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Reforestation in East Africa
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Reforestation in East Africa



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  • Kenya
  • Kenya
  • Bottom line here: HUMAN SETTLEMENT AND PRESSURES!!!PopulationFour fold increase in population since the 1950s, with an expected growth to 65m by 2050Densest rural population Human PressuresKenya is size of Texasloss of 19,000 hectares annuallyEnvironmental Degradation
  • Driven by dependence on forest products, or land clearing for agricultural use
  • Non-governmental organization founded in 1977Enable and support women to operate tree nurseries, receiving a payment for the number of trees planted


  • 1. ReforestationinEast AfricaAssessment of the GreenBelt Movement’sReforestation Efforts inKenya
  • 2. Kenya
  • 3. Kenya
  • 4. The Crisis Population Human Environmental Growth Pressures Degradation• 39m population • 1.7% forest cover • Last 60 years (2009) • Widespread ridden with• Projected growth deforestation for severe, cyclical to 65m by 2050 agriculture droughts• ~50% of the • 50% of agriculture • Chronic soil erosion population lives is for subsistence • Chronic water loss below poverty line farming from key • 75% of domestic watersheds energy is derived • Decrease in from fuel wood hydropower due to water loss
  • 5. “Its a matter of life and death for this country. TheKenyan forests are facing extinction and it is a man-made problem.” Wangari Maathai
  • 6. Wangari Mathaai’s Green Belt Movement“The mission of the Green Belt Movement is tomobilize community consciousness for self-determination, equity, improvedlivelihoods, security, and environmentalconservation.”
  • 7. GBM AccomplishmentsPlanted over 45 million trees in three ofKenya’s five watershedsCreated a network of 600 communitiesacross Kenya that care for 6,000 treenurseriesReduced soil erosion in critical watershedsRestored thousands of acres of biodiversity-rich indigenous forests
  • 8. Are GBM’seffortseffective?Is GBMoperating inareas mostsuitable forreplanting?
  • 9. Watershed Concept UPPER WATERSHEDS Upper Tana River (1) Upper Ewaso Ngiro (North) (2) Lake Nakuru, Lake Elementaita, and Lake Naivasha tributaries (3) Upper Ewaso Ngiro (South) (4) Upper western watersheds of the Mau Escarpment (5) Upper eastern watersheds of Mount Elgon (6) Upper southwestern watersheds of the Cherangani Hills (7) Upper northern watersheds of the Cherangani Hills (8) OTHER FEATURES Closed forests DRAINAGE BOUNDARIES Major drainage area boundaries Sub-drainage area boundaries WATER BODIES AND RIVERS Permanent rivers Water bodiesSource: World Resources Institute
  • 10. Drivers Deforestation ReforestationHuman settlement NutritionFuel wood Food SecurityLogging Fuel woodSubsistence farming Biodiversity
  • 11. Indicators of Drivers Available Relevance to Replanting Suitable Unsuitable Data Population Indicator of anthropogenic >100 ppl per <100 ppl per kmDegradation Density impact - fuel wood km gathering, agriculture, and illegal logging. Charcoal/Fuel Indicator of where potential High charcoal Low charcoal Wood Sources charcoal fuel sources are fuel potential fuel potential located Mammal Indicator of more complex Medium to Low mammal Biodiversity Diversity forest systems. high mammal diversity diversity Poverty Density Proxy for identifying the >50 ppl per sq <50 ppl per sq kmNutritionSecurity extent to which individuals km Food & have access to adequate food and water supplies
  • 12. Insufficient Data on Drivers Available Relevance to Data Issue Data Replanting Roads Indicator of human Insufficient data to be used as a credibleDegradation Degradation habitation. Roads indicator of human population density. fragment habitat Smaller/informal roads are excluded. and landscape. Towns Indicator of high- Insufficient data to be used as a credibleSecurity/Nutr density areas where indicator of all high-population density individuals are likely areas.& Food to have marketition access Agriculture Indicator of land Available agricultural data is not detailedDegradation use for both enough. subsistence and commercial agriculture activity. Protected Indicator of land Protected status varies based on personnelBiodiversity Areas/Non- protection status management and the prevalence of Protected corruption. GBM sources indicates replanting on public land, therefore they cannot be exclude from analysis.
  • 13. Are GBM’seffortseffective?Is GBMoperating inareas mostsuitable forreplanting?
  • 14. MethodologyGBM watersheds: Mount ComparisonKenya (1), Aberdares Forest cover(3), and Mau Complex between GBM(5) watersheds & control watershedsControl watersheds:Mount Elgon Suitability(2), Cherengani Hills (4) Comparative analysis ofNo data on specific populationlocations of reforestation density, charcoalsites source, poverty density & mammal diversityUsing spatial data, a Each variable scored onsnap shot of Kenya scale of 0-100
  • 15. Comparative Analysis Methodology: Water Tower Boundaries
  • 16. Comparative Analysis Methodology: Add Poverty
  • 17. Comparative Analysis Methodology: Add Population Density
  • 18. Comparative Analysis Methodology: Add Charcoal
  • 19. Comparative Analysis Methodology: Intersect Data
  • 20. Comparative Analysis Methodology: Intersect Data
  • 21. Comparative Analysis Methodology: Intersect Data
  • 22. Comparative Analysis Results 25 21.89 20 18.74 Average Percent Tree Cover 16.03 15.26 15 10 8.33 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Water Tower
  • 23. Comparative Analysis Results 25 21.89 20 18.74 Average Percent Tree Cover 16.03 15.26 15 10 8.33 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Water Tower
  • 24. Are GBM’seffortseffective?Is GBMoperating inareas mostsuitable forreplanting?
  • 25. Reforestation Suitability Analysis + +
  • 26. Reforestation Suitability Analysis + + *( )
  • 27. Reforestation Suitability Analysis( + + )*=
  • 28. Site Suitability FindingsWater Tower 1 Water Tower 2 Water Tower 3Water Tower 4 Water Tower 5
  • 29. Site Suitability FindingsWater Tower 1 Water Tower 2 Water Tower 3Water Tower 4 Water Tower 5
  • 30. What this meansIn our comparison, there is a significantforested area between the GBM watershedsand control GBM (if all other factors holdconstant)It appears GBM is working in the watershedsthat are most suitable for reforestation efforts
  • 31. ReflectionsWhat are the implications of this study inother countries? Somalia? World-wide?Plant trees where people are, for the peopleto use and benefit from them!What is the role of government?
  • 32. Photocreditsgreenbeltmovement.orgBrian Thomas, carbon-based-ghg.blogspot.comBBC News, Guillemot, boostinspiration.comCreative Roots, afroklectic.blogspot.comArt Poster, Fred Ericks, BBC News, Earth, morriscourse.comThe Rainforest Foundation,