength goodness movement communication strictness gossip music compassion stupidity grace need confidence omen submission contentment graciousness opinion success courage grief crime opportunism surprise happiness curiosity opportunity sympathy hate customer service pain talent hatred death patience thrill hearsay deceit peace tiredness helpfulness dedication peculiarity tolerance helplessness defeat perseverance homelessness trust delight pleasure honesty uncertainty democracy poverty honour unemployment despair power hope unreality determination pride humility victory dexterity principle dictatorship humour reality wariness disappointment hurt redemption warmth disbelief idea refreshment weakness disquiet idiosyncrasy relaxation wealth disturbance imagination relief weariness education impression restoration wisdom ego improvement riches wit elegance infatuation romance worry inflation rumour insanity 12
  • PERSONALPRONOUNS to gender,The personal pronouns in the English languagecan have various forms accordingnumber, person, and case.Personal pronouns represent specific people orthings. We use them depending on:•number: singular (eg: I) or plural (eg: we).•person: 1st person (eg: I), 2nd person (eg: you) or3rd person (eg: he).•gender: male (eg: he), female (eg: she) or neuter(eg: it).•case: subject (eg: we) or object (eg: us).We use personal pronouns in place of the person or people thatwe are talking about. My name is Josef but when I am talkingabout myself I almost always use "I" or "me", not "Josef". WhenI am talking direct to you, I almost always use "you", not yourname. When I am talking about another person, say John, I maystart with "John" but then use "he" or "him". And so on.When we are talking about a single thing,we almost always use it. However, thereare a few exceptions. We may sometimesrefer to an animal as he/him or she/her,especially if the animal is domesticated ora pet. Ships (and some other vessels orvehicles) as well as some countries areoften treated as female and referred toas she/her. 13
  • In each of the following examples the pronounsrepresenting the object is highlighted.•This is our dog Rusty. Hes an Alsation.•The Titanic was a great ship but she sank on her first voyage.•My first car was a Mini and I treated her like my wife.We often use it to introduce a remark:• It is nice to have a holiday sometimes.• Is it normal to see them together?We also often use it to talk about the weather, temperature, time and distance:• Its raining.• It will probably be hot tomorrow. 14
  • EXERCISES :A. Use the correct personal pronouns.Watch the words in brackets.Example: ___ often reads books. (Lisa)Answer: She often reads books.1) ____________ is dreaming. (George)2) ____________ is green. (the blackboard)3) ____________ are on the wall. (the posters)4) ____________ is running. (the dog)5) ____________ are watching TV. (my mother and I)6) ____________ are in the garden. (the flowers)7) ____________ is riding his bike. (Tom)8) ____________ is from Bristol. (Victoria)9) ____________ has got a brother. (Diana)10) Have ____________ got a computer, Mandy?B. Rewrite the sentences replacing theunderlined words by a personal pronouns.Don’t use contractions (arent, isnt,hes, shes, etc)1. Mary and I are students.Ans: _____________________________________________2. Melissa isnt an engineer. Melissa is an architect.Ans: _____________________________________________3. Bob is my classmate.Ans:__________________________________________ 15
  • 4. My teachers are from the USA and are very experienced.Ans:_________________________________________5. Are Melissa and Pamela from England?Ans:_________________________________________6. Tommy, Bob and I are neighbors and very good friends.Ans: _____________________________________________7. Are you sure that Is Paul a dentist?Ans: _____________________________________________8. You and Fred arent from Italy.Ans: _____________________________________________9. Louise is not my mothers friend.Ans: _____________________________________________10. Are you and I good friends?Ans: _____________________________________________C. Fill in the correct pronouns.1. My sister Jane loves books. This novel is for _________ .2. My children like Disney films. The video is for __________ .3. My brother Matt collects picture postcards. These postcards are for__________ .4. My parents like Latin music. The CD is for __________ . 16
  • 5. I like watches. This nice watch is for __________ .6. My wife and I love sweets. These sweets are for ___________ .7. My nephew likes cars. The toy truck is for ____________ .8. My neighbor wants to go to California next year. The guide book isfor ____________ .9. Here is another souvenir. I dont know what to do with __________ .10. Mother nature is getting destructed! We need to save ___________ . 17
  • ADJECTIVESWhat is an adjective?An adjective is a word that describes a noun or a pronoun.Example: Bianca’s cute monkey ate the yellow banana. Tim washed the dirty dishes. Gary plucked the beautiful flowers.The Adjective Questions? Which one tall candles What kind scented candles How many seven candles Whose Beth’s candlesComparatives and SuperlativesMany adjectives can have different degrees. By this I mean thatsomething can have more or less of an adjectives quality.For instance, you may find the weather in California to be hot,Dubai’s weather to be hotter, and the Sahara Deserts to bethe hottest.See how there are different degrees of the adjective hot? Wevejust used the comparative and superlative forms of theword hot to show this adjectives different degrees. Here are thedifferent degrees of some other words: 18
  • Positive Comparative Superlative good better best little less leastPositive degree of adjectiveAn adjective that describes only 1 object.Possible formats:•Keep the word as it is. (Sean is an excellent student.)•With + word (With intense concentration I’ve been able to understand this topic.)•Word + “-fully” (Sarah sang the song emotionally.)Comparative degree of adjective•An adjective used to compare 2 objects•Possible formats:•Adjective + “-er” (The suns rays seem to shine brighter today.)•More + adjective (Science is more difficult than Math.)•Less + adjective (Bianca is less attractive than her sister.)Superlative degree of adjective•An adjective used to compare 3 or more objects•Possible formats:•Adjective + “-est” (Sean is the rudest of his friends.)•Most + adjective (Mariya is the most graceful dancer of our grade.)•Least + adjective (The stand is least needy apparatus in this experiment.) 19
  • ExercisA. Fill in the comparative and superlative esdegrees of the corresponding adjectives.Positive Comparative SuperlativecheaplatemuchBeautifulcruelbroadexpensivehardangrypoorfitgreatimportantbigdullhungryfewcleverobnoxiousoutrageous
  • B.Underline a and identify theAdjective.1. The two fat birds chirped.2. The cutest baby was abducted from the maternity ward.3.4. The largest box of those three fell on the floor.5. The lovely, scented candle burned.6. Walter quickly ran home.7. The large book was kept on the table.8. Peter is slow than Jack in writing.9. The brown dog was sleeping.C. Fill in the blanks with adjectives.1. My house is _________ than yours. (big)2. This flower is __________ than the other one. (beautiful)3. This is the _____________ book I have ever read. (interesting)4. Non-smokers usually live ______ than smokers. (long)5. Which is the __________ animal in the world. (dangerous)6. A holiday in Dubai is ________ than a holiday in Afghanistan. (good)7. A coke is often __________ than a beer. (expensive)8. Who is the _________ man on the earth. (rich)9. The weather this summer is _________ than the weather last summer. (bad)10. He was the ________ thief of all. (clever) 20
  • D. Frame sentences using thefollowing adjectives: 1. Obnoxious: 2. Most adventurous: 3. Cautious : 4. Impossible: 5. Enchanting: 6. Mysterious: 7. Abundant: 21
  • Appearance Appearance Condition Condition Feelings Feelings Contd. Contd. (Bad) (Bad) Contd.adorable long alive impossible angry grumpyadventurous magnificent annoying inexpensive annoyed helplessaggressive misty bad innocent anxious homelessalert motionless better inquisitive arrogant hungryattractive muddy beautiful modern ashamed hurtaverage old-fashioned brainy mushy awful illbeautiful plain breakable odd bad itchyblue-eyed poised busy open bewildered jealousbloody precious careful outstanding black jitteryblushing quaint cautious poor blue lazybright shiny clever powerful bored lonelyclean smoggy clumsy prickly clumsy mysteriousclear sparkling concerned puzzled combative nastycloudy spotless crazy real condemned naughtycolorful stormy curious rich confused nervouscrowded strange dead shy crazy flipped- nuttycute ugly different sleepy out obnoxiousdark ugliest difficult stupid creepy outrageousdrab unsightly doubtful super cruel panickydistinct unusual easy talented dangerous repulsivedull wide-eyed expensive tame defeated scaryelegant famous tender defiant selfishexcited fragile tough depressed sorefancy frail uninterested disgusted tenseFilthy gifted vast disturbed terribleglamorous helpful wandering dizzy testygleaming helpless wild embarrassed thoughtlessgorgeous horrible wrong envious tiredgraceful important evil troubledgrotesque fierce upsethandsome foolish uptighthomely frantic wearylight frightened wicked grieving worried 22
  • Feelings Feelings Shape Size Sound Time (Good) (Good) Contd.agreeable happy broad big cooing ancientamused healthy chubby colossal deafening briefbrave helpful crooked fat faint Earlycalm hilarious curved gigantic harsh fastcharming jolly deep great high-pitched latecheerful joyous flat huge hissing longcomfortable kind high immense hushed moderncooperative lively hollow large husky oldcourageous lovely low little loud old-delightful lucky narrow mammoth melodic fashioneddetermined nice round massive moaning quickeager obedient shallow miniature mute rapidelated perfect skinny petite noisy shortenchanting pleasant square puny purring slowencouraging proud steep scrawny quiet swiftenergetic relieved straight short raspy youngenthusiastic silly wide small resonantexcited smiling tall screechingexuberant splendid teeny shrillfair successful teeny-tiny silentfaithful thankful tiny softfantastic thoughtful squealingfine victorious thunderingfriendly vivacious voicelessfunny witty whisperinggentle wonderfulglorious zealousgood zany 23
  • Taste/Touch Taste/Touch Touch Quantity Contd.bitter melted boiling abundantdelicious nutritious breezy emptyfresh plastic broken fewjuicy prickly bumpy heavyripe rainy chilly lightrotten rough cold manysalty scattered cool numeroussour shaggy creepy substantialspicy shaky crookedstale sharp cuddlysticky shivering curlystrong silky damagedsweet slimy damptart slippery dirtytasteless smooth drytasty soft dustythirsty solid filthyfluttering steady flakyfuzzy sticky fluffygreasy tender freezinggrubby tight hothard uneven warmhot weak weticy wetloose wooden yummy 24
  • Active and Passivevoice. VoiceVerbs are also said to be in voices either active voice or passiveThe active voice is the "normal" voice. This is the voice that weuse most of the time. You are probably already familiar with theactive voice.In an active sentence, the subject is doing the action. In theactive voice, the object receives the action of the verb. subject verb objectThe passive voice is less usual.In the passive voice,the subject receives the actionof the verb and is at timesunimportant. object verb subject 25
  • The passive is particularly useful in two situations:In each of the following cases the Voice has beenhighlighted.•If the action is more important thenthe agent.(This draws a person’sattention.) : The unidentifiedvictim was apparently struck duringthe early morning hours.•When the doer or agent in thesituation is not important: The auroraborealis can be observed in the earlymorning hours.An example of passive voice in each tense : Auxiliary PastTense Subject Singular / Plural ParticiplePresent The car/cars is / are designed.Past The car/cars was / were designed.Future The car/cars will be / will be designed. 26
  • To change a passive voice sentence into an activevoice sentence, simply reverse the steps shown above.1. Move the passive sentences subject into theactive sentences direct object slot. 2. Remove the auxiliary verb be from the main verband change main verbs form if needed 3. Place the passive sentences object of thepreposition by into the subject slot. 27
  • As the examples below illustrate, a sentence in activevoice flows more smoothly and is easier tounderstand than the same sentence in passive voice.The examples also show you the conversion fromactive voice to passive voice. 28
  • ExerciA. Identify the1. They listen to music. sesvoices.2. Lots of houses were destroyed by the earthquake.3. You should open your workbooks.4. The report must be completed by next Friday.5. Red Sunset‘ was painted in 1986 by Smithers.6. The students will finish the course by July.B. Change to passive.Peter will build a house as soon as he is able to arrange for the moneyrequired. He has decided to hand over the contract to a gullible friendof his who is a renowned builder. He wants a huge mansion, with abeautiful hall coated with marble floors and 3 bedrooms designedsophistically. He wants it the way he dreams it to be. 29
  • C. Change the voices.Active PassiveTom cleans the house once a week. The car was repaired by Sam.Someone will finish the work by5:00 PM.Sally is going to make a beautifuldinner tonight.Professor Villa gave Jorge an A. The students handed in the reports. A piece of plastic was swallowed by the child. Bicycles must not be left in the driveway.They built that skyscraper in 1934. Did the plan interest you? Someone will speak Japanese at the meeting. 30
  • Subject verb agreementSubjects and verbs must AGREE with one another in number(singular or plural). Thus, if a subject is singular, its verb mustalso be singular; if a subject is plural, its verb must also be plural.In present tenses, nouns and verbs form plurals in oppositeways: . nouns ADD an s to the singular form, BUT Verbs REMOVE an s from the singular form.Here are nine subject-verb agreement rules:1. A phrase or clause between subject and verb doesnot change the number of the subject.Examples: 31
  • 2. Indefinite pronouns as subjects•Singular indefinite pronoun subjects take singularverbs.•Plural indefinite pronoun subjects take plural verbs. Plural: several, few, both, many. 32
  • • Some indefinite pronouns may be either singular or plural: with uncountable, use singular; with countable, use plural.Either singular or plural: some, any, none, all, mostSugar is uncountable; therefore, the sentence has a singular verb.Marbles are countable; therefore, the sentence has a pluralverb.3. Compound subjects joined by and are always plural.4. With compound subjects joined by or/nor, the verbagrees with the subject nearer to it.In this example, the singular verb are agrees with the nearersubject director. 33
  • In the above example, the plural verb is agrees with the nearer subject actors.5. Inverted Subjects must agree with the verb.6. Collective Nouns (group, jury, crowd, team, etc.) may be singular or plural, depending on meaning. In this example, the jury is acting as one unit; therefore, the verb is singular. In this example, the jury members are acting as twelve individuals; therefore, the verb is plural. 34
  • 7. Titles of single entities (books, organizations, countries, etc.) are always singular.8. Plural form subjects.•Plural form subjects with a singular meaning take a singularverb. (e.g. news, measles, mumps, physics, etc.)•Plural form subjects with singular or plural meaning take asingular or plural verb, depending on meaning. (e.g. politics,economics, etc.)In this example, politics is a single topic; therefore, the sentencehas a singular verb.In this example, politics refers to the many aspects of thesituation; therefore, the sentence has a plural verb. 35
  • •Plural form subjects with a plural meaning take a plural verb.(e.g. scissors, trousers)Note: In this example, the subject of the sentence is pair;therefore, the verb must agree with it. (Because scissors is theobject of the preposition, scissors does not affect the number ofthe verb.)9. With subject and subjective complement of differentnumber, the verb always agrees with the subject. 36
  • ExercisesA. Underline the answer which you think i1. Emily and Greg (comes, come) to my house every Friday for lunch.2. There (is, are) time to watch the movie.3. My friends who are in the band (wants, want) me to play a musical instrument.4. My father or my brothers (is, are) coming with me to the ball game.5. Everyone (needs, need) time to relax.6. That bag of oranges (looks, look) fresh.7. The lacrosse team (hopes, hope) to win the tournament next week.8. Your trousers (needs, need) to be cleaned.9. Some of the books on the shelf (is, are) dusty.10. Even though the students like the class, a few (thinks, think) that it is too complicated.11. Mumps (is, are) not common among adults.12. Viruses from third world countries (is, are) a major concern.13. Most of the sand (is, are) wet from the high tide.14. Either the two kittens or the puppy (sits, sit) in my lap while I watch television.15. A subject of great interest (is, are) rainforests.16. Hansel and Gretel (is, are) a famous childrens story.17. The team members (is, are) arguing over the defense tactics.18. The economics of the trip (was, were) pleasing.19. Why (is, are) your parents going to Africa for a vacation?20. The mayor and the governor (hopes, hope) that the bill will soon become a law. 37
  • B. Pick out the answer which you think iscorrect.1. There ____________ several reasons why you should reconsider your decision. (are/is)2. Howard and Vincent, who ____________ a copy center in town, have decided to expand their business. (run/runs)3. Both of the statues on the shelf ____________ broken. (are/is)4. The fishing boat that has been tied up at the pier for three days ____________ finally on its way this morning. (was/were)5. The chairman, along with his two assistants, ____________ to attend the annual convention. (plan/plans)6. The issues of inflation and tax reform ____________ to be on everyones mind. (continue/continues)7. Juan or Julian ____________ the conference room each week. (prepare/prepares)8. Not one of the performers ____________ at the party after the concert. (were/was)9. The results of the election ____________ not available for two days. (were/was)10. When there _______ thunderstorms approaching, we are always reminded of the threat of tornadoes. (is/are)11. Either the physicians in this hospital or the chief administrator ____ going to have to make a decision. (is/are)12. ______ my boss or my sisters in the union going to win this grievance? (is/are)13. Some of the votes __________ to have been miscounted. (seem/seems)14. The tornadoes that tear through this county every spring _____ more than just a nuisance. (are/is) 38
  • 15. Everyone selected to serve on this jury _____ to be willing to give up a lot of time. (have/has)16. Kara Wolters, together with her teammates, _________ a formidable opponent on the basketball court. (presents/ present)17. He seems to forget that there __________ things to be done before he can graduate. (are/is)18. There _______ to be some people left in that town after yesterdays flood. (have/has)19. Three-quarters of the student body __________ against the tuition hike.(is/are)20. A high percentage of the population _________ voting for the new school. (is/are) 39
  • VerbsA verb is often defined as a word which shows action or state ofbeing. The verb is the heart of a sentence – every sentence hasone. Recognizing the verb is often the most important step inunderstanding the meaning of a sentence. In the sentence “Thedog bit the man,” bit is the verb and the word which shows theaction of the sentence. Verbs present the actions of a doer or ahappening.Simple Present TenseThe simple present tense is used for two main types of action: Actions which happen regularly (for example, every day or Habits every week) Things which do not often change (for example, opinions and States conditions)Type of Examples Explanationsaction Young-Mi goes to class every “Every day” is a habit. day.Habit It rains a lot in Vancouver. This means that it rains often. When we like something, Martin likes chocolate. usually we will always like it.State Beliefs and opinions are states. Anna believes in God. They dont often change. 40
  • Facts, Generalizations and Universal Truths.We use the simple present tense to talk about universal truthsor things we believe are, or are not, true.In the following examples the verbs are highlighted.Water boils at 100 degrees Celcius. (universal truth)It is a big house. (fact)Dogs are better than cats. (generalization)Berlin is the capital city of Germany. (fact)The Elephant doesnt fly. (fact)Simple Past TenseThe simple past tense is one of the most common tenses inEnglish. It is usually formed by adding -ED to the verb. However,with some verbs, you need to add -D or change the ending alittle. This page will explain the rules for forming the tense withregular verbs.Verb ending in... How to make the simple past Examples live - livede Add -D date - dated try - triedConsonant +y Change y to i, then add -ED cry - criedOne vowel + one tap - tappedconsonant Double the consonant, then add -ED(but NOT w or y) commit - committed boil - boiledanything else fill - filled Add -EDincluding w hand - handed 41
  • The three most important irregular verbs.The three most important irregular verbs are BE, HAVE, and DO.The simple past forms for BE are different depending on thesubject. Pronoun BE HAVE DO I was had did You were had did He / she / it was had did We were had did They were had didOther irregular verbsOther irregular verbs fall into three main categories: Category Examples cut - cut Verbs which dont change hit - hit fit - fit get - got Verbs which change their vowel sit - sat drink - drank catch - caught Verbs which change completely bring - brought teach - taught 42
  • Simple Future Tense common is using the modal auxiliary verb “will”. In English, there are many ways of expressing future time. One of the most This page will explain the main meanings of “will” and show you how to form the future with “will”. Using “will” with verbs “Will”, like all modal verbs in English, does not change its form, and it is followed by the simple form of the main verb. “Will” is NOT usually used in first person questions. Note also that will is often shortened to ’ll. This diagram should make the situation clearer:Subject Statement Question I will stop smoking.I [not usually used] Ill stop smoking. You will stop smoking.You Will you stop smoking? Youll stop smoking. He will stop smoking.He Will he stop smoking? Hell stop smoking. She will stop smoking.She Will she stop smoking? Shell stop smoking. It will be hard to stop.It Will it be hard to stop? Itll be hard to stop. We will stop smoking.We [not usually used] Well stop smoking. They will stop smoking.They Will they stop smoking? Theyll stop smoking. 43
  • The meaning of “will” future forms“Will” is usually used in three situations:Situation Example “Will someone open the windowVolunteering to do something for me?” “Ill do it!” “Ive made up my mind. Ill go toDeciding to do something Whistler for my vacation.” “Dad, I dont want to clean my room!”Forcing someone to do something. “Youll do it, and youll do it NOW!”In the following examples on simple present, past andfuture the verbs are highlighted.•The Earth rotates around the Sun.•If we do not change now, there are no hopes for our future.•The meeting starts at 3 PM.•Shauna studied Japanese for five years.•Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?•She worked at the movie theater after school.•We are saying what we think will happen.•People wont go to Jupiter before the 22nd century.•Who do you think will get the job? 44
  • The Simple Tense Simplified. VERB SIMPLE SIMPLE PAST SIMPLE PRESENT FUTURETo see He sees He saw He will seeTo do He does He did He will doTo go He goes He went He will goTo take He takes He took He will takeTo give He gives He gave He will giveTo eat He eats He ate He will eatTo know He knows He knew He will knowTo break He breaks He broke He will breakTo write He writes He wrote He will writeTo steal He steals He stole He will stealTo sing He sings He sang He will singTo fall He falls He fell He will fallTo try He tries He tried He will tryTo watch He watches He watched He will watch 45
  • Exercis es. sentences.A. Write down the form of tense foreach of the followingB. Pick out and write the correctanswer. spoke hear1. Which is not a past form of a verb?was had looked________________________________________2. Which is not a present form of a verb?are saw has talk speak________________________________________3. Which is not a plural form of a verb?are were am have do________________________________________4. Which is not a 3rd person singular form of a verb?goes has was are does_______________________________________5. Which is in the simple past tense?look saw is speak will hear________________________________________ 46
  • 6. Which is not a future tense of a verb?will move heard will speak will talk will see________________________________________7. Which is not used as an auxiliary of a verb?was have did will sees________________________________________8. Which verb can be both singular and plural?sees has do am is________________________________________9. Which verb can be both singular and plural?was does have comes hears________________________________________C. Complete the following sentencesusing the correct form of verb from thebrackets.1. I my homework everyday after school. (Do)2. He how to swim. (Know)3. I a movie every Friday. (Watch)4. Jill to visit his granddad often. (Go)5. Sue very well and so is in the choir. (Sing)6. Jack to do his best at school. (Try)7. Tim down the stairs while climbing them. (Fall)8. The robber the money from a bank. (Steal)9. The doctor the child a medicine for his cold. (Give)10. Steve the Eiffel Tower on his trip to France. (Saw)11. He to swim everyday. (Go)12. Tom harder in his next project. (Try)13. The lady little because she is on a diet. (Eat)14. The student for his test. (Study) 47
  • D. Fill in the correct form of verbprovided in the bracket. kids to football practice.1. Every Monday, Sally (drive) her2. Usually, I (work) as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I (study) French at a language school in Paris. That is why I am in Paris.3. Dont forget to take your umbrella. It (rain) .4. The business cards (be) normally printed by a company in New York. Their prices (be) inexpensive, yet the quality of their work is quite good.5. This delicious chocolate (be) made by a small chocolatier in Zurich, Switzerland.6. I (try) to change a light bulb that had burnt out.7. After I (find) the wallet full of money, I (go) for shopping.8. The doctor (say) that Tom (be) too sick to go to work and that he (need) to stay at home for a couple of days.9. Sebastian (arrive) at Susans house a little before 9:00 PM, but she (be) not there.10. I (call) you last night after dinner, but you (be) not there. Where were you?11. I (watch) a mystery movie on TV when the electricity went out. Now I am never going to find out how the movie ends.12. Sharon (be) in the room when John told me what happened, but she didnt hear anything because she was sleeping.13. Its strange that you (call) me right now.14. I (try) to change a light bulb that had burnt out. 48
  • 15. After I (find) the wallet full of money, I (go) for shopping.16. The doctor (say) that Tom (be) too sick to go to work and that he (need) to stay at home for a couple of days.17. Sebastian (arrive) at Susans house a little before 9:00 PM, but she (be) not there.18. I (call) you last night after dinner, but you (be) not there. Where were you?19. Its strange that you (call) me right now.20. The firemen (rescue) the old woman who was trapped on the third floor of the burning building. 49
  • Transitive and Intransitive VerbsWhat is a transitive verb ?A transitive verb requires an object in the form of a noun orpronoun to complete its meaning. This object answers to thequestions “who(m) or what.”Example:•The students write composition.What do the students write?Compositions.•Peter loves Mary.Who does Peter love? Mary. Formula: Subject + Verb + ObjectWhat is an intransitive verb ?An intransitive verb is one that does not require an object tocomplete its meaning. The sentence may end with the verb, anadjective, or an adverb. The questions one may ask with theseforms are “when, where, how, or why.”Example: The children sat.•The children sat at 7:30 pm.•The children sat at the table.•The children sat quietly.•The children sat because their mother told them to. 50
  • ExercisesA. Let’s see if you can identify theverbs in the following examples. Draw aline under the verb and in the blankspace, write transitive or intransitive.1. The math professor explains the lesson. verb.2. I drive my car to work everyday. verb.3. Many students sleep late on the weekends.verb.4. Louise finally got her license. verb.5. Does your family live in Minnesota? verb.B. Underline the verb in each sentenceand indicate whether it is being used asa transitive verb or an intransitive verb.1. Many contemporary television programs expose children to violenceand vulgar language.2. My exam grade will exclude me from the soccer game.3. Alice imagined a world full of fascinating creatures.4. James ran in the park every afternoon.5. The tornado destroyed entire buildings when it struck.6. I raked the yard on Saturday.7. The boiling water scalded my hand.8. We talked about the news all evening.9. My mother washes clothes every Saturday. 51
  • C. Tell which of the following verbs aretransitive and which are intransitive.1. Anne loves her mother.2. The golden gate opened.3. The moon silvers the distant hills.4. Mary found her ring.5. James writes poetry.6. The snow melts.7. The icy chains break.8. The innocent lamb died.9. The children played.10. The children played a game.11. Doris was elected president of the class.12. Dan is the first baseman.D. Write an appropriate subject andobject for each of the followingFor the verbusing the following model:verbs to ring, write: rings the church bell (object).1. to learn2. to find3. to hide4. to fear5. to remember6. to inflict7. to receive8.to lift9.to hear10. to renew 52
  • E. State whether the verbs in thefollowing sentences are transitive orintransitive. Name the object of eachtransitive verb.1. The dog barks.2. He raised his hands.3. The information proved false.4. The child has fallen asleep.5. The donkey kept braying.6. The tea is hot.7. The results are out.8. She called again and again.9. We are human beings.10. They arrived here via metro. 53
  • AssessmentFind 5 adjectives and 5 nouns . x k n z u e l c h a i r t a y l e w s y p n v d u l l m d n p t b l v r d o n m a u z q k a e g s b a f p y m c t r t q r u b q n a o s e k b y a s c k a h c t o z b y md l p m z p f e mr h i s a o l p o o r z s q l a t p wb t x e g s t r s n q i n 54
  • Comprehension Learning something new; swimming. Learning something new can be a scary experience. One of thehardest things Ive ever had to do was learn how to swim. I was alwaysafraid of the water, but I decided that swimming was an important skillthat I should learn. I also thought it would be good exercise and helpme to become physically stronger. What I didnt realize was thatlearning to swim would also make me a more confident person.New situations always make me a bit nervous, and my first swimminglesson was no exception. After I changed into my bathing suit in thelocker room, I stood timidly by the side of the pool waiting for theteacher and other students to show up. After a couple of minutes theteacher came over. She smiled and introduced herself, and two morestudents joined us. Although they were both older than me, they didntseem to be embarrassed about not knowing how to swim. I began tofeel more at ease.We got into the pool, and the teacher had us put on brightly coloredwater wings to help us stay afloat. One of the other students, May, hadalready taken the beginning class once before, so she took a kickboardand went splashing off by herself. The other student, Jerry, and I weretold to hold on to the side of the pool and shown how to kick for thebreaststroke. One by one, the teacher had us hold on to a kickboardwhile she pulled it through the water and we kicked. Pretty soon Jerrywas off doing this by himself, travelling at a fast clip across the shortend of the pool. 55
  • Things not quite that easy for me, but the teacherwas very patient. After a few more weeks, when I seemed tohave caught on with my legs, she taught me the arm strokes.Now I had two things to concentrate on, my arms and my legs. Ifelt hopelessly uncoordinated. Sooner than I imagined, however,things began to feel "right" and I able to swim! It was awonderful free feeling - like flying, maybe - to be able to shootacross the water.Learning to swim not easy for me, but in the end mypersistence paid off. Not only did I learn how to swim and toconquer my fear of the water, but I also learned somethingabout learning. Now when I faced with a new situation Iam not so nervous. I may feel uncomfortable to begin with, but Iknow that as I practice being in that situation and as my skillsget better, I feel more and more comfortable. It awonderful, free feeling when you achieve a goal you have set foryourself.A. Investigate the meanings of thefollowing words :•Experience-•Timidly-•Embarrassed-•Uncoordinated-•Persistence-•Conquer-•Achieve-•Confident-•Situation- 56
  • B. Pick out any five pronouns from thepassage.1.2.3.4.5.C. Write down 2 sentences that arepassive and two sentences that areactive.D. In the last 2 paragraphs fill in thecorrect forms of verbs keeping in mindthe rules of subject verb agreement. 57